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Full text of "Narrative of the surveying voyages of His Majesty's Ships Adventure and Beagle between the years 1826 and 1836, describing their examination of the southern shores of South America, and the Beagle's circumnavigation of the globe"

1^ 





NARRATIVE 



SURVEYING VOYAGES 



OF HIS MAJESTY'S SHIPS 



ADVENTURE AND BEAGLE, 



BETWEEN 



THE YEARS 1826 AND 1836, 



DESCKIBINO THBIB 



EXAMINATION OF THE SOUTHERN SHORES 



OP 



SOUTH AMERICA, 



AND 



THE BEAGLE'S CIRCUMNAVIGATION OF THE GLOBE. 



APPENDIX 

'•^'•'ft- AJ'^X V0LUME^I.,^^^a^2^ ^. 

LONDON: 

HENRY COLBURN, GREAT MARLBOROUGH STREET. 

1839. 



I 



» 



LONDON; 

Printed by J. L. Cox and Sons, 75, Great Queen Street, 

Lincoln's-lnu Fields. 



APPENPIX 



SECOND VOLUME. 



MEMORANDUM. 



The greater number of the articles in this Appendix are 
placed as required for reference while reading the volume to 
which they belong (vol. ii.) ; and the arrangement, or rather 
non-arrangement, of the rest, depended upon circumstances 
which I could not alter ; though quite aware how disorderly 
the group of documents would appear. 

If they should ever require to be reprinted, or even if a 
part should demand further attention from me, it will be easy 
to dispose them differently. 



DIRECTIONS TO THE BINDER 



FOR PLACING THE PLATES. 



Track Chart Loose. 

Low Islands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . • • Loose. 

Surveying Diagram . . . . . . . . . . to face page 206 

Clouds — cumulus, &c. .. .. .. .- •• .- 275 

Clouds — cirrito-stratus, &e. .. .. .. .. .. 276 

Clouds — stratitus, &c. .. .. .. .. .. .. 276 

Clouds — cumulito-stratus, &c. . . . . . . . . . . 276 

Tide Diagram 287 



Note. — The loose Plates to be folded into a pocket in tlie cover. 



CONTENTS OF THE APPENDIX. 



No. Page 

— Meteorological Journal 1 

— • Table of Positions, &c 65 

1. Letter from Captain King 89 

2. Letter from the Admiralty 90 

8. Agreement with Mr. Mawman' 91 

4. Letter from Mr. Coates 93 

5. Instructions to Matthews 94 

6. Agreement with Mr. Harris 97 

7. Receipt from Mr. Harris 98 

8. Orders to Lieut. Wickham 99 

9. Orders to Mr. Stokes 100 

10. Orders to Lieut. Wickham 100 

11. Extract from Falkner 101 

12. Extract from Pennant 102 

13. Extract from Viedma 110 

14. Extract from Byron 1 24 

15. Fuegian Vocabulary, &c 135 

16. Remarks by Mr. Wilson (surgeon) 142" 

17. Phrenological Remarks 148 

1 7a. Papers relating to the Falklands 149 

18. Orders to Lieut. Wickham 162 

19. Winds, &c. off Chil6e and Chonos 163 

20. Letter from the President of Chile 164 

21. Orders to Lieut. Sulivan 165 

22. Orders to Mr. Stokes 166 

24. Extract from Agiieros 166 

23. Extract from Burney 172 

24a. Extract from Wafer 176 

25. Orders to Lieut. Sulivan 177 

26. Orders to Lieut. Wickham 178 



VIU CONTENTS OF THE APPENDIX. 

No. Page 

27. Proceedings in the Carmen 178 

28. Winds, &c. off Southern Chile 183 

29. Letter from the Government of Chile 186 

30. Orders to Mr. Usborne 186 

31. Letters, &c. from Peruvian Government 188 

32. Passport for the Constitucion 190 

33. Additional Passport 191 

34. Lovsr, or Paamuto, Islands 192 

35. Mr. Busby's Announcement 193 

36. New Zealand Declaration 195 

37. Mr. M'Leay's Letter 197 

38. Extract from Instructions 198 

39. Notes on surveying a wild coast 202 

40. Remarks on the coast of Northern Chile 208 

41. Remarks on the coast of Peru 231 

42. Letter from the Government of Buenos Ayres 273 

43. Letter from Merchants at Lima 273 

44. Description of a Quadrant 274 

45. Remarks on Clouds 275 

46. A very few Remarks on Winds 277 

47. Remarks on Tides 277 

48. Harris's Lightning Conductors 298 

49. Fresh Provisions obtained 298 

50. Temperature of the Sea 301 

51. Remarkable Heights 301 

52. Americus Vespucius 304 

53. Barometrical Observations in St? Cruz 308 

54. Nautical Remarks 310 

55. Remarks on Chronometrical Observations and a Chain 

of Meridian Distances 317 



ERRATA, &c. IN THE APPENDIX. 



Page 1 , line ^j of figures, for 29,4, read 30,4'. 
65, line 4, of figures, for 0.15, read2.\5. 

85, line I, for 00" read 36"; line 2 (of figures), for 30'' read 51"; 
line 3, for 14" read 21" ; and line 4, /or 22" read 36". 



ABSTRACT 



METEOROLOGICAL JOURNAL. 



Day. 

NOVB 


Hour. 


Winds. 


Force 


Weather. 


Sympr. Barom. 


Attd. 
Ther. 


Temp. 
Air. 


Temp. 
Water. 


Locality. 


MBER,1831. 








Inches. Inches. 











Lat. Long. 


5 


9 a.m. 










29-60 


53 






Baths, Devonport. 


6 


, , 










29-40 


52 








8 


• • 










29-80 


51 








10 


.. 










29 "4 


49 








11 


.. 










30-5 


49 








12 


.. 










30-4 


53 








13 












30-2 


52 








H 












30-6 


51 








15 












30-2 


51 




On board the Beagle*| 


i6 












29 '9 


48 








17 












29 "9 


47 








i8 












29-8 


46 








19 


.. 










29 '9 


47 








22 












29-95 


54 








23 












30.05 


58 








24 












30-06 


60 








as 


.. 










29-98 


61 








26 












30-03 


61 








27 












30-05 


59 








Decb 


mbeb. 




















1 












30-26 


55 






Barn Pool 


2 


• • 










30-4 


56 








3 


.. 










30-17 


57 








5 












29 '9 


62 








6 


.. 










2'-) -7 


61 








7 












29-3 


60 








8 












29 '4 


eo 








9 












29 '5 


61 








9 


2'30 P.M. 










29'45 










10 


9 A.M. 










29-63 


63 








12 












29-2 


61 








14 


.. 










29-8 


63 








18 


.. 










29-6 


58 








19 


10 A.M. 

Noon 

3 P.M. 










29-8 
29-85 
29 '9 


57 


46 
48 
48 






27 


6 .. 


E. 


5 


gd 


30-66 


30-54 


47 


46 




/At sea, lost sight of 
\ Eddystoue 




8 .. 




5 


eg 


3070 


30-52 


48 


47 








10 .. 




5 


eg 


3073 


30-53 


49 


47 








Midt. 


S.E. 


4 


egq 


30-63 


30-51 


51 


48 






28 


2 a.m. 




5 


bp 


30-62 


30-52 


50 


48 








4 •• 


s.E.by s. 


5 


bp 


30*65 


30-52 


50 


48 








6 .. 








30 '69 


30-46 


47 


46 








8 .. 




4 


b V 


30-66 


30-50 


50 


47 








10 .. 


S.E. 


5 


bey 


30-69 


30-51 


49 


48 








Noon 




5 


bey 


30-65 


30-51 


49 


48 




48-6 N. 6-47 w. 




2 P.M. 


S.E.by s. 


4 


c 


30-67 


30-49 


49 


48 








4 •• 




4 


og 


30-63 


30-47 


49 


48 








6 .. 




5 


og 


30 64 


30-44 


50 


49 








8 .. 




5 


e 


30-62 


30-48 


50 


48 










♦ Beagle a 


t sea 15th, returne 


d next m 


oruing. | 



ABSTRACT OF METEOROLOGICAL JOURVAL. 



Day. 


Hour. 


Winds. 


Force 


Weather. 


Sympr. 

1 


Barom. 


Attd. 
Ther. 


Temp. 
Air. 


Temp. 
Water. 


Locality. 


December. I 








Inches. 


Inches. 











Lat. Long. 


28 


10 P.M. 


S.E. 


5 


c 


30 'bo 


30-48 


50 


48 






, , 


Midt. 


, , 


5 


C 


30 '58 


30-44 


50 


49 






29 


2 A.M. 




5 


C 


30-58 


30-40 


50 


48 








4 •• 


, . 


5 


C 


30-51 


30-37 


50 


49 






, ^ 


6 .. 




5 


cog 


30-55 


30-40 


50 


43 






a • 


8 .. 


s.E.by E. 


5 


cog 


30-54 


30 '33 


60 


50 






, , 


10 .. 


• • 


5 


cp 


30-53 


30-38 


52 


51 


54 




, , 


Noon 


., 


5 


C 


30 "50 


30-26 


53 


51 




45"32 N. 9-30 w. 


^ , 


2 P.M. 


S.S.E. 


5 


c 


30-50 


30'3i 


53 


51 






, , 


4 •• 




5 


b c 


30-46 


30-29 


53 


51 


54 




• • 


6 .. 


, . 


5 


og 


30-42 


30-27 


54 


50 






, , 


8 .. 




5 


be 


30-40 


30-29 


52 


51 






• • 


10 .. 




5 


b c q 


30-40 


30-24 


52 


51 






, , 


Midt. 




5 


be q 


30-36 


30-23 


52 


52 






30 


2 A.M. 




5 


c q 


.30-35 


30-24 


53 


51 








4 •• 


• ■ 


5 


cq 


30-32 


30-21 


53 


51 






• • 


ei .. 


E. 


5 


be 


30-32 


30-21 


53 


50 




At sea. 




8 .. 


•• 


5 


b c 


30-32 


30-21 


53 


52 






• . 


10 .. 




5 


cq 


30-35 


30-20 


56 


53 


54 
56* 


• ■ 




Noon 


S.E. 


5 


c p 


30-32 


30-17 


55 


53 




43-00 N. 12-01 w. 


31 


• • 


N.E.byE. 


5 


be V 


30-32 


30-24 


58 


56 


57 
58 


40-39 i3'39 


Janu 


ARV, 1832. 
















60 
59 




1 


Noon 


E.N.E 


2 


b c V 


30-40 


30-32 


61 


57 


38-24 15-03 


2 


, , 


N.W. 


6 


be 


30-20 


30-00 


61 


59 


60 


37 "29 15 '32 




4 P.M. 


N.N.W, 


8 


m q 


30-11 


30-00 


58 


56 


59 




• • 


Midt. 


•• 


7 


SP 1 


30-22 


30-03 


59 


56 






3 


Noon 


N. 


6 


bcq 


30-40 


30-25 


60 


59 


62 
65t 


34-38 16-37 


4 




W.N.W. 


6 


bcq 


30-30 


30-14 


66 


65 


66 


32-58 16-07 


5 


• • 


N.w.byN. 


4 


be V 


30-48 


30-38 


66 


64 


68 


29-54 16-11 


6 


, , 


w. 


2 


be V 


30-40 


30-35 


67 


66 


68 


28-28 OffSantaCruz. 


7 


.. 


s.w.by w. 


1 


be 


30-40 


30-34 


69 


67 


68 


/SantaCruz. n.6i-w. 
\^ 12 m. 


8 


.• 


N.E. 


2 


be 


30-46 


30-39 


73 


69 


68 


26-45N. 16-40 v. 


9 


.. 


S.S.E. 


5 


be V 


30-40 


30-38 


68 


67 


69 
70 


25-05 i8-i8 


10 




S.E. 


4 


b V 


30-20 


30-25 


71 


69-5 


70 


22-51 20-00 


11 




N.w.byN. 


4 


b c 


30-24 


30-17 


7» 


70 


71 


21-55 '^0-22 


1-2 




N.N.W. 


2 


ol t 


30-23 


30-17 


7c 


69 


69 


20-29 21 16 


13 




E. 


2 


b m 


30-18 


30-19 


73 


71-5 


71 


19-18 22-00 


H 


.. 


•• 


4 


b 


30-22 


30-16 


74 


71 


71 


17-30 23-28 


15 




• • 


5 


b m 


30-16 


30-14 


71 


70 


72 
73 


15'23 23-46 


16 




.. 


2 


b c m 


30*20 


30-18 


72 


71 


73 

72-5 


i5"05 23-23 


17 




N N.E. 


5 


be 


30-21 


30-20 


75-5 


73"5 


72 


Port Praya. 


18 


• • 


E.by N. 


4 


bcq 


30-20 


30-23 


77 


75 


72-5 




19 


6 A.M. 


N.by E. 


4 


be 


30-24 


30-23 


70 


68 








Noon 


.. 


5 


be 


30-22 


30-22 


78 


75-5 


72-5 




20 


• • 


E.by N. 


5 


be 


30-22 


30-28 


78 


76 


72-5 




21 


•■ 


N.£. 


2 


b e V 


30-20 


30-24 


80 


79 


72-5 




22 


•■ 


N.E by E. 


4 


be 


30-30 


30-27 


80 


76 


73 
72-5 




23 


• - 


•• 


4 


be 


30-30 


30-30 


78 


76 


72-5 






* 1 


^emperature 


of water was tak 


an at 10 a.m. and 4 


P.M. fror 


n this dat 


e. 






t B 


lack case th 


ermometer used fc 


r temperature of » 


rater fron 


•1 this date 


• 





ABSTRACT OF METEOUOLOGICAL JOURNAL. 



3 



Day. 


Hour. 


Winds 


Force 


Weather. 


Sympr. 


Barom. 


Attd. 
Ther. 


Temp. 
Air. 


Temp. 
Water. 


Locality. 


JANU 


ARY, 1832. 








Inches. 


Inches. 











Lat. Long. 


24 


Noon. 


N E. 


5 


bcq 


30-29 


30-31 


78 


76 


71-5 
72 

72 


Port Praya. 


25 


•• 


■ • 


4 


bcq 


30-29 


30-29 


73 


73 




26 


•• 


•• 


5 


bcq 


30-24 


30-21 


73 


73 


71 
72 




27 


•• 


• • 


5 


bcq 


30-15 


30-17 


73 


72 


71-5 

72 




28 


• 1 


• • 


2 


cgq 


30-15 


30-18 


73 


71 


71 




29 


•• 


E. 


2 


bcq 


30-11 


30-14 


76 


74 


71-5 

72 

72 
72 

72 

7i"5 
71 

72 

72 




30 
F£BI 

1 


lUARY. 

Noon 


N.N.E. 


4 
2 

5 


be 
be 

bcq 


30-16 
30-18 

30-15 


30-18 
30-25 

30-24 


75 

79 

82 


77 
80 

79 




2 

3 

4 


6 A.M. 

Noon 

6 P.M. 


N. 
N.E. 


4 
5 
5 

4 


c q p m 
bcq 
bcq 

b cl 


30-30 
30-26 

30-19 
30 '20 
30'20 


30-32 
30-22 
30-20 
30-21 
30-20 


74 
76 

72 
76 

75 


72 
75 
71 
75 
73 




5 


Noon 


N.N.E. 


4 


b c q m 


30-19 


30-19 


73 


76 


71-5 
72 
72 
72 




6 

7 




N.E. 


5 

5 


b m q 


30-19 
30-16 


30-22 
30-20 


7" 
77 


76 
76 




8 


•• 


•• 


4 


bq 


30-11 


30-15 


77 


76 


72 
72-5 


Sailed 3 p.m. 


9 


•• 


E.N.E. 


4 


be 


30-12 


30-14 


78 


77 


73-5 
74 


13-33 N. 25-05 w. 


10 


•• 


N.E. by E. 


4 


b V 


30-10 


30-14 


76 


74 


75-5 
76 


11-52 26-34 


11 


• • 


E. 


4 


be 


30-04 


30-08 


78 


77 


78 
79 


9-23 26-46 


12 


•• 


•• 


5 





30-04 


30-06 


80 


79 


80 
80-5 


6-34 27-32 


13 


•• 


•• 


4 


be 


30-00 


30-04 


83 


81 


81-5 


4-03 27-21 


14 




S.E. 


2 


og 


30-02 


30-07 


78 


77 


82 

81-5 

81 

81 

82 

82 
81-5 


3-43 27-50 


15 
16 

17 
18 


•• 


s.E. byE. 

S.E. 

E.S.E. 
S.E. 


4 

1 

2 

2 


b c V 

be 

be 
b e q V 


30-03 

30-06 

30-09 
30-15 


30-04 
30-11 

30-15 
30-19 


82 

83 

82 
82 


82 

82 

81 
83 


1-15 28.50 
f Isl. St. Paul N 7 1 E. 
I lira. 

0-145. 30-08 W. 

1-30 30-49 


19 


•• 


S.E. byE. 


4 


b c V 


30-13 


30-21 


81 


80 


81-5 

82 


3-11 31-47 


20 




s.E.ly 


4 


b c V 


30-12 


30-16 


83 


82 


82 


Fernando Noronlia. 


21 




•• 


2 


be 


30-14 


30-17 


84 


84 


82 
83 


3-17 S. 32-06 W. 


22 


•• 


N.E. by N. 


2 


be 


So -06 


30-13 


84 


83 


82 . 
82-5 


4-06 32-03 


23 


•• 


E. 


1 


be 


30-07 


30-14 


34 


83 


83 
82-5 


5-29 32-01 


24 
25 
26 


• • 


E.S.E. 
E.byN. 


5 

4 
2 


bcq 
be 

og 


30-03 
30-06 
30-10 


30-07 
30-14 
30-15 


82 
80 
81 


81 

80-5 
80 


82-5 
82-5 

82 


7-25 31 '55 

9-38 32-25 

11-26 34-01 


27 




E.S.E. 


4 


bcq 


30-10 


30-12 


83 


82 


81-5 
82 


1-2 -41 36-20 


28 


•• 


•• 


4 


be V 


30-18 


30-23 


83 


82 


81 
82 


Bahia. 


29 




S.E. 


2 


bcq 


30-47 


30-24 


78 


78 


81 


B • 



ABSTRACT OF METEOROLOGICAL JOURNAL. 



Day. 


i 
Hour. 


Winds. I 


^orce 

1 


Weather. 


Sjmpr. 


Barom. 


Attd. 
Ther. 


Temp. 

Air. 


Temp. 
Water. 


Locality. 


Marc 


H, 1832. 








Inches. 


Inches. 











Lat. Long. 


1 


Noon. 


w. 


2 


r 


30-25 30 --iB 1 


76 


75 




Bahia. 


2 




s. 


2 


CO 


30-26 


30-28 


78 


76 






3 




S.E. 


2 


ocqr 


30-26 


30-28 


78 


74 




■ • 


4 




N. N. E. 


4 


be 


30-19 


30-29 


83 


82 




> • 


5 




VBLE. 


4 


be 


30-17 


30-22 


83 


82 






6 




S.E. 


4 


be 


30-18 


30-20 


85 


83 




. . 


7 




, . 


4 


bcq 


30-14 


3020 


83 


82 




• • 


8 






4 


be 


30-14 


30-18 


82 


80 




• • 


9 




• • 


2 


be 


30-12 


30-19 


83 


81 






10 




N. 


4 


b eq 


30-14 


30-21 


82 


81 




• • 


11 




S.E. 


4 


be 


30-23 


30-26 


83 


81 




■ • 


12 




. , 


2 


be 


30'13 


30-17 


79 


77 






13 






4 


bcq 


30-11 


30-19 


82 


80 




• • 


14 






4 


b c V 


30-10 


30-20 


82 


80 




• • 


15 




N. 


4 


c 


30-14 


30-21 


80 


74 




• • 


i6 




S.E. 


4 


be 


30-19 


30-20 


83-25 


80-5 


81 
82 


13-065. Off Bahia. 


17 




■ • 


4 


be 


30-20 


30-25 


83 


82 




Bahia Harbour. 


i8 






4 


be 


30-20 


30-22 


82 


81 


83 


, , 


19 




VBLE. 


2 


be p 


30-18 


30-18 


81 


80 


82 

82 

82-5 


13-405. 38-31 w. 


20 




S.E. 


1 


b c V 


30-12 


30-20 


84 


83 


13-29 38-25 


21 




N.N.E. 


1 


b e 


30-19 


30-22 


84 


82 


82-25 
83 


14-20 38-07 


22 




N.E. byN. 


4 


be 


30-22 


30-23 


82 


81 


82 
81-5 


15-31 37-20 


23 




E. 


1 


be 


30-18 


30-20 


83 


81-5 


81 
82 


16-28 36-44 


24 




VBLE. 


4 


be 


30-15 


30-18 


83 


81 


81-5 
82 


17-12 36-19 


25 




.. 


5 


be 


30-14 


30-18 


84 


82-5 


81 -5 
82 


18-17 35-34 


26 




s. E. by s. 


4 


be 


30-19 


30-18 


83 


85 


82 


18-06 37-04 


27 




E 


2 


be 


30-25 


30-26 


83 


84 


81 
81-5 


17-43 37.15 


28 




N.N.E. 


4 


be 


30-24 


30-22 


84 


83 


80 


18-09 38-22 


29 




E. 


4 


bcqp 


30-28 


30-28 


83 


82 


78 


OS the Abrolhos Isl. 


30 


.. 


E. by N. 


2 


be 


30-32 


30-30 


82 


80-5 


78 




31 




E.S.E. 


4 


be 


30-39 


30-37 


82 


81 


81-5 


19-523. 38-36 vr. 


April. 
















80 
80-5 




1 




N. byE. 


4 


b cgq 


30-34 


30-32 


80 


78 


-22-13 38-57 


2 




E.N.E. 


4 


b cp 


30-35 


30-32 


79 


77 


80* 


23-22 40-53 


3 




E.S.E. 


2 


be 


.30-34 


30-34 


78 


79 


75* 

76 

76 

76-5 
76 


23-18 42-37 


4 




VBLE. 


2 


be 


30-32 


30-32 


82 


82 


/Standing into Rio 
\_ Harbour. 


5 




•• 


1 


be 


30-27 


30-27 


80 


79 


Rio de Janeiro. 


6 




— 





b c 


30-28 


30-20 


79 


82 


76 

77 


• • 


7 




•• 





be 


30-20 


30-20 


80 


78 


76 

77-5 


.. 


8 




N.E. 


2 


b e 


30-27 


30-26 


84 


83 


78 


, , 


9 




N.N.E. 


1 


be 


30-26 


30-24 


85 


82 


78 


• ■ 


10 




•• 


4 


be 


30-20 


30-22 


80 


78 


77 
76 


• • 


11 




N. 


1 


b c m 


30-23 


30-23 


83 


85 


76 
78 


• • 


* Tern 


f. of » 


lateral lU A 


St. 3d April, 5 de 


jrees lowi 


:r than 4 


P.M. 2d A 


pril. 



ABSTRACT OF METEOROLOGICAL JOURNAL. 



Day. Hour. 


Winds. 


Force 


Weather. 


Sympr. 


Barom. 


Attd. 
Ther. 


Temp. 
Air. 


Temp. 

Water. 


Locality. 


April, 1832. 








Inches. 


Inches. 











Lat. Long. 


12 


Noon. 


s. 


2 


be 


30-26 


30-24 


80 


78 


76 

77 


Rio (le Janeiro. 


13 




s.w. 


2 


be 


30-30 


30-30 


76 


75 


75 
75'5 




14 






1 


b c m 


30-34 


30-31 


76 


75 


76 
75'5 




15 




N.w.ly. 


1 


cog 


30-30 


30-30 


76 


74 


76 




]6 




S.E. 


1 


be 


30-34 


30-26 


73 


73 


75 
75 '5 




17 




N.E. 


1 


be 


30-30 


30-28 


74 


72 


74-5 

75 




18 




S. 


2 


be 


30-32 


30-28 


77 


76 


76 




19 




S.E. 


1 


be 


30-32 


30-25 


76 


75 


76 




20 




N. W. 


2 


be 


30-17 


30-16 


76 


75 


76 




21 




S.E. 


I 


be 


30-20 


30-18 


78 


77 


77 




22 




VELE. 


2 


ogr 


30-33 


30-29 


70 


69 


75 
74-5 




23 




W. 


2 


be 


30-43 


30-35 


68 


67 


73 

74 




24 




s. by w. 


2 


b ep 


30-36 


30-38 


70 


69 


74 




25 




S.E. 


2 


be 


30-37 


30-26 


70 


68 


75 




26 




S. 


2 


be 


30-36 


30.32 


73 


72 


75 
75-5 




27 




N. 


2 


be 


30-30 


30-27 


75 


73 






28 




S.E. 


2 


be 


30-25 


30-20 


76 


75 






29 


8 a.m. 




2 


be 


30-26 


30-23 


74 


73 








4 P.M. 


S. 


2 


be 


30-28 


30-24 


78 


77 






30 


Noon. 


W.N.W. 


1 


be 


30-37 


30-34 


78 


77 






May. 




















1 




s. 


1 


b c p 


30-38 


30-36 


80 


79 






2 




— 





be 


30-38 


30-31 


78 


77 






3 




s. 


2 


be 


30-20 


30-19 


79 


77 






4 




N.E. 


2 


be 


30-15 


30-14 


83 


82 






5 




S. 


2 


ogp 


30-35 


30-28 


73 


73 






6 




N.E. 


1 


eg 


30-37 


30-32 


76 


75 




• • 


7 






2 


be 


30-27 


30-24 


78 


77 






8 




S.W. 


1 


e p 


30-32 


30-26 


76 


76 






9 






2 


be 


30-33 


30-30 


73 


72 






10 




N.E. 


2 


be 


30-46 


30-38 


67 


76 


74-5 




11 




S.W. 


4 


be 


30-35 


30-33 


74 


72 


74-5 


22-523. 41-47W. 


12 




w. s. w. 


5 


be 


30.32 


30-23 


74 


73 


77 
78 


20-16 39-47 


13 




W. N. W. 


3 


be 


30-24 


30-27 


77 


76 


78 


18-29 38-59 


14 




s.s.w. 


4 


be 


30-31 


30-30 


77 


76 


79 
79 '5 


16-55 38-45 


15 




E.S.E. 


6 


coqp 


30-32 


30-26 


80 


78 


80-5 


14-23 38-32 


16 




E. 


4 


b c 


30-30 


30-29 


80 


79 




Babia. 


17 




S.E. 


2 


be 


30-33 


30-28 


. 82 


81 






18 






4 


be 


30-32 


30-30 


81 


82 






19 






2 


b e q 


30-30 


30-29 


80 


79 






20 






2 


b c q p 


30-28 


30-28 


81 


80 






21 




s. 


2 


cor 


30-26 


30-26 


76 


74 






22 




W. 


2 


be 


30-26 


30-23 


78 


77 






23 




E.S.E. 


4 


be 


30-28 


30-26 


81 


80 






24 




VELE. 


1 


b e 


30-28 


30-25 


78 


76 




13-43 s. 38.27 w. 


25 




E.by s. 


4 


be 


30-27 


30-25 


79 


78 




15-10 38-26 


26 




N.w.byN. 


4 


be 


30-23 


30-22 


80 


79 




17-00 38-20 


27 




s. by E. 


2 


be 


30-33 


30-21 


77 


75-50 




19-18 38-16 



6 



ABSTRACT OF METEOROLOGICAL JOURNAL. 



Day. 


Hour. 


Winds. 


Force 


Weather. 


Sympr. 


Barom. 


Attd. 
Ther. 


Temp. 
Air. 


Temp. 
Water. 


Locality. 


May,' 1832. 








Inches. 


Inches. 










76-5 

76 


Lat. Long. 


28 


Noon. 


s. by w. 


5 


qpr 


30-33 


30-27 


75 


70 


19-408. 38-31 w, 


29 


• • 


E.S.E. 


1 


cop 


30-37 


30-35 


73 


71 


77 
76-5 


19.47 38-31 


30 




N.E. 


2 


ogr 


30-38 


30-32 


72 


70 


76-5 
76 


20-10 38'3i 


31 


, , 


N.N.E. 


4 


CO 


30-32 


30-28 


76 


74 


77 


21-03 39 '59 


June. 




















1 




VBLE. 


4 


be 


30-29 


30-21 


75 


74 


77-5 


23-04 40-31 


2 






1 


bv 


30-30 


30-28 


75 


73 


74 
75 


22-56 41-17 


3 




S.E. 


1 


be 


30-36 


30-27 


75 


76 


73-5 


23-05 42-41 


4 




N. 


1 


be 


30-25 


30*20 


76 


75 




Rio de Janeiro. 


5 










be 


30-32 


30-26 


75 


75 






6 




S. 


2 


be 


30-27 


30-35 


81 


79 






7 




S.E. 


2 


be 


30 '.58 


30-50 


78 


79 






8 










be 


30-08 


30-52 


75 


85 






9 




S.E. 


2 


be 


30-56 


30-51 


76 


80 






10 






2 


be 


30-58 


30-50 


73 


73 






11 




S.E. 


1 


be 


30-48 


30-44 


75 


75 






12 




N.E. 


2 


be 


30-52 


30-44 


75 


75 






13 




W.N.W. 


2 


be 


30-58 


30-50 


73 


72 






14 










be 


30-36 


30-44 


76 


78 






1.5 




S. 


1 


b V 


30-52 


30-47 


74 


76 






16 




.. 


2 


be 


30-45 


30-35 


71 


76 






17 




N.w.byw. 


2 


be 


30-47 


30-40 


69 


70 






18 




— 





be 


30-40 


.30-38 


74 


73 






19 




s. 


2 


b 


30-42 


30-30 


71 


82 






20 






2 


be 


30-48 


30-38 


73 


85 






21 




N. 


2 


be 


30-47 


30-39 


73 


76 






22 




N.E. 


2 


b c V 


30-32 


30-25 


72 


71 






23 




N. 


2 


b 


30-30 


30-25 


72 


71 






24 




T" 





be 


30-38 


30-33 


76 


74 






25 




VBLE. 


1 


be 


30-50 


30-42 


75 


74 






26 




N.N.W. 


2 


c in 


30-51 


30-46 


73 


72 






27 




VBLE. 


1 


be 


30-48 


30-41 


74 


74 






28 










b e V 


30-44 


30-41 


75 


75 






29 




N.N.W. 


2 


be 


30-50 


30-45 


76 


76 






30 




N.E. 


1 


be 


30-51 


30-48 


75 


82-5 






July. 




















1 




S.E. 


1 


be 


30-50 


30-44 


74 


75 






2 


■• 


N.E. 


2 


be 


30-49 


30-40 


72 


73 






3 


•• 


S.S.E. 


I 


be 


30-43 


30-33 


70 


70 






4 




S.E. 


2 


b V 


30-30 


30-30 


76 


75 






5 




N. 


4 


b m 


30-34 


30-28 


73 


73 




f Running out of Rio 
I Harbour. 


6 




S.W. 


2 


bcm 


30-40 


30-33 


73 


71 


70-5 
74-5 


23-228. 43-11 w. 


7 




s.w.by s. 


2 


cop 


30-51 


30-41 


70 


68 


72-5 
73 


23-38 43-23 


8 




VBLE. 


2 


be 


30-49 


30-40 


72 


69 


72 
72-5 


24-09 43-01 


9 




W.N.W. 


1 


c 


30-49 


30-36 


70 


68 


73 
73-5 


24-17 43-35 


10 




s.s.w. 


4 


b e q 


30-38 


30-32 


70 


69 


74-5 


25-01 42-47 


11 




"■" 





b e 


30-26 


30-16 


72 


70 


75 


26-01 42-57 


12 




VBLE. 





be 


30-39 


30-28 


70 


69 


73 
72-5 


26-39 44-08 


13 


1 s. 


2 


b e 


30-44 


30-36 


69 


68 


72-5 


27-08 45-44 



ABSTRACT OF METEOEOLOGICAL JOURNAL. 



Day. Hour. 


Winds. 


Force 


Weather. 


Sympr. 


Barotn. 


Attd. 
Ther. 


Temp. 

Air. 


Temp. 
Water. 


Locality. 


July, 1832. 








Inches. 


Inches. 











Lat. Long. 


14 


Noon. 


E.N.E. 


2 


be 


30-46 


30-38 


71 


70 


72 
72-5 


27-20 s. 46-22 w. 


15 


, , 


W.N.W. 


5 


cgr 


30 '22 


30-11 


69 


67 


71 


29-48 47-50 


16 


2 A.M. 


s.w. 


7 


beg 


30 '06 


30*20 


66 


64 






•• 


Noon. 


• • 


4 


c pq 


30 '32 


30-13 


64 


62 


70-5 
68-5 


30-12 48-03 


17 


•• 


N.N.E. 


2 


be 


30-45 


30-35 


68 


67 


68-5 
69-5 


30-00 48-18 


18 


•• 


N.N.W. 


6 


q 


30 '39 


30-26 


69 


66-5 


71 

70-5 


31-37 49-17 


19 


•• 







b c 


30-38 


30-27 


68 


66 


69-5 
68-5 


33-16 50-10 


20 


•■ 


S. 


4 


be 


30-39 


30-25 


62 


59 


61 -5 
61-0 


33-47 50-59 


21 






2 


b c m 


30-33 


30-19 


63 


61-5 


59-5 
56-5 


34-15 52-17 


22* 


• • 


VBLE. 


4 


cogr 


30-20 


30-05 


60 


58 


56-5 


34-59 53-19 


23 


•• 


• • 


4 


og 


30-33 


30-12 


53 


51 


56 


! Cape Sta. Maria. 
\ N.42 E. iim. 


24 


•• 


•• 


4 


b e 


30-50 


30-28 


54 


52 


56 

56 
56-5 


f 

\ N,!|E.i5m 


25 




E. 


4 


b c 


30-50 


30-30 


55 


55 




26 




S. 


2 


be 


30-46 


30-28 


57 


56 


58 


Monte Video. 


27 










b c 


30-35 


30-23 


56 


55-5 






28 






4 


b c 


30-36 


30-16 


54 


53 








29 


D 


E.by s. 


5 


r 


30-56 


30-52 


51 


48 








30 




E. 


2 


b c 


30-60 


30-53 


55 


53-5 








31 




N.E. 


2 


b c 


30-56 


30-40 


59 


57 








AUGU 

1 


ST. 


N. 


4 


be 


30-45 


30-27 


58 


59 


56-5 
58-5 


Off Atalaya Chureh. 


2 


•• 


N.E. 


4 


b c 


30-32 


30-16 


6i 


60 


58 


Off Buenos Ayres. 


3 


. • 


N.N.W, 


5 


b C 


30-28 


30-14 


62 


60-5 


57 


Off Point Indio. 


4 


• • 


N. 


2 


b e 


30-28 


30-16 


66 


64 




Monte Video. 


5 


• . 




4 


b c 


30-11 


30-00 


62 


59 






6 






2 


b c 


30-26 


30-15 


69 


68 








7 




S. 


1 


be p 


30-31 


30-20 


66 


66 








8 


• . 


E. 


6 


eog h 


30-30 


30-10 


57 


54-5 








9 


.. 




5 


g or 


30-10 


29-92 


56 


55 








10 


.. 


s.E.by E. 


2 


ogm 


30-29 


30-10 


58 


56 








11 


• • 


E. 


2 


coh 


30-29 




57 










12 






4 


ogr 


30-25 




55 










13 






5 


cogp 


30-24 




58 










14 


8 a.m. 


s. 


1 


b e m 


30-15 


30-01 


58 


57 








• • 


4 p.m. 


• . 


2 


b e 


30-13 


29-99 


61 










15 


Noon. 




2 


b c 


30-34 


30-14 


57 


56 








16 




s.w. 


4 


cor 


30-28 


30-08 


61 


60 








17 






5 


be q 


30-57 


30-31 


50 


47 








18 


.. 


s.s.w. 


5 


be q 


30-64 


30-38 


47 


46 








19 


•• 


N.N.W. 


5 


be q 


30-52 


30-27 


53 


52-5 








20 


•• 


N.w.byw. 


4 


bv 


30-53 


30-30 


57 


54-5 


54-5 
53-5 


35-318. 56-52 W. 


21 


•• 


N.N.W. 


2 


b e 


30-54 


30-33 


56 


58 


54-5 
56-0 


35-27 56-59 


22 


• • 


N.w.byN. 


4 


b e 


30-36 


30-19 


57 


55-5 


54 
56 


36-23 56-36 






* Thunder 


and lightning earlj 


1 in the n' 


oming. 







8 



ABSTRACT OF METEOROLOGICAL JOURNAL. 



Day. 


Hour. 


Winds. 


Force 


Weather. 


Sympr. 


Barom. 


Altd. 
Ther. 


Temp. 
Alrf 


Temp. 

Water. 


Locality. 


AUGU 

23 

24 


iX, 1832. 
Noon. 


N.N.E. 


4 
2 


b c 
b c 


Inches. 
30-34 
30-34 


Inches 
30-14 
30-23 



58 

55 



55-5 
55 




53 
53 


Lat. 

37-08 s. 
37-26 


Long. 
56-49 w. 

56-58 


•25 




N.W. 


4 


bcrn 


30-10 


30-03 


60 


58 


53 
54 


38-10 


57-25 


26 
27 


6 A.M. 

Noon. 

6 P.M. 

4 a.m. 


N.E. by N. 

E. 

E.N.E. 

s.s.w. 


2 
2 
4 

7 


bcm tl 
gm ro 
c mr 
gocqr 


30-08 
30-00 

29-87 
29-88 


29-91 
29-88 
29-69 
29-68 


54 
55 
56 
52 


54 
53 
54 
51 


53 


38-28 


57-58 


• • 


Noon. 




6 


b c 


30-10 


29-81 


51 


50 


51 
50 


38-36 


57-13 


, , 


8 P.M. 


s. 


7 


bcq 


30-24 


29-96 


49 


48 








28 


Noon. 


E.N.E. 


4 


gom 


30-43 


30-14 


52 


51 


52 
52-5 


38-27 


57 '54 


29 




VBLE. 


2 


cogr 


30-30 


30-08 


55 


52 


52 
52-5 


38-36 


57-57 


30 


4 A.M. 

Noon. 


. • 


1 


ogrl 
ogin 


30-11 


29-95 


53 


52 


53 

52-5 


38-36 


57-58 


31 


8 P.M. 

Noon. 


S. 

s.w. 


4 
5 


ogr 
bcq 


30-04 
30-18 


29-84 
29-96 


52 
52 


51 
61 


52 


38-39 


58-42 


Septi 

1 

2 

• • 

3 

4 
5 


EMBER. 

Noon. 

2 a.m. 

Noon. 

10 P.M. 

Noon. 


s.w. 
N.byw. 

N.W. 

S.E. 

E. 

N.E. 


4 
5 
9 

4 
4 
4 
4 


b c 
b c 
be 
bcq 
ogm 
og 
og 


30-52 
30-50 
30-32 
30.27 
30-43 
30-72 

30-55 


30-27 
30-27 
30-12 
30-08 
30-17 
30-42 
30-30 


52 
48 
59 
59 
51 
48 
50 


51 
47 
56 
53 
50 
47 
49 


52 

52 

51-5 
50 
50 


38-44 

38-51 

38-53 
39-10 
39-12 


58-35 
59-13 

60-10 
61 00 
61-12 


6 




•• 


4 


og 


30-30 


30-10 


58 


57 


51 
51-5 


Off Blanco Bay. 


7 




E.S.E. 


4 


ogm 


30-17 


29-97 


53 


51-5 


52 
52-5 


Blanco Bay. 


8 




s. s. w. 


4 


b c 


30-02 


29-84 


55 


55 


52 
52-5 






9 




w. 


2 


ogP 


30-13 


29-94 


54 


50-5 


51-5 
52 






10 




•• 


2 


be 


30-23 


30-00 


53 


53 


52 
52-5 






11 




N.W. 


4 


ogq 


30-28 


30-09 


55 


55 


52 
52-5 






12 




•• 


I 


eg 


30-29 


30-09 


55 


55 


52 






13 




S.E. 


5 


b 


30-47 


30-26 


54 


54-5 


52 
52-5 






14 
15 




S.W. 



4 


b c 
c 


30-35 
30-30 


30-20 
30-11 


56 
55 


56 
54 


52 

52-5 

53 






16 






1 


b V 


30-52 


30-37 


53 


54-5 


52-5 
53 






17 




N. 


4 


be 


30-60 


30-38 


55 


54 


52 
53 






18 




W.N.W. 


4 


be 


30-44 


30-24 


61-5 


60 


52-5 
54 '5 






19 




N.W. 


4 


b e m 


30-18 


30-08 


68 


67 


54-5 
56-5 






20 




N. 


2 


b c 


30-07 


29-96 


67 


70 


55 
56 






21 




w.s.w. 


4 


bcq 


30-08 


30-03 


60 


63 


55 
56-5 






22 




s.s.w. 


2 


og 


30-26 


30-10 


64 


65 


57 




• 



ABSTRACT OF METEOROLOGICAL JOURNAL. 



9 



Day. 

Septe 
23 


Hour. 


Winds, 


Force 


Weather. 


Sympr. 


Barom. 


Attd. 
Ther. 


Temp. 

Air. 


Temp. 
Water. 


Locality. 


MBER,1832 

Noon. 


s.wly. 




bv 


Inches. 
30-44 


Inches. 
30-26 



58 



57 




56-5 

56 

56-5 


Lat. S. Long.W. 

Blanco Bay. 


24 


• • 


N.N.E. 


5 


bcq 


30-32 


30-15 


61 


61-5 


•• 


25 


6 a.m. 
Noon. 

6 P.M. 


s.s.w. 
w. 


1 
2 
2 


og 

bcq 

be 


30.10 
30-08 


29-90 
29-99 
29-96 


59-5* 
65 
60 


69 
64 
60 


56-5 

56 
56-5 


•• 


26 


Noon. 


N.W. 


4 


C 


30-27 


30-11 


58 


57 


• • 


27 
28 


• • 


W. 

N.W. 


2 
2 


be 
be 


30-25 
30-03 


30-12 
29-90 


61 
62 


61 
62 


56-5 
56-5 


• • 


29 


.. 


E. b. s. 


4 


com 


30-46 


30-24 


55 


53 


55 
54 




30 


. • 


N.E. 


5 


be 


30-48 


30-21 


55 


61 


54-5 


Off Blanco Bay. 


OCTOB 
1 


ER. 

Noon. 


— 





qrlt 


30-09 


29-85 


57 


55 


54-5 
56 


• • 


• • 

2 

3 


2 P.M. 

Midt. 
Noon. 
6 a.m. 

Noon. 


VEI.E. 

N.w.b. W. 
s.w.b.vv. 

S.S.E. 
S.E. 


2 
2 
6 

7 

4 


beg 

cm 1 

m d r 

oq 

bcq 


29-90 
29-86 

29-99 
30-44 

30-61 


29-72 
29-74 
29-77 
30-22 

30*26 


56 

57 

58-5 

49 

50 


55 

56 

56-5 

47 

48 


56 

53-5 
54 


Off Point Heimoso. 


4 


•• 


N.N.W. 


5 


bcq 


29-95 


29-89 


57 


56 


54 
54-5 


•• 


5 


. • 


VBLE. 


1 


b c V 


30-16 


30-00 


57 


56-5 


54-5 
56-5 




6 


6 A.M. 


N.W. 


5 


b c m 


29-94 


29-80 


58 


56 






•• 


6 P.M. 




4 


belt 


29-77 


29-67 


67 


66 


57 
58 


Blanco Bay. 


7 


Noon. 


W. 


5 


be 


30-02 


29-93 


64 


62-5 


57-5 

57 


• • 


8 




S.S.W. 


4 


b e 


30-56 


30-38 


55 


54 


57 
57-5 


•• 


9 
10 

11 

12 
13 
14 
15 
16 


6 A.M. 

Noon. 


N. 

E.N.E. 
w. b. N. 

S.S.E. 

s. b. w. 


4 
6 
2 
2 
2 
5 
4 
4 



be 

bcq 

b c 

b c 

b c V 

bcq 

bcq 

b c 

b V 


30-41 
29-97 
29-99 
30-06 
30-16 

30-57 
30-70 


30-29 
29-82 
29-90 
29-92 
30-08 
30-34 
30-44 
30-51 
30-45 


63 
59 
65 
60 
61 
53 
49 
52 
53 


61 

57 

64 

59 
59-5 
51-5 

48 

45 
54 


58 

58 
58 

56-5 

57 


• • 

• • 


17 


•• 


N. 


2 


be V 


30-32 


30-34 


62 


61-5 


• • 


18 


• • 


W.N.W. 


1 


b c 


30-26 


30-25 


66 


70 


57-5 
58 


Off Blanco Bay. 


19 


.. 


E.b. N. 


1 


b c 


30-16 


30-17 


63 


62 


58-5 
58 


Off Mount Hermoso. 


20 


. . 


N. 


1 


b c 


30-14 


30-16 


60 


60 


55-5 
58 


39 "34 59-37 


21 


4 p.m. 


N.E.b.E. 

N.E. 


4 
4 


eogq 
ogrtl 


30-03 
29-98 


30-03 
29-96 


■57 
56 


59 
55-5 


56 


39-20 59-02 


22 


Noon. 




2 


e og 


29-88 


29-89 


56 


55-5 


52-5 
53 


39-49 58-24 


23 


.. 


N.W. 


2 


f 


30-18 


30-13 


54 


52-5 


53 
56 


38-51 57-10 


24 


• • 


N.E. 


4 


c m 


30-22 


30-16 


55 


56 


56 
56-5 


3B-11 56-56 , 




* 25th S 


Bptr. t 


liere was mu 


ch lightning early i 


n the moi 


ningand 


late at ni 


ght. 



10 



ABSTRACT OF METEOROLOGICAL JOURNAL. 



Day. 

OCTOl 


Hour. 


Winds. 


Force 


Weather. 


Sympr. 


Barom. 


Attd. 
Ther. 


Temp. 
Air. 


Temp. 
Water. 


Locality. 


3ER, 1832. 



















58-5 
61 


Lat. S. Long.W. 


25 


Noon. 


s. b. E. 


5 


bv 


30-19 


30-18 


58 


59 


36-18 56-22 


26 


* ■ 


E.S.E. 


2 


c 


30 '36 


30-36 


60 


58-5 


61-5 


Monte Video. 


27 


, . 




4 


be 


30-21 


30-25 


63 


61-5 




• • 


28 


• • 




4 


be 


30'03 


30-11 


65 


62 




• • 


29 




w.s.w. 


4 


b c q r 


30-05 


30-07 


62 


56-5 




• • 


30 


• • 


• • 


5 


b V m 


30-08 


30-10 


63 


62 


62 
62-5 


•• 


31 

NoVE 


MBER. 


N.N.W. 


4 


b c V 


30-15 


30-20 


67 


65 


63 
64-5 


35-22 Pt.Piedras. 


1 


Noon. 


w. b. N. 


1 


be 


30-05 


30-13 


69 


67-5 


67 
68-5 


35-47 OffEnsenada. 


2 






4 


be 


30-02 


30-05 


71 


70 


71 


Off Buenos Ayres. 


• > 


6 P.M. 


.N.N.E. 


5 


ogrqlt 


30-00 


30-06 


67 


65-5 






3 


2 A.M. 


E.N.E. 


4 


grl 


30-00 


30-04 


65 


64 






• ■ 


Noon. 


N.E. 


6 


cgq 


30-01 


30-08 


68 


64 




,. 


4 


.• 




4 


c 


29-95 


30-06 


71-5 


69-5 








5 


.. 




4 


b c V 


29-91 


30-04 


74 


74 








6 


6 a.m. 


E.N.E. 


4 


cgq 


29-86 


29-95 


69 


69 










Midt. 


VELE. 


5 


g r t 1 


29-76 


29-86 


68 


66-5 








7 


Noon. 


W. N. W. 


I 


eg 


29-78 


29-94 


73 


71 








8 


• a 


N. w.b.w. 


2 


be 


29-81 


29-95 


71 


69 








9 


• • 


s.w. 


1 


be 


29-95 


30-12 


72-5 


70 










6 P.M. 




2 


ogqrl t 


29-92 


30-07 


69 


68 






10 


Noon. 


s.s.w. 


4 


beg 


29-28 


30-30 


62 


60 




• • 


11 


•• 


S S.E. 




be 


29-37 


30-38 


57 


56-5 


67-5 
69 


34-41 57*45 


12 


•• 


N.E. b. N. 


4 


be 


29-38 


30-44 


64 


63 


68-5 
68 


34-45 57-28 


13 


• • 


'e. 


4 


be 


29-41 


30-45 


64 


64-5 


64-5 


35-08 56-35 


•• 


6 P.M. 


VELE. 


7 


b c q 


30-33 


30-34 


64 


63-5 






•4 


Noon. 




5 


be 


30-20 


30-28 


66 


64 


64 
64-5 


Monte Video. 


15 


• • 


E.S.E. 


2 


be 


30-03 


30-16 


72 


68-5 


• • 


16 


• • 


S.W. 


4 


be 


30-02 


30-09 


67 


65 








17 


• • 


•• 


5 


cgq 


30-04 


30-05 


60 


57-5 








18 


•- 


S.S.W. 


4 


be 


29-99 


30-04 


63-5 


60 








19 


• • 


S.S.E. 


1 


be 


29-90 


30-05 


60 


67 








20 


• • 


S.E.b. E. 


2 


be 


29-98 


30-12 


70 


68 








21 


•• 




1 


b c V 


30-15 


30-28 


70 


67-5 








22 


•• 


S.E. 


2 


b e V 


30-25 


30-31 


67-5 


65 








23 


•• 


S. 


1 


b c V 


30-14 


30-28 


70 


68-5 








24 


2 P.M. 


E. 


4 


b c V 


30-03 


30-22 


74 


73-5 








25 


Noon. 


N.W.b. N. 


2 


be 


29-90 


30-19 


76 


75 








26 




S.W. 


4 


be 


29-70 


29-98 


80 


78 








■ a 


Midt. 


S.E. 


6 


ogql 


29-62 


30 -00 


73 


72 


79 




27 


Noon. 


.. 


4 


og 


29-90 


30-00 


62 


61 


73 


• • 


•• 


Midt. 




4 


b e q 1 


30-00 


30-09 


64 


62 


71 




28 


Noon. 


S.E. b. E. 


4 


b e V 


30-10 


30-18 


64-5 


64 


70 


34-52 


29 




E. 


1 


b c V 


30-22 


30-35 


66 


64 


69 


35-25 56-08 


30 




N- 


4 


bv 


30-09 


30-18 


66 


67 


61-5 


37-42 56-18 


Dece 


MEEE. 




















1 


Noon. 


N.N.W. 


4 


be 


29-94 


30-04 


66 


67 


60 
61 


39-20 58-10 


• • 


Midt. 


•• 


6 


oegql 


29-78 


29-92 


64 


63 






2 


Noon. 


S.E. 


5 


b e q 


29-87 


29-96 


62 


61 


60-5 
60 


40-03 59-43 


3 




s. b. w. 


1 


bv 


29-92 


30-04 


65 


65 


64-5 


40-22 61-48 



i 



ABSTRACT OF METEOROLOGICAL JOURNAL. 



11 



Day. 


Hour. 


Winds. 


Force 


Weather. 


Sympr. 


Barom. 


Attd. 
Ther. 


Temp. 
Air. 


Temp. 
Water. 


Locality. 


Decs 

4 


MBER,1832. 

Noon. 


W.N.VV. 


4 


b c V 


Inches. 
2970 


Inches. 
30.00 




77 



75 




64-5 

66 


Lat. S. Long.W. 
40-48 62-06 


5 


• . 


s. b. w. 


4 


be 


29-70 


29-81 


64 


63-6 


61 
62-5 


42-16 61-26 


6 


.. 


w.s.w. 


2 


be 


29-67 


29-73 


65 


64 


61-5 


42-54 61-20 


7 


• • 


VBLE. 


4 


b c V 


29-72 


29-80 


64 


61 


60 
60-5 


43-34 6 1-22 


8 


.. 


vv. b. N. 


4 


bom 


29-88 


29.92 


62 


60 


58-5 


44-52 62-01 


9 


•• 


w. 


5 


be 


29-68 


29-82 


61 


60-5 


56-5 
57 


46-17 63-22 


10 


•• 


N.W. 


5 


be 


29 '52 


29-53 


61 


57 


54 
55 


48-21 64-02 


11 


.• 


s.w.b.w. 


6 


b e m q 


29-12 


29-05 


54 


52-5 


51 

49-5 


51-03 65-05 


13 


Midt. 
Noon. 


w.s.w. 


7 
7 


be 
b c q 


29-41 
29 '59 


29-30 
29-48 


47 
47 


46 
46-5 


49 


50-36 65-28 


«3 


• • 


s. b. w. 


5 


b e q 


29*92 


29-79 


48 


46 


49 
50 


50-32 65-48 


14 


• • 


s.w. 


1 


be 


29-40 


29-40 


55 


54 


48 
50-5 


51-58 66-53 


15 
i6 

17 


• • 


VBLE. 
N.W. 


2 
4 
5 


b m 
be 
b e q 


29-51 
29-62 
29-18 


29-47 
29-65 
29-10 


46 
49 
54 


45 

49 
54 


45-5 

47 
48 

48-5 
48 


53-01 67-18 

53-47 Cape Peiias, 

s.22E.3m. 

54-34 Off Cape San 

Vicente. 


■ • 

18 


Midt. 
Noon. 


S. 
S.E. 


6 

4 


cog q 
b c g 


29-28 
29-50 


29-32 
29-36 


44 
49 


46 


47-5 
46-5 


Good Success Bay. 


19 


.. 


S.W. 


4 


b e q 


29-92 


29-84 


53-5 


51-5 


47 
48 


• • 


20 
21 


• * 


w. 

S.E. 


2 

4 


be 
be 


29-81 
29"99 


29-75 
29-91 


58 
49 


56 

49 


48-5 
49 
48 


• • 

OffValen- 
55 °*» tyn Bay. 


22 


• . 


N.W. 


4 


be 


29-86 


29-77 


53 


51 


48 
48-5 


55-51 


• • 

23 
24 

25 

■ • 

26 

27 
28 


10 P.M. 

Noon. 

Midt. 

Noon. 


W. 

S.W. 

s. 

w. 

w.s.w. 


7 
5 
5 

4 
7 
2 
2 
4 


begrq 
ogqr 

beg 
be 

be q 

cgq 

e m 

cgq 


29-72 
29-66 
29-70 
29-71 
29-48 

29-59 
29-72 
29-94 


29-62 

29-54 
29-60 
29-62 
29-46 
29-49 
29-59 
29-81 


49 
47 
47 
54 
52 
47 
47-5 
45 


47 

45 
46-5 

51 

51 
45-5 

45 

43 


46-5 

47-5 

48 

47 

47 

46-5 


56-27 68-00 
San Martin Cove. 

• • 

• • 

• • 

• • 


29 


• • 


• • 


4 


ogqp 


29-56 


29-47 


48-5 


47 


47 
47-5 


• • 


30 


4 A.M. 


s. 


6 


oq 


29-34 


29-22 


47 


45-5 




• • 


• • 


Noon. 




1 


od 


29-65 


29-53 


44 


42 


47 
47-5 


•• 


31 


• • 


w. 


4 


cog 


29-50 


29-41 


50 


47 


48-5 
48 


Cape Spencer, N.5 m . 


Jand 

1 


ABY, 1833. 


VBLE. 


5 


c q 


29-52 


29-38 


47 


46 


47 
48 


Off Diego Ramirez. 


2 


.. 


w. 


7 


be q 


29-30 


29-20 


47 


46 


47 


•• 


3 


• • 


S.W. 


1 


ocg 


29-32 


29-16 


43 


44 


42 
43-5 


57-03 69-16 


4 


• - 


w. 


2 


c 


29-38 


29-23 


45 


44 


44 
43-5 


56-48 69-32 



12 



ABSTKACT OF METEOROLOGICAL JOURNAL. 



Day. 


Hour. 


Winds. 


Force 


Weather. 


Sympr. 


Barom. 


Attd. 
Ther. 


Temp. 
Air. 


Temp. 
Water. 


Locality. 


January, 1833. 








Inches. 


Inches. 











Lat. S. 


Long.W. 


5 


Noon. 


w. 


4 


b c q p 


29 •56 


29-41 


44 


45-5 


45 
48-5 


56-22 


69-34 


6 


• • 


•• 


6 


cgq 


29-80 


29-64 


50 


48 


49 

45-5 


56-15 


69-23 


7 




W.N.W. 


2 


com 


29-44 


29-32 


48 


46 


45-5 
46-5 


56-42 


70-57 




Midt. 


• . 


8 


b c q p 


29-26 


29-12 


46 


45 








"s 


2 A.M. 


N.E. 


10 


c gq hp 


29-25 


29-07 


42 


43 










Noon. 


W.N.W. 


7 


bcq 


29-41 


29-26 


46 


45-5 


44-5 
44 


57-06 


71-31 


9 


6 A.JI. 


• • 


7 


c qg 


29-46 


29-28 


44 


43 










Noon. 




5 


be 


29"56 


29-36 


45-5 


44-5 


44 


57-18 


71-07 


10 


8 A.M. 


N.W. 


8 


gq 


29-23 


29-08 


45 


44 










Noon. 






be m q 


29-38 


29-25 


47 


46 


46 


56-37 


71-09 




4 P.M. 


w. b. s. 


8 


b e q 


29 '44 


29-29 


45 


44-5 


45-5 








Noon. 


s. w. 


7 


b c q p 


29 '44 


29-26 


47 


45-5 


48 


55-47 


70-08 




Midt. 


vv. b. s. 


8 


be q p 


29 '58 


29-43 


45 


43-5 








12 


2 A.M. 




7 


bcq 


29-58 


29-42 


45 


44 










4 -. 




6 


bcq 


29-58 


29-42 


46 


44-5 










6 .. 


.. 


7 


ogrq 


29-57 


29-40 


46 


45 










8 ,. 




7 


ogqr 


29-52 


29-37 


46 


45 










10 .. 




8 


c ogq 


29-49 


29-29 


46 


45 


47-5 








Noon. 




7 


e r g u 


29-44 


29-26 


47 


45 




56-09 


69-20 




2 P.M. 


N.W. 


8 


c q r 


29-32 


29-14 


48 


46-5 










4 .. 




10 


c q r 


29-26 


29-14 


47 


46 


46-5 








6 ,. 




7 


CO q r 


29-26 


29-10 


47 


46 










8 .. 




7 


c q r 


29-23 


29-04 


47 


46 










10 .. 




10 


bcq 


29-16 


29-04 


46 


45 










Midt. 




10 


b e q 


29-16 


29-04 


47 


46 










2 A.M. 




11 


ogqhr 


29-14 


29-00 


47 


46 










4 .. 




1 1 


ogqp 


29-14 


28-98 


47 


46 










6 .. 


W.S.W. 


10 


ogqp 


29-17 


28-91 


47 


45 










8 .. 




10 


opgq 


29-20 


2g-oo 


46 


45 










10 .. 




11 


c g q r 


29-25 


29-04 


46 


44 


48 








Noon. 




11 


ocgqp 


29-30 


29-14 


46 


44 




56-20 


■69-10 




2 P.M. 




11 


b c p 


29-37 


29-14 


47 


46 










4 .. 




11 


b c pq h 


29-40 


29-24 


47 


46 


47-5 








6 .. 




8 


b c qp h 


29-40 


29-28 


47 


46 










8 .. 


S.W. 


6 


bcq 


29-40 


29-20 


47 


46 








14 


4 A.M. 


N. b. E. 


2 


be 


29-06 


28-97 


47 


45-5 










8 .. 


W.S.W. 


6 


b e q 


28-93 


28-89 


54 


52-5 










Noon. 




10 


bcq 


28-89 


28-90 


55 


53-5 


48-5 


Windhond Bay. | 




4 P.M. 


S.W. 


8 


b e q p 


29-14 


29-12 


48 


47 


48-5 








8 .. 




4 


b c q {1 


29-34 


29-24 


46 


45 








15 


Noon. 


• • 


6 


b c q p 


29-74 


29-66 


52 


50-5 


48-5 
50 


Goree Road. 


i6 


•• 


N.W.b. w. 


4 


be 


29-78 


29-74 


56-5 


55 


51-5 
50 






17 


•• 


S.W. 


6 


b c q p 


30-06 


29-96 


49 


46-5 


50 






i8 


•• 


s. 


1 


be 


29-57 


29-54 


55 


53 


49 
49 '5 






19 


•• 




7 


be 




29-60 


50 


47-5 


48-5 
49-5 






20 






5 


bcq 




29-87 


48 


45-5 








21 


•• 


S.W. 


1 


c m p 




29-84 


53-5 


51-5 


50 
50-5 






22 




N. N. W. 


5 


be 




29-74 


68 


63-5 


52 
54 






23 


.. 


S.W. 


1 


be 




29-50 


62 


60-5 


50-5 










1 










54 







ABSTRACT OF METEOROLOGICAL JOURNAL. 



13 



Day. 

JANUj 


Hour. 


Winds. 


Force 


Weather. 


Sympr. 


Barom. 


Attd. 
Ther. 


Temp. 
Air. 


Temp. 
Water. 


Locality. 


iBY, 1833. 








Inches. 


Inches. 











Lat. S. Long.W. 


24 


Noon. 


s. 


2 


c m qd 




29-70 


52-5 


51 


51 

50-5 


Goree Road. 


25 


•• 


N.W. 


2 


b c p 




29-80 


52-5 


50-5 


50-5 
51-5 




26 


• • 


s.w. 


5 


be 




30-18 


54 


53 


51 

52 




27 


• • 


N.W. 


4 


be 




30-15 


62-5 


59 


52 
55-5 




28 


•• 


S.E. 


2 


be 




30-00 


60 


59-5 


53-5 
55-5 




29 


•• 


N. 


1 


e q 




29-88 


67 


64 


53-5 
55 "5 




30 


•• 


•• 


2 


c m 




29-52 


62 


59-5 


53-5 
55-5 




31 


•• 


N.W. 


5 


be 




29-52 


62 


59-5 


53 

55 




Feer 


UABY. 




















1 


Noon. 


s.s.w. 


4 


eg r 




29-46 


54 


52-5 


52 
52-5 




2 


• • 


N.W. 


5 


b c q 




29-33 


61 


58 


52-5 




3 


• • 


•• 


4 


be 




29-17 


61 


57 "5 


51 
52 




4 


•• 


S.S.W. 


5 


be 




29-44 


53 


51-5 


50-5 
51-5 




5 


• • 


— 





b c r 




29-57 


50 


47 


51-5 
51 




6 


• • 


N.N.E. 


2 


cgr 




29-35 


51-5 


49-5 


51 
51-5 




7 


•• 


W. 


4 


be q 




29-38 


61-5 


59-5 


51-5 
52 




8 


..■ 


S.W. 


5 


bcp 


29-40 


29-36 


48-5 


46 


51-5 
51 




9 


• • 


• • 


5 


eq 




29-44 


52-5 


49-5 


50-5 




10 


•• 


N.W. 


2 


ogr 


29-17 


29-18 


55 


54 


50-5 
52 


Windhond Bay. 


11 


•• 


S.W. 


5 


b c q 


29-09 


29-07 


51 


48-5 


49-5 
50 


Nassau Bay. 


12 


•• 


s. b. w. 


4 


b c q 


29-38 


29-34 


50 


48 


49 
50 


Packsaddle Bay. 


13 


• < 


N. b. E. 


1 


be 


29*63 


29-62 


52-5 


50 


50 
50-5 


•• 


14 


•• 


VBLE. 


1 


be 


29-62 


29-62 


53-5 


51-5 


51 


• • 


15 


• • 




4 


c m p d 


29-50 


29-46 


50 


48 


50 
50-5 


• • 


16 


• • 


— 





eg 


29-73 


29-68 


49-5 


47-5 


50-5 


• • 


17 




N.E. 


2 


beg 


29-98 


29-94 


53 


50-5 


50-5 
51 


•• 


18 


8 a.m. 


VBLE. 


1 


b c 


29-67 


29-59 


54 


54 




Gretton Bay. 


•• 


4 P.M. 


S.S.W. 


5 


boo 


29-76 


29-76 


51 


52 


51-5 
51 


• • 


19 


Noon. 


w. b. N. 


1 


be 


29-80 


29-81 


56-5 


53-5 


51 
52 


• • 


20 


• • 


w. 


5 


b c qp 


29*62 


29-55 


45 


43-5 


49-5 
50 


• • 


21 


2 A.M. 


S.W. 


5 


q ph 


99-60 


29-57 


40 


38-5 




• • 


•• 


Noon. 


• • 


7 


b c qp 


29-58 


29-58 


46 


44 


50 
49-5 


Oglander Bay. 


22 


•• 


• • 


4 


bcp 


29-55 


29-56 


53-5 


52 


49-5 
50-5 


Good Success Bay. 



14 



ABSTRACT OF METEOROLOGICAL JOURNAL. 



Day. 


Hour. 


Winds. 


Force 


Weather. 


Sympr. 


Barom. 


Attd. 
Ther. 


Temp. 
Airl 


Temp. 
Water. 


Locality. 


FEBB0ARY, 1833. 








Inches. 


Inches. 











Lat. S. Long. W. 


23 


Noon. 


W.s.w. 


4 


Ogp 


29-48 


29-46 


54 


51 


60 
50-5 


Good Sueeess Bay. 


24 


• ■ 


.. 


I 


eg 


29-50 


29-50 


53 


50-5 


50 


.. 


25 


• • 


s.s.w. 


6 


b c q 


29-22 


29-23 


52-5 


50-5 


50 


• • 


26 


• • 




5 


be 


[29-36 


29-27 


50 


49 


48 
47 


54-15 64-27 


27 


2 P.M. 




1 


be 


29-75 


29-70 


44 


43 


46 
47 


53-18 63-20 


28 


Noon. 


w.b.s. 


5 


b c q p 


29*31 


29-20 


49 


48 


46 

46-5 


53-20 58-34 


March. 
















T" (J 




1 


.. 


s.s.w. 


4 


boo 


29-46 


29-45 


46 


46 




Berkeley Sound, 


2 


.• 


s. b. w. 


4 


c q p 


29*19 


29-16 


51 


47-5 


50-5 


• • 


3 


• • 


w. b. s. 


4 


cgq 


29-19 


29-22 


56 


53-5 


51 


• • 


4 


• • 


w. 


4 


be 


29-56 


29-61 


53 


51 


50-5 


• • 


5 


• • 




6 


b c q 


29-57 


29-60 


54 


52 


50 


• • 


6 


■ • 


s.w. 


5 


b e q 


29-95 


29-93 


48-5 


46-5 


49-5 


• • 


7 


•• 


w. 


4 


cgq 


29-81 


29-81 


51-5 


48-5 


49-5 
60 


• • 


8 


6 a.m. 


S.E. b. E. 


4 


c r 


29-01 


29-00 


46 


43*5 




• • 


• • 


Noon. 


S.S.E. 


6 


cqm r 


29-18 


29-15 


47 


43-5 


49 

48 


■ • 


9 


.. 




4 


be q p 


29-51 


29-55 


48 


47 




• • 


10 


8 a.m. 


w.b. s. 


4 


be q p 


28-84 


28-85 


41 


40 




• • 


.• 


Noon. 


s.s.w. 


6 


b c q p s 


29*00 


28-86 


41 


38 


47 




. • 


6 P.M. 


s. 


11 


b c q h 


29-09 


29-06 


40 


37-5 




• • 


11 


Noon. 


w. 


6 


eq 


29-58 


29-56 


46-5 


45 


47-5 


• • 


12 


• • 


s.w.b. s. 


2 


be 


29-65 


29-64 


51-5 


48-5 


47-5 


• • 


13 


•• 


N. 


1 


be 


29-79 


29-76 


62-5 


50-5 


48 
48-5 


• ■ 


14 


• • 


W.b.N. 


4 


cgq 


29-13 


29-22 


57-5 


55 


49-5 
50 


• • 


15 


• • 




2 


be 


29-10 


29-22 


61 


58 


50 
50-5 


• • 


16 


6 a.m. 


w.s.w. 


4 


bv 


29-56 


29-54 


43 


42-5 




• • 


• • 


Noon. 


w.b. s. 


9 


b e q 


29-49 


29-54 


54 


52 


49-5 


• • 


• • 


6 p.m. 


• • 


6 


be q 


29-52 


29-56 


52 


50-5 




• • 


17 


Noon. 


w.s.w. 


5 


be 


29-71 


29-76 


55-5 


52-5 


49 '5 


• • 


i3 


2 a.m. 




6 


ctlr 














•• 


Noon. 


N.W.b. K. 


6 


bcm q 


29-01 


29-06 


53-5 


51-5 


50 
49-5 


• « 


19 


• . 


w. b. s. 


5 


be 


29-16 


29-16 


53 


50-5 


49 '5 


• • 




Midt. 




4 


be 


28-64 


28-72 


47 


46 






20 


2 A.M. 


s.s.w. 


9 


b c q r d 


28-86 


28-86 


41 


40 




• • 


•• 


Noon. 


s.w. 


6 


b c q 


29-26 


29-21 


46 


43'5 


48 
48-5 


• • 


21 


•• 


— 





be 


29-58 


29-55 


47-5 


45-5 


48-6 
49 "5 


• • 


22 


• • 


E. b. s. 


4 


e gr 


29-74 


29-71 


46 


43 


48 


• • 


23 


•• 


s.s.w. 


5 


beg 


29-96 


29-93 


47-5 


46 


48 


• • 


24 


•• 


w. 


4 


be 


30-15 


30-15 


49 


47 


48 


• • 


25 
26 


• • 


N. 

w.b. s. 


2 
5 


eg 
b c q 


2973 
29-41 


29-75 
29-43 


50 
50 


49 
48 


48-5 
49 
48 


• • 

• • 


27 


• • 


S.S.E. 


1 


be 


29-48 


29-48 


46 


44-5 


47-5 


• • 


28 


• • 


w.b. s. 


5 


be 


29-46 


29-45 


45-5 


44 


47 
47-5 


• • 


29 


• • 


«• 


4 


b cp 


29-38 


29-39 


48-5 


47 


48 

47.-5 


•• 



ABSTRACT OF METEOROLOGICAL JOURNAL. 



15 



Day. 


Hour. 


Winds. 


Force 


Weather. 


Sympr. 


Barom. 


Attd. 
Ther. 


Temp. 
Air. 


Temp. 
Water. 


Locality. 


March, 1833. 








Inclies. 


Inches. 











Lat. S. 


Long.W. 


30 Noon. 


w.s.W. 


6 


bcqh 


29-32 


29-28 


43-5 


41 


46-5 


Berkeley Sound. | 


31 


s.w.b. w. 


6 


b c q 


29-40 


29-27 


43 


40-5 


46-5 




'•-• 


April. 






















1 


Noon. 


S.W. 


4 


be 


29 '95 


29-82 


45 


43 


46 




• • 


2 


.• 


w. b. s. 


2 


be 


30-00 


29 '93 


46 


44 


46 
46-5 




• * 


3 


• . 


. . 


2 


be 


29-85 


2974 


46-5 


45 


46-5 




• • 


4 


.• 


s. b. w. 


4 


ogp h 


30-04 


29-92 


41 


39 


45 






5 




s. b. E. 


5 


be 


80-20 


30-07 


44-5 


43 


45 




* * 


6 




s. b. w. 


4 


bcqprh 


30-28 


30-15 


44 


42-5 


46 




• • 


7 


• • 


N.E. 


5 


CO q 


29-90 


2975 


45 


43 


47 


50-28 


59-10 


• • 


6 P.M. 


• • 


12 


eqt 


29 "32 


29-20 


42 


40 








, . 


Midt. 




4 


c op r 


28-20 


28-90 


44 


44 








8 


4 A.M. 


S.E. 


8 


c oq 


28-06 


28-94 


45 


42 










8 .. 


• • 


4 


CO gq 


28-26 


28-48 


43 


42 








• • 


10 .. 




9 


b cq 


28-29 


28-60 


46 


45 








• , 


Noon. 


• • 


7 


b cq 


28-73 


28-50 


45 


42 




49-04 


59-55 




2 P.M. 




10 


ocq 


28-86 


28-76 


46 


42 










4 .. 




8 


oc q 


28-90 


28-74 


45 


42 








•• 


8 .. 


s.w. 


6 


CO 


29-60 


28-96 


43 


41 








9 


Noon. 


S.E. 


4 


b cp 


30-36 


30-24 


45 


43 


48 
50 


47-12 


61-36 


10 


• • 


W.S.W. 


1 


b c V 


30-62 


30-54 


51 


48-5 


53 

54-5 


45-15 


62-50 


1 1 


8 A.M. 




7 


- ff q 


30-27 


30-17 


54 


53 










Noon. 


N.N.W. 


5 


be 


.30-12 


30-02 


56 


54 


54 


44-59 


63-01 


• • 


8 P.M. 


N.W. 


4 


be 


29 "98 


29-94 


55 


55 


54-5 






12 


Noon. 


S.E. 


6 


cop 


30-22 


30-12 


53 


51 


56-5 
57 '5 


43-01 


62-20 


13 


•• 


VBLE. 


4 


c 


30-28 


30-22 


55 


53 


58 
60 


River Negro. 


14 


• • 


N.E. 


4 


be 


30-30 


30-22 


56 


54 


59 
59-5 


41-08 


62-37 


15 


• • 




2 


be 


30-17 


30-14 


57 


56 


58-5 
61 


41-16 


62-52 


16 


, . 


VBLE. 


5 


be 


30-41 


30-38 


54 


53 


59 


41-58 


64-33 


17 


• * 


N. 


1 


be 


30 -23 


30-20 


58 


55 


59-5 


42-23 


64-19 


18 


• • 


N.W. 


4 


be 


30-20 


30-18 


60 


60 


60 
60-5 


41-46 


62-32 


19 


• • 


.. 


5 


be 


29-92 


29-96 


63 


62 


60 
60-5 


41-19 


63-38 


, , 


Midt. 


N.W.b.N. 


6 


bcq 


2973 


29-73 


65 


65 


*-*" t> 






20 


4 A.M. 




8 


cogql 


29-70 


29-65 


65 


62 








•• 


Noon. 


s.w.b.w. 


6 


b V 


29-76 


29-70 


65 


64 


60-5 
60 


40-41 


60-34 


21 


•• 


N.N.W. 


4 


b c m 


30-03 


30-03 


61 


6i 


57-5 

57 


39-33 


58-15 


22 


• • 


N.W. 


4 


b c m 


29-72 


29-70 


63 


62 


58-5 
59-5 


37-49 


58-11 


23 


, . 


W. 


4 


e 


29 '94 


29-92 


62 


60 


58-5 


37-56 


56-20 


24 


10 A.M. 


N.E. 


6 


CO g 1 1 r 


29-80 


29-78 


64 


62 








• • 


Noon. 




5 


cgr 


29-68 


29-68 


63 


61 




36-56 


55-36 


. . 


2 P.M. 


N.E. b.E. 


8 


c r p q 


29 "56 


29-60 


64 


62 


61-5 






.. 


10 .. 








og] tr 


29 '56 


29-64 


65 


63 








25 


4 A.M. 


•• 





oglp 


29-64 


29-70 


64 


62 








•• 


Noon. 


VBLE. 


4 


c 


29-82 


29-82 


63 


60 


60 
63-5 


37-07 


55-27 



16 



ABSTRACT OF METEOROLOGICAL JOURNAL. 



Day. 


Hour. 


Winds. 


Force 


Weather. 


Sympr. 


Barom. 


Attd. 
Ther. 


Temp. 
Air. 


Temp. 
Water. 


— . C 

[ 
Locality. 


April, 1833. 








Inches. 


Inches 










64 
62 


Lat. S. Long.W. 


26 


Noon. 




4 


c 


30-21 


30-15 


61 


57 


Monte Video. 




















61-5 




27 




S. S.E. 


5 


ocq 


30-34 


30-32 


57-5 


55-5 


61 


•• 


28 






4 


be 


30 '45 


30-43 


60 


58 


64 


Maldonado. 


29 


.* 


N.N.E. 


4 


cgr 


30-35 


30-37 


66 


64 


64-5 
64 


• . 


30 


• • 


S.S.E. 


4 


c 


30-19 


30-20 


65 


64 


63-5 


• ■ 


May. 






















1 




N. 


1 


be 


30-18 


30-21 


69 


67-5 


64-5 
65-5 


• • 


2 


, . 


N.N.E. 


I 


beg 


30-12 


30-16 


67-5 


65 


65 
64-5 


• • 


3 


8 a.m. 


N. 


2 


b c 1 t 


30-06 


30-10 


68 


65 




. . 




Noon. 


VBLE. 


1 


b c p t 


30-05 


30-12 


71 


68-5 


63-5 


Monte Video. 


a « 


6 p.m. 







copl 


30-05 


30-11 


67 


64-5 




» • 


4 


Noon. 


N. N. W. 


5 


be 


29-95 


30-02 


76 


72-5 


65 


• • 


5 


• • 


, , 


5 


be 


29-90 


29-93 


77 


75 




• • 


6 


, . 


N. 


5 


c qr 1 t 


29-78 


29-87 


70 


67 


64-5 


. . 


7 


2 A.M. 


S.S.E. 


8 


ocqpg 


29-97 


29-97 


62 


60-5 


63-5 
63 


• • 


• • 


Noon. 


S.E.b.S. 


5 


b eg q 


30-29 


30-26 


63 


61 


• • 


8 


• • 


s. b. E. 


4 


be 


30-48 


30-47 


58-6 


56-5 


62 


• • 


9 


, , 




4 


be 


30-44 


30-44 


58 


56 




• • 


10 


, , 


s. b. w. 


4 


be 


30-32 


30-32 


58 


56 


60 


• • 


11 




W.N.W. 


2 


beg 


30-33 


30-31 


58 


58-5 


58-5 


• • 


12 




N.W. 


4 


be 


30-15 


30-14 


59 


60 




.. 


13 




VBLE. 


1 


be 


30-13 


30-19 


63-5 


67 




• • 


H 




N.E. b. E. 


4 


eg 


30-04 


30-05 


64 


62 


58-5 


• • 


• • 


6 P.M. 


.. 


5 


oe ql 


29-9' 


29-97 


63 


61-5 




■ • 


15 


Noon. 


N.N.E. 


2 


bcp 


29-48 


29-57 


65-5 


63-5 


59-5 


• • 




6 P.M. 


N.N.W. 


6 


c q rl 


29-45 


29-52 


63 


61 


62 


.• 


16 


Noon. 


s.w. b. w. 


5 


be q 


29-82 


29-79 


59-5 


58 


60 


•• 


17 


.. 


S.E. b. s. 


1 


beg 


30-09 


30-07 


59 


57-5 


59 
59-5 


• • 


18 


. a 


s.w. 


4 


e 


30-14 


30-12 


61 


59 


61 


Maldonado. 


19 


•• 


w.s.w. 


4 


bv 


30-32 


30-32 


60 


58 


60 




20 


•• 


N.N.W. 


4 


b e V 


30-32 


30-32 


64 


62-5 


58-5 
60-5 




21 


•• 


N. 


5 


be 


30-40 


30-37 


67 


65 


58-5 
60-5 


Monte Video. 


22 


•• 


• • 


2 


be 


30-34 


30-37 


69 


65-5 


60-5 
63 


■ • 


23 


•• 


N.E. 


4 


b e m 


30-33 


30-39 


64 


62 


61 
62-5 




24 


•• 


• • 


4 


be V 


30-38 


30-42 


67 


65-5 


62 
64 


Maldonado. 


25 


•• 


N. b. w. 


2 


b c 


30-29 


30-34 


70-5 


68 


65 
65-5 


• • 


26 


•• 


N.N.W. 


5 


be 


30-19 


30-26 


72 


70-5 


65 
65-5 


■ • 


27 


•■ 


N.W. 


4 


be 


30-ao 


30-23 


73 


70 


65 
66 


• • 


28 




S. 


1 


be 


30-17 


30-23 


67 


67-5 






29 


6 a.m. 


N. 


5 


c g t Ir 


29-96 


30-04 


63 


61 








Noon. 


N.W. 


>2 


eg 


29-93 


29-98 


65 


62 




• • 


• • 


6 P.M. 


W.S.W. 


2 


cgd 


29-97 


30-03 


64 


62-5 


64-5 




30 


Noon. 


S.K.b.E. 


7 


bcqg 


30-13 


30-15 


63 


61 -5 


63 


• • 

























ABSTRACT OF METEOKOLOGICAL JOURNAL. 



17 



Day. 


Hour. 


Winds. 


Force 


Weather. 


Sympr. 


Barom. 


Attd. 
Ther. 


Temp. 
Air. 


Temp. 
Water. 


Locality. 


May, 


1833. 








Inches. 


Inches. 











Lat. S. Long.W. 


30 


6 P.M. 


E. 


7 


be q 


30-14 


30-18 


62 


60-5 




Maldonado. 


31 


Noon. 


E.b. N. 


6 


c m 


30-17 


30-21 


65 


63 






June 






















1 


6 A.M. 


N.E.b. E. 


10 


c m q 


29 '94 30-01 


62 


61 


64 




• • 


Noon. 


N.E. 


9 


c q w m 


29-90 


29-95 


65 


63 


64 




.. 


6 P.M. 


N.E. b. N. 


4 


c gr 


29-81 


29-89 


65 


63 


64-5 




2 


6 a.m. 


s.w. b. s. 


8 


cgqr 


29-94 


29-95 


58-5 


55-5 








Noon. 


s. w. b. w. 


6 


beg 


30-02 


30-03 


61 


59 


63-5 




.. 


6 P.M. 


w. b. s. 


5 


b e 


30-10 


30-10 


59 


58 






3 


Noon. 


w. 


2 


b e 


30-22 


30-24 


62 


69 


62-5 




4 


•• 


E. 


5 


eg 


30-22 


30-24 


61 


59-5 


61 
61-5 




5 




S.E. b.E, 


5 


cgqr 


29-94 


29-95 


58 


56-5 


62-5 




6 


.. 


S.S.E. 


6 


gq na 


29-84 


29-86 


61 


59-5 


62-5 




.. 


8 P.M. 


.. 


7 


og qd 


29-88 


29-92 


59 


58 






7 


Noon. 


w. b. s. 


4 


be 


2997 


29-98 


60 


60 


60-5 




8 


* • 


w. 


2 


be 


30 "06 


30-08 


59 


58 


59 
59-5 




9 


• • 


N.W. 


2 


og 


29-72 29-74 


56 


54 


58 






2 P.M. 




2 


c g 


29-66 


29-68 


57 


56 


59 




10 


8 a.m. 


W. 


11 


b e q 


29-86 


29-84 


50-5 


50 






• ■ 


Noon. 


w. b. s. 


10 


b c q 


29-96 


29-94 


53 


51-5 


56-5 






4 P.M. 


w.s.w. 


10 


ocgq 


30-04 


30-01 


54 


52-5 






1 1 


Noon. 


w. 


1 


be 


30-32 


30-28 


49 


51 


56-5 




12 


• • 


N.N.E. 


2 


be 


29-96 


29-96 


53-5 


53 


55-5 




■• 


Midt. 


W. 


4 


bcl 


30-09 


30-03 


58 


56 


56 




13 


Noon. 


S.W. 


4 


bem 


30-21 


30-20 


60 


58-5 


56 
56-5 




14 




K. 


1 


bv 


30-32 


30-32 


60 


60 


56 




15 


• • 


N.N.E, 


2 


og 


29-90 


29-92 


61 


59 


59 




16 


« • 


S.W. 


5 


be q 


30-21 


30-21 


55 


54 


56-5 
56 




17 


• • 


E.S.E. 


1 


be 


30-44 


30-43 


52 


51 


56-5 
55 




18 


• • 


N.W. 


4 


be 


30-34 


30-29 


54 


52 


54 




19 


•• 


• • 


4 


be 


30-25 


30-22 


59 


58 


53 
54 




20 


• • 


•• 


2 


be 


30-19 


30-20 


69 


66 


54-5 




21 


•• 


w. b. s. 


1 


be V 


30-32 


30-32 


61 


61 


54-5 
55-5 




22 


.• 


N. 


2 


b c V 


30-30 


30-31 


72 


67-5 






23 


.. 


.. 


2 


cop 


30-23 


30-25 


60 


58 


54-5 




24 


• • 


N. N. W. 


5 


be 


30-04 


30-08 


70 


69 


58 




25 


• • 


S. 


2 


e q p 


30-02 


30-14 


62 


60 


56-5 




26 


•• 


N. 


2 


beg 


29-98 


30-02 


60 


59 






27 


• • 


w. b. N. 


5 


be q 


30-16 


30-16 


54 


57 


54-5 
56 




28 


•• 


W.N.W; 


4 


be 


30-10 


30-12 


60 


58 






29 


•• 


VBLE. 


2 


b e q 


29'88 


29-95 


60 


60 


55 

55 '5 




30 


• • 


S.S.E. 


4 


og 


30-06 


30-09 


54 


53 


54-5 
54 




July. 






















1 


« • 


S.S.E. 


6 


oqg 


30-17 


30-14 


54 


52 


54-5 




2 


• • 


S. 


4 


b c 


30-33 


30-34 


52 


51 


53-5 




3 


•• 


S.E. 


2 


gc 


30-48 


30-46 


54 


53 


52-5 




4 


10 A.M. 


S.W. 


2 


r 


30-34 


30-43 


48 


47 


51-5 
52 


•• 



18 



ABSTRACT OF METEOROLOGICAL JOURNAL. 



Day. 


Hour. 


Winds 


Force 


Weather. 


Sympr. 


1 
Barom. 


.Mtd. 
Ther. 


Temp. 
Air. 


Temp. 
Water. 


Locality. 


July, 
5 


1833. 

Noon. 


s.W. 


5 


be 


Inches. 
30*35 


Inches. 
30-31 



50 



48 




51 
52-5 


Lat. S. Long.W. 
Maldonado. 


6 

7 
8 


8 A.M. 

Noon. 


* • 

S.E. 


2 

4 
5 


beg 

ocp 

be 


30-40 
30-27 
30-46 


30-36 
30-27 

30-44 


47 
53 
51 


46 
51 
50 


51 
51 
51 


•• 


9 


, , 


, , 


5 


og 


30-36 


30-32 


50 


48 


49*5 
49 

47-5 

46*5 




10 

11 

12 

13 


8 A.M. 

Noon. 


s. 

S.W. 

w. b. s. 

W.N.W. 


5 
5 
5 

4 


ogqd 
ocg 
b c V 
b c V 


30-30 
30-26 

30-44 
30-42 


30*26 
30-22 
30*40 
30-40 


47 
48 
48 
53 


45-5 
47-5 

47 

55 


Monte Video. 


14 


.. 


N. w. b. w. 


5 


be 


30-29 


30-30 


54 


55 


49 
50-5 


Maldonado. 


15 


... 


W.N.W. 


4 


be 


30-16 


30-20 


58 


60 


49-5 


•■ 


i6 


6 A.M. 


N. 


1 


be 


30-10 


30-15 


60 


49 


51 

52 


•• 


17 
i8 


8 .. 
Noon. 


S.E. 
S.W. 


4 
1 


bcm 
ef 


30-28 
30-12 


30 32 
30-14 


51 
58 


50 
57-5 


50*5 
52 


•• 


19 




E. 


1 


bff 


30-25 


30-30 


51 


50 


50 
50*5 


34-55 54-29 


20 


. , 


N. 


5 


be 


3015 


30-16 


55-5 


55 


50 


35-14 53-17 


21 


• • 


N E. 


4 


bm 


29 "97 


3003 


56 


56 


52 
54-5 


34-56 


22 

23 

24 


Midt. 
Noon. 


N. 

N.E. 
W. 
N. 


4 

4 
5 
4 


be q 

be ql 

ogqp 

be 


29-82 

39-58 
29-64 
30-02 


30-90 

30-74 
30-68 
.30-05 


62 

64 
56 
55 


61 

63 
54-5 
53 


53 
54 5 

52-5 
52 


Maldonado. 

■ • 


25 


• • 


S. 


4 


g d m 


29-95 


29 '95 


53 


51 


51 
51-5 


35-28 


26 


6 P.M. 

Noon. 


s.s.w. 


7 

4 


bq p 
be 


30-04 
30-39 


30-01 
30*39 


52 

50 


51-5 
49-5 


51 


35*33 


27 


•• 


w. b. N. 


4 


b c q 


30-34 


30-35 


49 


48 


46-5 
45*5 


35-57 


28 


-.• 


N.W. 


4 


be 


30-29 


30-24 


48 


47 


44-5 
45 


33-09 


29 


•• 


w. 


4 


be 


So -06 


30-01 


48*5 


48 


45 
46 


39-54 


30 




K. b. \v. 


6 


b c q 


29-88 


29-80 


49 


48-5 


46 
45-5 


40-55 


31 

AUGL 


8 P.M. 

Noon. 

ST. 


s. b. w. 

VBIE. 


7 

1 


bcq 
■ be 


29-98 
30-21 


29-89 
30-18 


46 
48 


45 
50 


45*5 


40-56 


1 


Noon. 


N. W. b. N. 


7 


be q m 


29-86 


29-82 


50 


48 


48-5 
50 


41*19 


2 


•• 


w. b. s. 


2 


be 


30-10 


30-10 


54 


53-5 


51 5 

52 


41-24 


3 


• • 


N.E. b. N. 


4 


be 


30-12 


30-11 


54 


53 


49 '5 
50 


Off River Negro. 


4 


•- 


N.W. 


2 


be 


29 '93 


29 •93- 


52 


50-5 


49 




5 


•• 


S. 






30-18 


30-12 


52 


50 


46 
48*5 


41 -02 


6 


•• 


— 





be 


30*28 


30*30 


52 


51 


48-5 
49 


40-21 


7 




E. b. N. 


2 


be 


30-25 


30*30 


51 


49 


47-5 
48-5 


40-08 


8 


• • 


W.N.W. 


4 


be 


29-98 


30-02 


53 


51-5 


51 


41-18 


9 


•• 


s. 


4 


ocg 


30-08 


30-08 


48 


48 


52 
51 


41*14 ; 



ABSTRACT OF METEOROLOGICAL JOURNAL. 



19 



Day 


Hour. 


Winds. 


Force 


Weather. 


Sympr. 


Barom. 


Attd. 
Ther. 


Temp. 

Airf 


Temp. 
Water. 


Locality. 


Aug I 


ST 1833. 








Inches. 


Inches. 











Lat. .S. Long.W. 


10 


10 A.. M. 


s.w. 


1 


Og 


30-04 


30-01 


44 


43 


51 
51 "5 


Off Port SanAntonio 


11 


Noon. 


S.S.E. 


4 


b c 


30-10 


30-10 


47 


46 


51 
51-5 




12 


« • 


N. W. 


4 


be 


30-10 


30-10 


47 


48 


50-5 
48 


41 12 


13 

14 
15 

16 


• • 


E. b. N. 

N. N. W. 
S.E. b. E. 

N.W. b. N. 


4 
6 
6 

4 


b c 

ogqp 

ogr 
b c 


30-08 

29-67 
29-72 

29-93 


30-12 

29-65 
29-67 

29-83 


47 

49 

47 

47 


46-5 

48-5 
46 

46-5 


48-5 
50 
50 
50 

50 


Off River Negro. 

42-10 63-00 
41-40 61-58 

Off River 

Negro 


i7 

i8 

19 
20 
21 


8 a.m. 
Noon. 


s.s.w. 
s. 

N. N. W. 
N. 

IV. 

N.W. b. w. 


9 
6 

5 

•2 
2 
5 


ogqm 

ogqp 

ogr 

og 

be 

be q 


29-68 
29-84 
30-07 
29-76 
29-83 
29-94 


29-63 
29-82 
30-03 
29-76 
29-82 
29-90 


49 
49 
45 
50 
50 
53 


47 "5 

48 

43 

50 
49-5 
51-5 


49 '5 

49 
49-5 

49 
49-5 


41 -03 
39-54 


22 


• • 


w.s.w. 


2 


eg 


29-96 


29-95 


50 


49 


49 "5 
49 


39 "03 


23 
24 


8a.m. 
Noon. 


s. b. E. 
s.w. 


4 
4 


c r 
b c 


30-00 
30-27 


30-04 
30-26 


48 
48 


47 
47 


48 

47 

49-5 


r standing up Blaneo 
I Bay. 


25 


.. 


>'.W. 


6 


beq 


30-15 


30-14 


51 


50 


48 
49 


Blanco Bay. 


26 
27 


• . 


s.s.w. 

E.S.E. 


5 

1 


be q 
b c 


30-08 
30-41 


30-11 
30-46 


52 
52 


51 
51 


48-5 
48-5 




28 


•• 


W.N.W. 


4 


b c m 


30-10 


30-19 


57 


55 


49 
48 




29 
30 
31 

Septi 
1 
2 


SMBER. 

Noon. 


N.W. 

W.N.W. 

N. 

W.S.W. 


5 



2 


5 


b c m 

be 
be m 

be 
be 


29-90 
29-92 

29 '97 

30-12 

29-98 


30-08 
30-01 
30-04 

30-18 
30-04 


58 
60 
61 

57 

52 


57 

59 

63-5 

77 
56 


50 
50 




3 


8 A.M. 


• • 


4 


b V 


30-23 


30-24 


45 


44 


49 '5 
49 




4 


Noon. 


w. b. N. 


4 


bq 


29"97 


30-10 


63 


67 


50 

52 




5 


• • 


S.S.E. 


4 


b e m 


30-37 


30-45 


55 


63 


51-5 


^ 


6 


r • 


N.W.b. w. 


5 


beq 


30-22 


30-19 


54 


53 


50 
50-5 




7 

• • 

8 

• • 


8 p.m. 
8 a.m. 

Noon. 


W. N. W. 
N.N.W. 

S.S.W. 

s. 


5 
2 
6 

6 


b in 
e 
bq 

bq 


29-71 
29-56 
29 "94 
30-03 


2977 
29-51 
29-98 

30-08 


57 
57 
50 

51 


57 
55 
49 

50 


50-5 
49-5 


39-11 

/39-30 OffBright- 
\ man Inlet. 


• • 


4 P.M. 


■ • 


9 


b c q m 


30-24 


30-19 


53 


48 


49-5 




9 


Noon. 


w. b. s. 


4 


be 


30-22 


3024 


50 


48 


49 
50 


40-00 


10 


4 A.M. 


N. 


5 


bq 


29 "95 


30-04 


48 


49 






• . 


Noon. 


N. b. w. 


7 


eg qra 


29-95 


29 "95 


49 


48-5 


49-5 
50 


39 "53 


11 


4 A.M. 


N.N.W. 


5 


bq 


29-81 


29-87 


50 


48 






■ • 


Noon. 


•• 






29-90 


29-96 


54 


55 


505 
51 


40-15 


12 
13 


• • 


N. b. E. 


4 

1 


e 
be 


30-01 
30-04 


30-03 
29 '93 

1 


48 
54 


48 
52.5 


47-5 


40-12 
39*45 



20 



ABSTRACT OF METEOROLOGICAL JOURNAL. 



Day. 


Hour. 


Winds. I 


'orce 


Weather. 


Sympr. 


Barom. AHd. 


Temp. 
Air. 


Temp. 
Water. 


Locality. 


Septei 

14 


UBER,1833. 

Noon. 


s.s.w. 


5 


Ogt 


Inches. 
29-69 


Inches. 
29-72 



50 



48 




48 
48-5 


Lat. S. Long.W. 
39-05 




Midt. 




6 


oc q m 


29 "96 


30-06 


52 


49 






15 


Noon. 


s. 


4 


b c m 


30-10 


30-17 


53 


52 


51 
54 


36*42 


16 


.- 


E.S.E. 


4 


be 


30-12 


30-18 


55 


53-5 


56-5 
56 


Monte Video. 


17 




S.E. b. E. 


5 


be q 


30-02 


30-12 


55 


56 


56 
55-5 


•• 


18 


• . 


• . 


6 


e q m 


30-04 


30-13 


56 


55 


54-5 
54 




19 

• • 

20 


Midt. 

4 A.M. 


E. S E. 
S.E. b. E. 


7 
9 
6 


cmq r 

ogqr 

ogqrm 


30-00 
29-81 
2977 


30-00 
29-96 
29-90 


54 
55 
55 


53-5 
54 
54 


53-5 


Maldonado. 




Noon. 


S.W. 




b cq 


29'83 


29-96 


57 


56-5 


53 '5 
54*5 


• • 


21 

22 

23 


10 A.M. 


N.W.b.N. 


4 
4 

5 


bcq 
beg 

b c 


30-04 
29-93 
29-71 


30-15 
30-11 

29-96 


56 
64 • 

71 


56 

65 

71 


55*5 

56*5 
58* 
59 


Monte Video. 


24 


2 A.M. 


E.N.E. 


6 


bcgl 


29'85 


30-02 


58 


58 






• • 


Noon. 


E.S.E. 


5 


cgq 


29-88 


29-93 


57 


57 


55 

54 


36-27 


25 


• • 


E.b.N. 


1 


b e V 


30-00 


30-07 


56 


57 


54 
54-5 


36-29 56-26 


26 


..' 


s. b. w. 


5 


be 


30-12 


30-17 


51 


51 


50-5 
51*5 


37*37 57-03 


27 


•• 


N.W. 


2 


b in 


30-07 


30-11 


58 


57 


50-5 
52 


38-05 57*19 

* 


28 


• ■ 


S.S.E. 


6 


be m 


30-17 


30-21 


52 


48 


50-5 
52-5 


37-46 56-58 


■ 29 


• • 


N.E. 


2 


b c 


30-44 


30-49 


52 


51 


53 

54 




30 


10 A.M. 


N. b. E. 


4 


be q 


30-30 


30 -36 


53 


52 


54-5 
57 


36-14 56-42 


OCTO 

1 


BER. 

Noon. 


N.E. 


4 


b c 


29-96 


30-03 


61 


62 


57 
58 


/Off Sanborombon i 
I Bay. 


2 


4 A M. 


S.E. 


6 


C 1 t q 


29-50 


29-66 


60 


59 






• • 


Noon. 


•• 


5 


eg 


29-65 


29*73 


59 


58 


57*5 
58-5 


•• 


3 


•• 


S.S.E. 


6 


be m 


30-06 


30-16 


55 


54 


58 
57*5 




4 


•• 


E. 


5 


c q 


29-96 


30-10 


60 


58 


57-5 
58 


Monte Video. 


5 


.. 


S.W. 


4 


cgm 


29-82 


30-94 


58 


57 


57-5 
58 




6 

7 


• • 

• • 


W.S.W. 

vv. 


4 
1 


be 
be 


29-94 
30-00 


30-14 
30-20 


60 
63 


60 
61-5 


57*5 
56-5 


Maldonado. 

• • 


8 


• • 


E 


4 


be 


30-07 


30-20 


59 


58 


57-5 
57 


• • 


9 

JO 


• • 
10 P.M. 

Noon. 


VBLE. 
S.E. 

s. w. b. W 


2 

1 
1 


eg 

ogtl 

r 


29-72 
29 -.56 
29-66 


29-88 
29-82 
29-84 


61 
62 
57 


60 
60 
56-5 


57-5 
56-5 


• * 
« • 


11 

12 


10 A.M. 


E, 

E.S.E. 


2 
4 


oe 
b e m 


29-96 

29-96 


29-05 
29-14 


60 
66 


59 
68 


56-5 
57-5 
58*5 


• • 




» 1 


remperature of water taken at 9 a.m. and 6 p. 


«. from t 


liisdate. 1 



ABSTRACT OF METEOROLOGICAL JOURNAL. 



21 



Day. 


Hour. 


Winds . 


Force 


Weather. 


Sympr. 


Barom. 


Attd. 
Ther. 


Temp. 
Air. 


Temp. 
Water. 


Locality. 


OCTO 


BER,1833. 








Inches. 


Inches. 











Lat. S. Long.W. 


13 


Noon. 


— 





r 


30-14 


29-24 


52 


51 


56-5 
56 


Maldonado. 


14 


•• 


S.E. 


5 


b c 


30-16 


29-30 


59 




56-5 


.. 


15 


•• 


E. 


4 


b cq 


30-24 


29-40 


59 


57 


57 
57-5 


• • 


16 


8 A.M. 


E.N.E. 


5 


b c q 


30-16 


29-30 


60 


59 


57 
55 


• • 


17 


10 A.M. 


W.N.W. 


2 


ogrtl 


29-65 


29-87 


58 


57 


54 


• • 


18 


Noon. 


w.s.w. 


4 


be 


29-76 


29-91 


61 


58-5 


54 
54-5 


• • 


19 


•• 


E. 


1 


be 


29-90 


30-12 


67 


65-5 


56-5 
62 


•• 


20 


•• 


s. b. w. 


4 


oc 


29-98 


30-16 


62 


61 


59 
61-5 




21 


• • 


S.S.E. 


4 


b e 


30-24 


30-36 


6i 


60 


61 
62 




22 


10 a.m. 


N.E. 


2 


b e 


30-19 


30-31 


59 


57 


61-5 
62 


Monte Video. 


23 


Noon 


W.S.W. 


2 


b c 


29-91 


30-20 


67 


67 


63-5 


• • 


24 


-• 


N.E. 


4 


b eq 




30-10 


74 


73 


64-5 
67 


• ■ 


25 






5 


ogq 


29-49 


29-80 


70 


70 


62 




:: 


4 P.M. 

5 .. 


N.W. 
W.N.W. 


4 
9 


ogql t 
grql t 


29-19 


29-58 


74 


73 






26 


Noon 


s.s.w. 


4 


b c 


29-72 


29-96 


68 


68 


65 


• • 


27 


.. 


E.N.E. 


5 


beg 


29-92 


30-18 


67 


62 




■ • 


28 


. • 


s.w. 


5 


be q 


29-54 


29-81 


67 


67 




« • 


29 


• • 




5 


b c q 


29-98 


30-10 


56 


56 






30 




S.E. 


1 


b c 


30-15 


30-36 


61 


61 




• • 


31 


10 A.M. 


E.N.E. 


5 


be q 


30-01 


30-21 


61 


60 


60-5 






8 P.M. 


E.N.E. 


6 


cqp 


29-77 


29-99 


58 


57 




• • 


November. 




















1 


Noon. 


E.S.E. 


2 


cgm 


29-81 


30-01 


60 


60 




• • 


2 




S. 


1 


be 


29-86 


30.06 


63 


62 




• • 


3 


• • 


S.E. 


4 


be 


30-14 


30-27 


58 


58 




• ■ 


4 


• • 


S.S.W. 


1 


b e m 


30-14 


30-40 


63 


62 




• • 


5 


• • 


N.N.E. 


4 


b V 


29-94 


30-24 


66 






■ • 


6 


• • 


S.W. 


4 


b e m 


29-59 


29-94 


71 


70 




• • 


7 


• • 


E.S.E. 


5 


c m 


29-87 


30-12 


65 


64 




» • 


8 


• • 


E. 


5 


m q p 


29-85 


30-05 


64 


63 




• • 


9 


• • 


S.E. 


2 


b e m 


29-75 


30-02 


62 


62 




• « 


10 


• • 


E.N.E. 


4 


b m 


29-80 


30-09 


68 


67 




• • 


11 


• • 


S.E. 


2 


b c V 


29-80 


30-15 


69 


71 






12 


• • 


N.E. 


5 


b e m q 


29-70 


30-04 


72 


70 




a . 


• • 


10 P.M. 








c r 1 1 


29-64 


30-00 


68 


67 






13 


6 A.M. 


N.E. 


4 


c r t 1 


29-51 


29-81 


66 


64 






• • 


Noon. 


w. b. s. 


4 


b c q 


29-50 


29-82 


70 


70 




• « 


H 


•• 


E. b. S. 


2 


b e m 


29-77 


30-07 


67 


66 




• • 


J5 


•• 


w. 


4 


b e q m 


29-78 


30-13 


70 


70 




.. 


16 


•• 


s.w. 


1 


b c m 


29 '93 


30-33 


73 


72 






17 


• • 


w. 


4 


b c m 


29-61 


30-08 


79 


79 




• , 


18 


•• 


S.E. 


2 


b c m 


29-87 


30-25 


70 


69 




■ • 


>9 


•• 


N.N.W. 


1 


b ra* 


30-28 


30-28 


72 


71 




« • 


20 


•• 


N. 


4 


b c m 


30-10 


30-16 


75 


75 




• • 


21 


• * 


S. 


6 


bcmq 


30-29 


30-24 


67 


66 




• • 


22 


•• 


S.E. b. S. 


1 


be m 


30-46 


30-40 


66 


65 




• • 






* 10 A.M. 19th, set Sympr 


. by Baro 


m. 







ABSTRACT OF METEOROLOGICAL JOURNAL. 



Day. 


Hour. 


Winds. 


Force 


Weather. 


Sympr. 


Barom. 


Attd. 
Ther. 


Temp. 
Air. 


Temp. 
Water. 


Locality. 


NOVE 


MBER,1833. 








Inches. 


Inches. 











Lat. S. 


Long.W. 


23 


10 A.M. 


N.N.K. 


4 


b c m q 


30-37 


30-37 


71 


71 








24 


Noon. 


S. 


2 


b c m 


30-11 


30-23 


78 


78 








25 


, , 


N. W. 


5 


b c m q 


29-86 


30-10 


85 


84 








a6 


10 A.M. 


S.W. 


2 


b c ni 


29 •90 


30-06 


81 


80 








., 


Midt. 


VBLE. 


7 


ogqrlt 


29 '94 


30-01 


72 


73 








27 


6 A.M. 


E. 


6 


c q r 1 


29 '98 


30-00 


68 


67 




Monte Video. | 




Noon. 


N.N.E. 


4 


be 


29-86 


30-00 


77 


75 








28 


, ^ 


E. S.E. 


4 


m 


2979 


29-94 


78 


77 








• • 


4 p. M. 


E. b. s. 


4 


ogt p 


29-76 


29-89 


73 


72 








29 


2 A.M. 


S.W. 


2 


q rl t 


29-82 


29-93 


71 


70 










Noon. 


s. 


4 


b c q 


30-05 


30-08 


72 


71 








30 

De 


MEMBER. 


S.S.E. 


2 


b c m 


30-20 


30-26 


71 


70 








1 


8 a.m. 


N. 


2 


b c m q 


30-15 


30-15 


69 


67 








3 


Noon. 


W. 


5 


b c q 


29-91 


30-04 


77 


76 








3 




N.N.W. 


2 


c q m 


29-90 


30-04 


76 


75 








4 


• • 


S. 


4 


m 


30-05 


30-09 


72 


70 








5 


• • 


N. 


1 


b m 


30-08 


30-20 


75 


74 








6 


• , 


N.W. 


2 


b e m g 


29-99 


30-06 


75 


75 








7 




W. 


4 


b c m 


29-85 


30-01 


77 


76 




35-28 


56-32 


8 


2 a.m. 


s. 


1 


be gtl 


29-57 


29-78 


76 


74 








• • 


Noon. 


VBLE. 


2 


be m 


29-54 


29-64 


74 


73 




36-46 


56-^5 


• • 


10 P.M. 


s. b. E. 


7 


bcgm 1 


29-80 


29-70 


61 


60 








9 


Noon. 


S.E. 


5 


rq 


29-88 


29-74 


58 


56 




37-12 


56-09 


10 


4 A^M. 


, , 


5 


c m rl 


29-83 


29-67 


54 


55 








. • 


Noon. 


s.s.w. 


4 


be 


29-83 


29-70 


59 


60 




37-10 


56-36 


11 


4 A.M. 


w. b. N. 


8 


begl 


29-85 


29-74 


56 


55 








• • 


Noon. 




7 


be 


30-05 


29-85 


60 


58-5 




37-56 


56-49 


12 




w. 


1 


bcm 


30-28 


30-19 


63 


62 




37-49 




13 


• • 


E.N.E. 


4 


be 


30-24 


30-15 


62 


61 




39-02 


57-13 


14 


• • 


W. 


2 


bcm 


29-84 


29-74 


60 


59 




41-15 


58-24 


15 


•• 




4 


b e m 


29-92 


29-82 


59 


58 


54 
50 


42-13 


58-38 


16 






4 


c q 


29-66 


29-46 


53 


52 


48-5 
51 


43-27 


59-23 


17 


• • 


s. b. VV. 


4 


be 


29-73 


29-53 


54 


53 


48-5 
51-5 


43-29 


59-28 


18 




VBLE. 


4 


b c q 


30-05 


29-83 


49 


47 


50-5 


43-31 


59-48 


19 


• • 


W. 


4 


bm 


30-28 


30-00 


56-5 


55 


53-5 


43-18 


60-00 


20 


•• 


N.W. 


4 


b c q 


30-10 


29-90 


57 


57 


53 
54 


44-12 


60-46 


21 


•• 


E.S.E. 


4 


b c q 


30-39 


30-20 


55 


54 


54 
53-5 


45-13 


62-52 


22 


•• 


N.W. 


4 


bcm 


30-23 


30-05 


57 


56 


53 

52 


46-31 


64-05 


23 


•• 


E. 


a 


bcm 


30-12 


30-03 


57 


58 


50 
52-5 


47-38 


65-29 


24 


•• 


S.S.E. 


4 


be 


30-12 


30-04 


69 


68 


53 
55 


Port Desire. 


25 




N.E. 


4 


be 


30-13 


30-06 


62 


61-5 


53-5 




1 


26 


• • 


S. 


7 


b c q m 


29-78 


29-73 


64 


63 


64 






• . 


4 p.m. 


S.S.E. 


10 


b c q m 


29-88 


29-78 


57 


56 


53-5 






27 


Noon. 


S. 


7 


b c q 


30-19 


30-02 


52 


52 


53-5 






.. 


2 P.M. 




8 


b c q 


30-16 


30-04 


54 


54 








28 


Noon. 


W. 


4 


og 


30-20 


30-10 


55 




53 






29 


•• 


E.N.E. 


5 


be 


30-30 


30-13 


58 


57 


53-5 






30 


•• 


N.N.E. 


4 


c 


30-17 


30-07 


58 


58 


53-5 
53 






31 


8 A.M. 


N.E. 


4 


e 


30 "00 


29-98 


55 


54 


^0 
53-5 



































ABSTRACT OF 


METEOROLOGICAL JOURNAL. 


23 


Day. 


Hour. 


Winds. 


Force 


Weather. 


Sympr. 


Barom. 


Attd. 
Ther. 


Temp. 
Air. 


Temp. 
Water. 


Locality. 


January, 1834. 








Inches. 


Inches. 











Lat. S. Lat.W. 


1 


Noon. 


S.S.E. 


6 


Ogq 


30-18 


30-00 


53 


52 


52-5 


Port Desire. 


2 


• • 


S.E. 


4 


b e 


30-40 


30-20 


54 


53 


52-5 


• ■ 


3 


•• 


W. 


2 


be 


30-62 


30-38 


57 


54 


52 


• • 


4 


• • 


N.E. 


4 


be 


30-15 


30-05 


61 


60 


53 

51 




5 


•• 


N. 


2 


bf 


2974 


29-76 


64 


63-5 


51-5 




6 


• • 


VBLE. 


1 


b e m 


29-36 


29-52 


62 


61 


50-5 
51 


48-37 66-01 


7 


• • 


S.W. 


4 


b e m 


29-81 


2979 


64 


63 


51-5 
53 


48*46 


8 


•• 


■• 


5 


b m 


29-88 


29-88 


69 


68 


53 
50-5 


48-17 66-44 


9 


• • 


W. N.W. 


4 


b c m q 


29 '63 


29 '69 


72 


71 


52 
54-5 


Off Port St. Julian. 


10 


• • 


w. b. N. 


4 


b m q 


29-76 


29-81 


73 


72 


54-5 


Port St. Julian. 


11 


8 A^M. 


w. 


8 


bcq 


29-62 


29-62 


67 


71 


55 




• ■ 


•• 


w.s. w. 


4 


bcq 


29 "59 


29-67 


70 


72 


55 '5 


• • 


12 


•• 


N.E. 


4 


b c m 


29-86 


29-83 


63 


62 


55 
56-5 


- .^ 


13 


•• 


N.W. 


4 


c q m 


29-54 


29 "51 


63 


62 


56 


• • 




8 p.m. 


S.E. 


2 


cm qp 1 1 


29-64 


29 '65 


60 


59 






14 


Nqon. 


E. 


4 


b c qm 


29-76 


29-76 


59 


57 


57 


••• 


15 


•• 


s. b. w. 


6 


c p 


29-72 


29-70 


58 


57 


56 




• • 


4 P.M. 


s. 


9 


bcq 


29-56 


29 "56 


61 


61 






i6 


Noon. 


• • 


8 


c q m p 


29-92 


29-82 


69 


58 


55 


• k 


17 




E. 


2 


m 


29 '96 


29-88 


61 


61 -5 


55 


« ■ 


i8 


•• 


N.N.E. 


6 


mr q 


29-90 


29-76 


53 


52 


54-5 
54 


• • 


19 


•• 


S.E. 


4 


c oq 


30*02 


29-85 


52 


51 


52-5 
51-5 




20 


•• 


E.S.E. 


4 


be 


29-88 


29-78 


57 


56 


.52-5 
54-5 


Off Port Desire. 


21 


10 A.M. 


W.N.W. 


4 


b c 


29 "93 


29-88 


64 


63 


55 


Port Desire. 


22 


Noon. 


W. 


4 


b c q m 


29-76 


29-80 


68 


67 


56 
55-5 




23 


•• 


w. b. N. 


5 


be 


29-52 


29-55 


69 


67 


55 


48-20 


•• 


Midt. 


w. b. s. 


7 


b c m q 


2979 


2974 


56 


55 


53 




24 


Noon. 


w. 


4 


be 


30-04 


29 "94 


55 


54 


52-5 
53-5 


49-37 66-03 


25 

26 




N.N.W. 


4 


be 


2979 


29-71 


58 


56 


51 5 
52-5 


51-16 67-19 


•• 


N. 


4 


be 


29-40 


29 '44 


67 


65-5 


53 






10 P.M. 


S.W. 


7 cgqp 


29 "37 


29-30 


57 


56 






27 


Noon. 


W.N.W. 


7 


bcq 


29-42 


29 "35 


61 


61 


53 


Possession Bay. 


•• 


4 P.M. 


w.s.w. 


10 


bcq 


29 '50 


29-46 


60 


59 






38 


10 A.M. 




8 


bcq 


29-76 


29-66 


57 


59 


52-5 


First Narrow. 


• • 


Noon. 


s. b w. 


6 


bcq 


29-80 


29-70 


57 


56 


52-5 




29 




w.s.w. 


6 

10 


bcq 


29-64 


29-48 


56 


55 


52-5 




• • 


6 P.M. 


S.W. 


8 i bcq 


29-68 


29-60 


57 


56 


51 


Gregory Bay. 


30 


Noon. 


w.s.w. 


4 


bcq 


29-82 


29-70 


53 


52 


50-5 
49 "5 


Second Narrow. 


31 


■• 


E. b. S. 


4 


b c m 


2974 


29-64 


52 


51 


50 
50-5 


Shoal Harbour. 


faam 


JARY. 


















I 


Noon. 


N.W. 


1 


c 


29-88 


29-80 


59 


57 '5 


49-5 
50-5 


Off Cape Negro. 


2 


•• 


N. 


2 


b c m 


2976 


29-76 


59 


59 


51-5 
50 


Port Famine. 

























24. 



ABSTRACT OF METEOROLOGICAL JOURNAL. 



Day. 


Hour. 


Winds. 


Force 


Weather. 


Sympr. 


Barom. 


Attd. 
Ther. 


Temp. 
Au:. 


Temp. 
Water. 


Locality. 


1 

Fbebuaby, 1834. 








Inches. 


Inches. 











Lat. S. LoDg.W. 


3 


Noon. 


N. 


4 


OgP 


29-61 


29-51 


57 


56 


50 
49-5 
48-5 


Port Famine. 


*4 


* • 


w.s.w. 


5 


b c q 


29 '54 


29-44 


56 


56 


49 
48 

48 


• • 


5 


•• 


s. 


1 


c m p 


29-68 


29-63 


53 


51-^ 


48-5 
48 
48 




6 


« • 


s.s.w. 


6 


b c q 


30-17 


30-04 


53-5 


52-5 


49-5 

50 

47-5 




7 


" • 


N. 


1 


be 


30 "34 


30-25 


53 


54 


49-5 
51-5 
50-5 


'* 


8 


•• 


E.N.E. 


2 


c m r 


29-98 


29-88 


54 


51-5 


51 
51 

49-5 
























9 




N. 


2 


b c m p 


29 "93 


29-84 


55 


53 


50 

53 

48-5 




10 


■■ 


S.E. 


2 


be 


30-16 


30-04 


55 


54 


53-5 
51-5 
50-5 


1 


11 


« ■ 




1 


b e m 


30-01 


29-96 


57 


56 


51-5 
51-5 
50-5 


i 


la 


• • 




1 


be 


29 '94 


29-84 


58 


57-5 


53-0 
63-5 
52-5 
64 


Second Narrow. 


13 


, , 


S.W. 


5 


be q 


29-97 


29-88 


58 


60 


First Narrow. 




















53-5 






















53 




14 


•• 


N. b. E. 


4 


b c m 


3o'i3 


30-04 


58 


57 


54 
53 


52-33 


15 


•• 


N.E. 


4 


b c m 


29 "52 


29-48 


57-5 


56-5 


55 


52-33 




4 P.M. 


N.W. 


4 


ogqrtl 


29-50 


29-50 


58 


56 


52-5 
52-5 




i6 


Noon. 


N.N.E. 


4 


be 


29-46 


29-38 


56 


56 


52 
54-5 


52-47 


.. 


Midt. 


S.W. 


6 


b e q 


29-60 


29-52 


50 


48 


53-5 




17 


Noon. 




5 


c q 


29-62 


29-54 


54 


53 


53 
53-5 


/ Off San Sebastian 
I Bay. 


•• 


10 P.M. 


N. N. W. 


7 


beg 


29-20 


29-32 


54 


53-5 


53-5 




i8 


Noon. 


w. b. s. 


5 


be 


29-24 


29-36 


55 


53-5 


53 
52 

52-5 
51-5 


• • 


19 




N.N.E. 


2 


be 


29-41 


29-30 


54 


53 


53-5 
51-5 
49-5 


54-01 


20 




S.S.E. 


5 


bcq 


•29-90 


29-69 


46 


44 


49-5 

50-5 

49 




21 


• ■ 


S. 


5 


be q 


30-04 


29-88 


48 


46 


49-5 


San Vicente Bay. 


















49 






* '■ 


reraperature of water taken from th 


sat 8 A.j 


I., 1-30, a 


nd 7 P.M. 1 



ABSTRACT OF METEOllOLOGICAL JOURNAL. 



25 



Day 


Hour. 


Winds. 


Force 


Weather. 


Sympr. 


Barom. 


Attd. 
Ther. 


Temp. 
Air. 


Temp. 
Water. 


Locality. 


1 
Feeruaby,1834. 








Inches. 


Inches. 











Lat. S. Long. W. 




















49 




22 


Noon. 


s.s.w. 


5 


b c q p 


30-23 


30-01 


47 


46 


45-5 
47-5 
46-5 


Strait Le Maire. 


23 


" 


K.W. 


4 


C 


30-16 


30-02 


50 


48 


46-5 

46 

50-6 




24 


' • 


N. N. W. 


4 


b C p 


29-86 


29-72 


52 


51 


60 -5 
50-5 




25 


« • 


w.s.w. 


5 


ocqp 


29-85 


2974 


50 


49 


49-5 
49-5 


OtfWollaston Island. 


• • 


Midt, 


s.w. 


6 


c q r 


29*56 


29-51 


49 


47 


60 
49 




26 


Noon. 


■* 


10 


cqp 


29-60 


29-49 


47 


42 


49 
48 

48-5 


• • 


27 


* * 


• • 


7 


b c qp 


29-86 


29-70 


47 


46 


49-5 
49 
49* 




28 


• • 


VBLE. 


2 


c d 


30-00 


29-90, 


54 


53 


50-5 
50 




March. 




















1 


Noon. 


W.S.W. 


2 


be 


29-90 


29-83 


58 


54 


50* 
51 


r Cove in Beagle 
L Channel. 




















50-5 




















60 




2 


•• 


VBLE. 


1 


b c m 


29*57 


29-52 


57 


55 


52-5 
51 

48-5 


Beagle Channel. 






















3 


*■ 


S.W. 


2 


be 


29-50 


29-30 


51 


49 


48-5 
48 

47-5 


• • 


4 


•• 


W. 


. 4 


be 


29-52 


29-38 


49-5 


60 -5 


48 
48 


• • 


5 


•• 


N.VV. 


1 


b c V 


29-72 


29-66 


53 


55 


47-6 
51 


Off Woollya. 


6 


•• 


•• 


2 


C q 


29-52 


29-50 


59 


58-5 


51 

51-5 
505 

49 


• 


7 


" • 


S.E. 


6 


ocqp 


30-16 


29-96 


45 


43-5 


48-5 
48-5 
46-5 




8+ 


• • 


N.W. 


4 


c 


30-18 


30-01 


46 


45 


48 
44-5 
46-5 


54-26 


9 


• • 


s.w.b. s. 


6 


bm 


29-82 


29-70 


51 


50 


48 
49 


52-53 59-17 


• • 


8 P.M. 


s.w. 


10 


be m q 


29 '85 


29-64 


49 


48 






10 


2 a.m. 


•• 


10 


b c q 


29-80 


29-58 


46 


45 


48-6 




' • 


Noon. 


s.w. b.w. 


4 


be 


29-76 


29-63 


51 


52 


50-5 

50-5 

51 


Berkeley Sound. 


11 


•• 


s.b.w. 


5 


b e q 


29-70 


29-60 


53 


51-5 


51-5 
51 


• • 


1 
* Compared 


1 
Water Tliermometer with Re; 


'istering ditto Feb 
Mar 


.28th, Nc 
ch 1st, N 


)on, R.T 
oon. R.l 


. 55-5, W.T. 54-5. 
. 58-5, W.T. 7-5. 


t From 8th 1 


March, Temperature of Wate 


r taken at 9 A.M., 


1-30, and 


6 P.M. 





26 



ABSTRACT OF METEOROLOGICAL JOURNAL. 



Day. 


Hour. 


Winds. 


Force 


Weather. 


Sympr. 


Barom. 


Attil. 
Ther. 


Temp. 
Air. 


Temp. 
Water. 


Locality. 


March. 1834. 








Inches. 


Inches. 











Lat. S. Long.W. 




















51-5 




12 


Noon. 


w.b.N. 


5 


b c ni q 


29 "62 


29-57 


58 


57 


52-5 
51-5 
51-5 


Berkeley Sound. 


13 


•• 


w. 


5 


b c 


29-46 


29-46 


60-5 




52-5 
51-5 


Port Louis. 




6 P.M. 


s.s.w. 


5 


c m q r 


29 ^S^ 


29-40 


52 


49 






14 


Noon. 


s. w. 


5 


be q p 


29 'Si 


29-70 


48 


46-5 


50-5 
50-5 




15 


• * 


w. b. s. 


6 


c m q r 


29-44 


29-35 


48-5 


46 


50-5 
50 
49 




i6 


• ■ 


• • 


6 


b c q 


29-63 


29-52 


49 


47 


49-5 
49 
48 




17 




s.s.w. 


6 


be q p 


29-66 


29-50 


44 


41-5 


47-5 
47 




i8 


.• 


s. 


1 


c m (1 q 


29-68 


29-54 


44 


43 


47 




19 




s.s.w. 


4 


e qp 


2977 


29-62 


47 


45 


47 




20 


6 a.m. 


W. N. W. 


6 


e m q r 


29 "57 


29-46 


47 


45 






• • 


Noon. 


s. b. w. 


8 


b c q 


29-59 


29-47 


49 


47 


47-5 

47 






6 P.M. 


s.s.w. 


9 


b eq 


29-64 


29-51 


43 


42 


46-5 




21 


6 A.M. 


s.w. 


9 


b e q p 


29-57 


29-43 


43 


41 


45-5 






Noon. 


s.s.w. 


10 


b e q 


29-59 


29-45 


44 


42-5 


46 




.• 


6 P.M. 


s. b. w. 


8 


b c q p 


29-64 


29-47 


40 


38 


45-5 




22 


6 A.M. 




7 


c qp 


29-97 


29-83 


42 


39 


45 




•• 


Noon. 


S.S.E, 


4 


b c q 


30-16 


29-99 


45 


43-5 


45-5 
45 




23 


•• 


w. b. s. 


4 


beg 


30-35 


30-23 


43 


47 


44-5 
46-5 




24 


•• 


N.W. b.w. 


5 


e m 


30-16 


30-05 


50 


49 


47 
47 
46-5 
























25 


• * 


N.N.W. 


2 


eg 


29-98 


29-90 


51 


49 


47 
47 














1 






47 




26 




E. 


1 


beg 


29-92 


29-84 


53 


51 


47-5 
47-5 
47-5 




27 


• • 


K.E. 


1 


eg 


29-97 


29-92 


52 


51 


48 

47-5 

47 




28 


• • 


w.s.w. 


2 


be 


29-94 


29-85 


54 


53 


48 
48 




29 


•• 


N.\y. 


2 


beg 


30-03 


29-93 


50 


49 


46-5 
48 




30 


•• 


s.s.w. 


2 


be 


29-66 


29-60 


53 


50-5 


48 
48-5 


> • 1 


31 


• • 


— 





be 


29-80 


29-70 


52 


50-5 


47 
48-5 




April. 




















I 


Noon. 


N.W. b.w. 


4 


beg 


29-74 


29-65 


51-5 


49-5 


47 "5 

48-5 

48 


•• 


2 


6 A.M. 


K.N.W. 


7 


c q r 


29-15 


29-09 


48-5 


46 


47-5 




•• 


Noon. 


W. 


4 


bcqp 


29-06 


28-97 


48 


44-5 


47-5 




•• 


9 P.M. 


S.W. 


1 


e r 


28-90 


28-84 


43-5 


41 


47 




3 


6 A.M. 


s.b. w. 


11 


c q r 


29-35 


29-05 


43 


42-5 







ABSTRACT OF METEOROLOGICAL JOURNAL. 



27 



Day. 


Hour. 


Winds. 


Force 


Weather. 


Sympr. 


Barom. 


Attd. 
Ther. 


Temp. 
Air. 


Temp. 
Water. 


Locality. 


April 


, 1834. 








Inches. 


Inches. 











Lat. S. Long.W. 


3 


Noon. 


s. s. w. 


8 


C q p 


29 '52 


29-37 


41 


39-5 


46-5 
45-5 






6 P.M. 


s. b. w. 


10 


cqp 


29'58 


29-49 


40 


38 


45 


Port Louis. 


4 


6 A.M. 




6 


eg 


29-93 


29-67 


37 


36-5 


43-5 




.• 


Noon. 


s.s.w. 


6 


eg q 


29 "93 


29-73 


41-5 


39-5 


44-5 


.. 


.. 


6 P.M. 


s. b. w. 


4 


b c q g 


29 '98 


29-82 


40 


39 


44 




5 


6 A.M. 


s.w. 


5 


cq 


30-07 


29-90 


40 


39 


44 






Noon. 


s. s. w. 


8 


cq 


30-08 


29-95 


47 


45-5 


45-5 




•• 


Midt. 


s.w. 


4 


oc 


30-09 


29-98 


45 


44 


46 

47 




6 


Noon. 


VV.N.W. 


6 


ocg 


29-86 


29-74 


49 


48 


Berkeley Sound. 




















47-5 




7 


6 A.M. 


w. 


2 


bf 


29-50 


29-38 


45 


44 


46-5 


« • 


• • 


Noon. 


w.s.w. 


4 


b c m 


29-55 


29-55 


53 


52 


47-5 
46 


• • 


8 


6 A.M. 


s.w. 


9 


b c q 


29-86 


29-70 


47 


45 


45 




•• 


Noon. 


s.s.w. 


7 


b c q p 


30-03 


29-83 


47 


46 


45 
44-5 
45-5 


50-02 58-08 


9 




N.N.W. 


4 


b c 


30-15 


29-98 


48 


47 


46 

47 


49-14 59-55 


10 


•• 


N.W. 


5 


b C q 


29-49 


29-38 


50 


49 


47-5 
47-5 


50-06 63-29 


11 




W. S.W. 


4 


be 


29-77 


29-67 


52 


51 


48 
47-5 

47-5 


50-10 64-09 


12 


• • 


W.N.W. 


2 


b c m 


29'S9 


29-98 


51 


50 


48 
47-5 


49-46 65-05 


13 


10 A.M. 


N. 


9 


b e q 


29-54 


29-50 


55 


55 


49 




. . 


Noon. 




7 


b c q 


29-67 


29-60 


54 


53 


49-5 


River. 


' 


Midt. 


N. N. W. 


5 


bq 


29-68 


29-72 


51 


50 


49 
48 


Santa Cruz. 


14 


Noon. 


W. 


7 


be 


29-68 


29-69 


59 


59 


49-5 
48-5 
47-5 




15 


* " 


w.b. s. 


4 


eg 


29-77 


29-77 


58^ 


53 


49 
48-5 


• • 


i6 


•• 


~~ 





be 


30-16 


30.02 


47-5 


47-5 


48-5 
48-5 
47-5 




17 


• • 


s. 


4 


b e ID 


29-83 


29-77 


46 


45 


47-5 
47 
46 

47 


■ • 


18 


• ■ 


S.S.E. 


4 


b c q 


30-03 


29-92 


47 


45 


•• 




















46-5 




19 


• • 


s. 


1 


beg 


30-34 


30-19 


47 


46 


46-5 
46 

45-5 




20 




N. N. W. 


1 


b c m 


30-33 


30-22 


45 




47-5 
46-5 
45 


• » 


21 









b cnn 


30-33 


30-21 


48 


46 


47 
47 
46-5 


• • 


22 




VBLE. 


1 


bcq 


30-09 


30-07 


59*5 




48-5 
48-5 


#• 

























28 



ABSTHACT OF METEOROLOGICAL JOUKNAL, 



Day. 


Hour. 


Winds. 1 


Force Weather. 


Sympr. 


Barom. 


Attd. 
Ther. 


Temp. 
Air. 


Temp. 
Water. 


Locality. 












Inches. 


Inches. 











Lat. S. Long.W. 


April 


,1834. 
















48* 




S3 


Noon. 


w.s.w. 


2 


be q 


30-n 


30-02 


55-5* 


53 


48-5 

47 '5 

46 


Santa Cruz. 
River. 


24 


•• 


w. 


4 


be 


30-12 


30-04 


53 


51 


48 
47-5 
46-5 


• • 


25 


• • 


w. b. N. 


1 


b c m 


30-09 


30-03 


55i 


53 


43-5 
48-5 
46-5 


• » 


26 


• • 


N.N.W. 


1 


be 


30-00 


29 '93 


53 


51 


48-5 

49 
46-5 

48 




27 


• • 


w. 


1 


eg 


29 '9 3 


29-89 


52 


52 


• • 


28 


.. 


— 





b m 


29-62 


29-66 


57-5 


53*5 


48-5 
46 


■ • 


29 


• • 


w. b. N. 


4 


beq 


29 '55 


29-52 


52 


51 


47-5 
48 
45-5 


• • 


30 


■ • 


s.w.b.w. 


6 


be q 


29 '45 


29-39 


52-5 


50 


47 
47 


• • 


May. 


















46 




1 


• « 


N.W. 


1 


be 


29-36 


29-33 


52 


53 


47-5 
47 


• • 


• « 


9 P.M. 


W.- 


6 


bcq 


29-42 


29-39 


47 


45 


45-5 




2 


Noon. 


S.W. 


2 


cgm 


29-60 


29-53 


49 


47 


46-5 
46-5 
44-5 


• • 


3 


«• 


N.W. 


1 


beg 


29-70 


29-63 


50 


49 


46 
46-6 


• ■ 


4 


• • 


S.W. 


9 


bcq 


30-01 


29-93 


48 


46 


44 
45-5 


• • 


• • 


3 P.M. 


.. 


10 


bcq 


30-05 


29-98 


50-5 


48-5 


45-5 




5 


6 a.m. 


S.w.b.w. 


6 


beq 


30-J6 


30-07 


44 


42 


44 




• • 


Noon. 


S.W. 


10 


bcq 


30-07 


30-08 


67 




46 


• • 


••. 


6 p.m. 


•• 


8 


bcq 


30-07 


30-07 


52 


50 


45-5 




6 


Noon. 


•• 


5 


bcq 


30-07 


30-07 


57-5 




45 
46 
46 
45 


• • 


7 






8 


bcq 


29-96 


29-91 


54 




46 
46 


• • 




6 P.M. 


E.S.E. 


7 


c q r 


30-03 


2998 


43 


40 


42-5 




8 


Noon. 


S.w.b.w. 


1 


be 


30-41 


30-30 


44 


42 


44-5 
44 
42 


• • 


9 


*■ 


N.W. 


4 


b m 


30-45 


30-34 


44 


41 


45 
43-5 


• • 


10 


•• 


S.E. 


2 


b m 


30-36 


30-31 


49 


48 


42 


• . 


11 


• • 


W. 


4 


b c m 


30-24 


30-16 


44 


43 




• • 


12 


•• 


N. 


4 


eg 


t29-67 


29-79 


51 


49 


44*5 
46-5 
46-5 








* Fro 


n 23d April, Temi 
t 


leratuve of Water taken at 9 
12th May, changed Sympr. 


A.M., 1-3 


3, and 3 p 


M. 



ABSTRACT OF METEOROLOGICAL JOURNAL. 



29 



1 Day. 


Hour. 


Winds. 


Force 


Weather. 


Sympr. 


Barom. 


A ltd. 
Ther. 


Temp. 
Air. 


Temp. 
Water. 


Locality. 


May, 


1834. 








Inches 


Inches 











Lat. S. Long.W. 


13 


6 A. M. 


s.w. 


7 


bcq 


29 '69 


29-65 


44 


42 


45 




•• 


Noon. 


s.w.b. w. 


7 


oqp 


29 "65 


29-65 


44 


43 


45-5 
45 


51-48 64-58 


14 


4 A.M. 


VBLE. 


5 


ocqph 


29 '49 


29-45 


39 


38 


43-5 




» • 


Noon. 


s. b. W. 


5 


bcq 


29'50 


29-47 


39 


38 


44 
43-5 


52-08 64-28 


15 


• • 


S.S.W. 


5 


ogqp 


29-25 


29-27 


43 


42 


46 
46 


52-28 66-47 


.. 


6 P.M. 


S. S. E. 


7 


bcq 


29 '47 


29-50 


43 


42 


46 




•• 


Midt. 


S. 


9 


bq 


29-60 


29-58 


45 


43 






16 


Noon. 


w. 


5 


DC q 


29-69 


29-69 


44 


43 


45-5 

44-5 

45 

44-5 


52-17 (Off Cape 
' 1. Virgins. 


>7 




S.S.E. 


4 


b c 


29-55 


29-58 


44 


43 


44 
45 

45 


• • 


18 


• • 


w. 


4 


bcra 


29-72 


29-65 


45 


43 


44-5 
44 
44 


52-27 66-35 


«9 

1 




E.S.E. 


1 


ogm 


29-19 


29-38 


49 


47 


43 
41 

46 




1 
1 




















! 30 


• • 


S. 


4 


om f 


29-24 


29-32 


46 


45 


45 
45 '5 
45-5 




21 


• • 


S.W. 


5 


bcq 


29-72 


29-74 


45 


44 


45 

44-5 

45 




22 




N.W. 


4 


be 


29-85 


29-89 


47 


46 


45-5 
43-5 
45 


52-28 


23 


• • 


w.s.w. 


4 


b c 


29-68 


29-70 


44 


43 


44-5 
43-5 




24 


• ' 


s.w. 


5 


bcq 


29-81 


29-82 


43 


42 


42-5 
42-5 




25 


# • 




5 


be 


29-78 


29-74 


44 


42 


43 
42-5 


First NarroAV. 




Midt. 


w.s.w. 


7 
8 


coq 


29-36 


29-40 


42 


41 






26 


Noon. 




7 


ocgq 


29-53 


29-52 


41 


40 


41 
41-5 




• • 


6 P.M. 


s.w. 


8 


bcq 


29-56 


29-57 


38 


37 


41-5 




27 


6 A.M. 


s.w.b.s. 


9 


bcq 


29-68 


29-67 


37 


36 


40-5 




•• 


Noon. 




6 


bcq 


29-82 


29-80 


39 


38 


41-5 




• • 


6 P.M. 


. • 


7 


b c 


29-78 


29-76 


40 


39 


40-5 

39 
40-5 

41 

40 




28 


Noon. 


s. 


5 


bcq 


30-08 


30-10 


33 


37 
























29 


. • 


N. 


5 


ogm 


30*20 


30-20 


33 


32 


40 
39 


Gregory Bay. 


30 




N.E. 


6 


ogqr 


29-82 


29-81 


39 


38 


41-5 
40 

41 




31 


. • 


N. 


4 


c m 


29-96 


29-96 


40 


38 


43 


Off Cape Negro. 


















43 





30 



ABSTRACT OF M ETEOUOLOGICAL JOUKNAL. 



Day. 


Hour. 


Winds. 


Force 


Weather. 


Sympr. 


Barom. 


Attd. 
Ther. 


Temp. 
Air. 


Temp. 
Water. 


Locality. 




. 








Inches. 


Inches. 











Lat. S. Long.W. 


June, 1834. 
















43 




1 


Noon. 


E.N.E. 


4 


c r 


29-53 


29-61 


41 


39-5 


42 
38-5 


Port Famine. 


2 


•• 


w. 


4 


be 


29 '58 


29-65 


49 


45 


43-5 
42-5 
42-5 




3 


•• 


■^ 





b c 


29-64 


29-88 


44 


43 


40 
37-5 




4 


•• 


N.E.by E. 


4 


e m r 


29"93 


29-97 


43 


41-5 


43 
39 
33 




5 


•• 


— 





gcd 


2975 


29-74 


41 


39 


39-5 
38 
37 
























6 


« • 


•• 





fm 


2974 


29-69 


41 


39 


39 
40-5 




7 


•• 


• • 





b c m 


2971 


29-65 


40 


39 


36-5 
39 




8 


9 A.M. 


s.w. 


2 


be 


29 '63 


29-52 


40-5 


33-5 


38 
43-5 
44 




9 


Noon. 


W.N.W. 


4 


c m q 


29'3+ 


29-35 


43 


43 


45* 

45 

45 


Magdalen Channel. 


• • 


6 P.M. 


N.W. 


4 


b c q p 1 


29 '38 


29-27 


41-5 


40 






10 


Noon. 


N.E. 


2 


c 


29'34 


29 --29 


43 


42 


45 
45-5 


Cockburn Channel. 


11 


■■ 


N. 


5 


ogm p 


29 '20 


29-16 


45 


44 


46-5 
47-5 
44-5 




12 


• • 


w.s.w. 


5 


b c q 


2g-20 


29-09 


42-5 


42-5 


44 
44 
44 


55-10 74-26 


13 


" 


s.s.w. 


4 


b c q 


29-60 


29-49 


41 


40-5 


44-5 
45-5 

47 


53-14 77-12 


H 


« • 


VBLE. 


4 


b e q p 


30-06 


29-95 


46-5 


46 


47-5 
48-5 
48-5 


50-45 78-09 


15 


'• 


W. 


4 


c q p 


30-15 


30-07 


49 


48 


50-5 
51 
49 


48-45 75-17 






















i6 


' • 


W.N.W. 


6 


b c q 


29-98 


29-93 


50 


49 


49-5 
49 -5t 


48-51 77-34 


17 


' ' 


VBLE. 


1 


c m 


30-17 


30-10 


53 


48-5 


49 
50 


47-29 77-43 


18 




W. b. N. 


1 


c q 


29-98 


29-87 


56 


55 


50 

50-5 


46-53 78-59 


19 


• « 


N. h. W. 


2 


be 


30-02 


29-97 


51 


50 


49-5 
50 


46-01 78-54 


20 




N. 


8 


c q p 


39-98 


29-90 


52 


51 


51 

51 

50-5 


45-30 78-54 


21 




S.W. b.w. 


2 


c m 


29-82 


29-76 


50 


49 


45-20 78-16 


22 


6 A.M. 


N.W. 


7 


b c q 


29-45 


29-42 


50 


49 


51-5 




•• 


Noon. 


•• 


10 


b c q 


29-24 


29-18 


52 


50 


51 


44-39 76-44 


•• 


4 P.M. 


N. 


11 


oqp 


29-02 


28-97 


51 


49 






* Taken carefu 
and Magd 


Ily at fl'30 A 
alcn Channe 


M. 9th June, becai 
1. 


jse the ship passed 


through 


a raeetin 


; of tides 


between Cape Froward 


t 16th, lost Wa 


ter Thermor 


neter overboard ; i 


md employed anot 


her agree 


ing with 


Six's Seli 


■ Registering. 







ABSTRACT OF METEOHOLOGTCAL JOURNAL 




31 


Day. 


Hour. 


Winds. 


Force 


Weather. 


Sympr. 


Barom. 


Attd. 
Ther. 


Temp. 
Air. 


Temp. 
Water. 


Locality. 


Tune, 1034. 








Inches. 


Inches. 











Lat.S. 


Long.W. 


22 


Midt. 


W-N.w. 


9 


be q p 


29-13 


29-18 


51 


50 


/^o 






23 


Noon. 


N.W. 


5 


b C q 


29-52 


29-49 


53 


52 


0-' 

52 
51-5 


44-29 


76-13 


•M 




N. b. w. 


5 


be 


29-68 


29-67 


53 


52 


51-5 
51-5 


44-20 


76-16 


25 


• • 


K.W. 


5 


DC q 


29-70 


29-64 


54 


52-5 


52 

51-5 

52 


44-03 


76-02 


26 




w. 


2 


c ra p 


29-63 


29-58 


53 


52 


51-5 
51 


43-u 


73-52 


27 


•• 


W.N.W. 


5 


b c q p 


29-51 


29-37 


52 


51-5 


51-5 


42-54 


75-10 


• • 


8 P.M. 


N.W. 


9 


c q p 


29-48 


29-35 


51 


50 


51-5 






28 


Noon. 


S.W. 


5 


b c q 


29-90 


29-48 


52 


51-5 


52 

52 


42-17 


74-54 


29 




N.N.E. 


5 


DC q 


29-77 


29-69 


50 


49-5 


50 

50-5 

50-5 


St. Carlos 


Isl.Chil6e. 


30 


• • 


E. 


1 


ogr 


29-40 


29-37 


50 


49 


50-5 






ruLY. 


















49-5 
47-5 






1 


• • 


W. 


2 


be 


•29-99 


29-92 


50 


46 


49 
48-5 
50-5 






2 


• " 


w. s. w. 


6 


b c q 


30-02 


29-94 


53 


51 


51 
50-5 






3 


• • 


VBLE. 


1 


b c p 


30-16 


30-11 


48-5 


49 


49-5 
49 






4 




s.w.b.w. 


4 


b c q p 


30-04 


29-95 


47 


45 


49-5 
49 
48 
43 






5 


• • 


S.E. 


2 


be 


30-41 


30-31 


44 


40 






7 


• • 


N.E. b. N. 


5 


e 


29 '94 


29-79 


42 


41 


47-5 
48 

49 






8 


* * 


N.b.W. 


5 


cqp 


29-76 


29-70 


52 


50 


49-5 
49-5 






9 




N.W. 


2 


c m 


29-52 


29-49 


54-5 


53 


50 






10 




N.N.W. 


2 


e m 


29-68 


29-64 


54 


63 


50 
51-5 
49 '5 






n 


• • 


N.N.E. 


1 


beg p 


29-76 


29-70 


52-5 


51 


51 
51-5 
50-5 






12 




N. 


2 


cgm 


29-48 


29-46 


53 


52 


51 
51 
50 






13 




W. N. W. 


5 


be 


29-53 


29-52 


52 


50 


50-5 
50 
51 






14 






5 


b c q 


29-95 


30-04 


52 


50 


51 

52 

51-5 






15 




N.N.W. 


5 


b e q p 


29-80 


29-81 


51 


50 


51-5 
61 
52 


41-48 


75-28 


16 


■* 


s. w. 


4 


be 


30-09 


30-10 


53 


51-5 


52-5 
52 


40-27 


75-44 


' 














• 











33 




ABSTRACT OF 


METEOROLOGICAL JOURNAL. 






Day. 


Hour. 


Winds. 


Force 


Weather. 


Sympr. 


Barom. 


Attd. 
Ther. 


Temp. 
Air. 


Temp. 
Water. 


Locality. j 


— — I 

July, 1834. 





















Lat. S. Long.W. 


10 


Midt. 


N. 


7 


c q r 


29*96 


30-06 


50 


48 






17 


6 A.M. 


W.N.W. 


7 


qr 


29-76 


29-86 


55 


53 








Noon. 


w. b. N. 


4 


c q r 


29 'So 


29-82 


55 


52 


53 
53-5 


40-09 76-18 


18 


•• 


N.N.W. 


4 


b c q 


29-87 


29-95 


54 


53 


54 
53-5 
53 "5 


38-23 75-29 


19 


•• 


W.N.W. 


5 


b c q 


29-80 


29-86 


56 


55 


54 
54 
54 


36-23 73-56 


20 


•• 


VBLE. 


4 


c q p 


29 "93 


29-99 


55 


52-5 


55 
55-5 


34-21 73-04 


21 


•• 


W.N.W. 


6 


c q r 


29-36 


29-92 


56 


55 


54-5 
54 
54 


33-29 72-14 


22 


• • 


VBLE. 


1 


be 


30-11 


30-15 


54 


53 


65 

55 

53-5 




23 


• • 


S.W. 


2 


bv 


30-02 


30-09 


58 


57 


55 

55 

53"5 


Valparaiso. 


24 


•• 


S. b. E. 


1 


be 


30-15 


30-19 


56 


54 


55 
54-5 


• • 


25 


, , 


VBLE. 


1 


b e ra 


30-10 


30-09 


57 


56 








26 


, , 


S. 


4 


b e m 


30-02 


30-06 


53 


52 








27 


, , 




2 


be 


30-04 


30 -09 


53 


51-5 








28 


. , 


N.N.W. 


1 


be 


29-91 


29-96 


51-5 


48-5 








29 


• • 


S.E. 


1 


be 


30-06 


30-03 


53 


51 








30 


. . 


W.S.W. 


2 


be 


29-93 


29-96 


53-5 


50-5 








31 




E.S.E. 


1 


eg r 


30-38 


30-10 


54 


52 








Adgdst. 






















1 


. • 


N. b. E. 


1 


b m 


29-90 


30-06 


60 








i 


2 










b cm 


29-84 


29-88 


60 


59 








3 






1 


beg 


29-98 


30-04 


56 


55 








4 




N. 


2 


be 


29-89 


30-99 


56-5 


52-5 








5 


6 A.M. 


E.N.E. 


2 


og 


29-94 


30-95 


52 


50 








6 


9 A.M. 








bm 


30-07 


30-06 


50 


48 






:: s 


7 


Noon. 







b ra 


29-85 


29-98 


57 


53-5 






8 




N.W. 


1 


be 


29-77 


29-89 


57 


53-5 








9 




N. b. W. 


2 


beg 


29-96 


30-03 


56 


54 








10 


^^ 








be 


29-80 


30-03 


62 










11 




.. 





e og 


30-08 


30-14 


57 


56 








12 




S.W. 


2 


be 


29-92 


30-04 


59 


57 






: ■ « 


13 




— 





eg 


29-92 


29-97 


56 


55 






14 




N.W. 


2 


be 


30-03 


30-10 


58 


57 








15 










be 


29-94 


30-06 


60 


56 








16 




E. 


1 


eg 


29-80 


29-95 


6.-5 


59-5 








17 




S.S.E. 


1 


eg 


29-70 


29-83 


62 


59-5 








18 








c g 


29-76 


29-85 


56 


56 








19 




N.E. 


1 


c m r 


29-95 


30-03 


54 


53 








20 




— 





c m 


29-85 


29-91 


56 


56 






• 1 


21 




N.W. 


1 


beg 


29-93 


30-00 


59 


57 






'f 


22 




W.S.W. 


2 


b c m 


29-79 


29-93 


59 


60 








23 




N.N.W. 


5 


e r 


29-82 


29-91 


54 


53-5 








24 






4 


be 


29-93 


30-00 


59 










25 




N.W. 


2 


be 


30-04 


30-12 


58 










26 




S. 


5 


be 


30-10 


30-11 


58 


53-5 






1 


27 




s.s.w. 


6 


be 


29-89 


30-01 


55 


52 






' 


28 




w. 


5 


be 


29-87 


30-00 


57 


52-5 




























! 





ABSTRACT OF METEOROLOGICAL JOURNAL. 



S3 



Day 


Hour. 


Winds. 


Force 


Weather. 


Sympr. 


Barom 


Attd. 
Ther. 


Temp. 
Air. 


Temp. 

Water. 


Locality. 


AUGI 


ST,1834. 








Inches. 


Inches. 











Lat. S. Long.W. 


•29 


Noon. 


w. 


2 


be 


29-92 


30-08 


57 


54 




Valparaiso. 


30 






4 


b c g 


29 '99 


30-10 


57 


56 




, , 


31 


.. 


s.s.vv. 


4 


be 


29-78 


30-00 


59 "5 


57 




, . 


September. 




















1 


Noon. 


— 





b e m 


29-61 


29-85 


60 


58 




.. 


2 


• • 


E. 


1 


cog 


29 "90 


30-00 


60 


59-5 




, , 


3 




N.E. 


1 


be 


29-70 


29-90 


61 


59 




.. 


4 




W.S.W. 


2 


c in 


29-83 


29-96 


59 


58 




, , 


5 


• • 


s. 


4 


beg 


29-87 


29-99 


58 


55 




, , 


6 




• • 


4 


b 


29-80 


30-00 


63 


58 




, , 


7 


.. 


N.E. 


1 


be 


29-72 


29-98 


60 


58 




, , 


8 


.. 


S.W. 


6 


be 


29-81 


30-00 


58 


55 






9 


.. 


N. 


2 


eg 


29-85 


29-97 


58 


56 






10 


-. 


• • 


4 


eg 


29-82 


29-99 


59-5 


57-5 




, , 


11 


• • 


E. 


4 


e gr 


29-88 


29 "94 


48 


48 




, , 


12 


.. 


N. N. W. 


2 


be 


30-25 


30-32 


55 


53 




, , 


13 


• • 


W.S.W. 


2 


e p d 


30-09 


30-22 


55 


52-5 




, , 


H 




N.W. 


1 


b e V 


29-75 


30-01 


62 


57 




, ^ 


15 


.. 








b V 


29-77 


29-99 


63 


57-5 




• ■ 


16 


• • 


VBLE. 


1 


b m 


29-68 


29-96 


63 


59 




■ '• 


17 


9 A.M. 


N.W. 


1 


b c m 


29-77 


29-97 


58 


55 






18 


Noon. 


E.S. E. 


1 


be 


29-71 


29-98 


61 


57 




., 


'9 




S.W. 


4 


be 


29-89 


30-05 


56-5 


54 




, , 


20 


• • 


S S.W. 


5 


b c q 


29-89 


30-08 


57 


64-5 




, , 


21 




S.W. 


6 


b e q 


29-90 


30-11 


59 


57 




, , 


22 




S.S. E. 


5 


be m 


29-63 


30-03 


70 


65 






23 


.• 


N.E. 


2 


b e m 


29-63 


29-89 


60 


59 






24 


.. 


W. N. W. 


1 


eg 


29-62 


29-88 


58 


58 




• • 


25 




N. W. 


2 


eg 


29-60 


29-87 


61 


58-5 




, ^ 


26 


• • 


N. 


4 


eg 


29-77 


29-96 


58 


56 




, , 


27 




S.W. 


5 


be 


29-79 


30-04 


61 


57 




, , 


28 




W.S.W. 


4 


beg 


29-76 


30-00 


60 


57 




, , 


29 


.. 


S.W. 


4 


b e q 


29-77 


29-99 


58 


55-5 




• • 


30 




W.N.W. 


2 


be 


29-62 


29-92 


66 


62 




• • 


OCTOl 


lER. 




















1 


Noon. 


S.W. 


4 


be 


29-76 


29-98 


58 


55-5 




, , 


2 




W. 


4 


b c 


29-72 


29-91 


57 


54 




• • 


3 


•• 


S.W. 


5 


be 


29-80 


30-09 


58 


56-5 




« a 


4 




• • 


5 


b c q 


29-91 


30-13 


57 


55 




, , 


5 


• • 


s. 


5 


be 


29-84 


30-13 


60 


58 




, , 


6 


• • 


N.E. 


2 


be 


29-65 


30-01 


65 


62 




, , 


7 


• • 


S.W. 


4 


og 


29-70 


29-90 


59 


58 




, , 


8 


• • 


N. 


1 


eg 


29-58 


29-89 


57 


56 




• • 


9 


• • 


N.W. 


2 


beg 


29-72 


29-97 


60 


59 




, , 


10 


.. 


S.W. 


4 


be 


29-69 


30-00 


64 


61 




, , 


11 


6 a.m. 


S.E. 


1 


be 


29-83 


30-06 


54 


52-5 




, , 


12 


Noon. 


s.s.w. 


5 


be 


29-75 


30-11 


65 


60 




, , 


»3 


• • 


S.W. 


5 


be 


29-57 


29-99 


65 


61 




, . 


14 


• • 


s. s. w. 


5 


cgq 


29-58 


30-00 


60 


59-5 




• • - 


>5 




S.W. 


5 


b e q 


29-77 


30-12 


61 


60 






16 




s.s.w. 


4 


b e q 


29-64 


30-12 


65 


63 






>7 


• • 




5 


b c q 


29-60 


30-07 


63 


61-5 




• • 


18 


• • 


— 





f 


29-55 


29-99 


60 


60 






•9 


• • 


N. 


1 


be 


29-43 


29-90 


63 


62 




» • 


20 


• • 




1 


eg m 


29-69 


30-00 


60 


61 




. • 


21 


.. 




2 


f w 


29-66 


29-97 


59 


60 




• . 


22 


• • 




2 


cf 


29-58 


29-95 


61 


60 




• . 


23 


•• 


• • 


2 


be m 


29-50 


29-88 


63 


61 






24 




S.W. 


2 


cm 


29-67 


29-97 


58 


57 




•• 



34 



ABSTRACT OF METEOROLOGICAL JOURNAL. 



Day. 



OCT3 

2 b' 

27 
28 

29 
30 
31 



Hour. 



Winds. Force Weather. 

I I 



BER,lti34. 

Noon. 



10 A.M. 

Noon. 



November. 



1 

2 

3 
4 
5 
6 

7 
8 

9 

10 



13 
'4 
15 

16 

17 
18 

19 



21 
22 

23 



Noon. 

10 A.M. 

Noon 



8 A. M. 

Noon. 



6 A. M. 

Noon 



4 P.M. 
8 A.M. 



s.s.w. 


4 


VBLE. 


1 


N. N. W. 


1 


N. 


2 


N.W. 


1 1 


N.N.W. 


2 . 


•• 


1 


s.w. 


5 


w. 


2 


N.W. 


2 


S.W. 


4 


N.W. 


■2 








S.W. 


4 


S.E. 


■2 


VELE. 




S.W. 


5 


S. 


7 


•• 


6 


S.S.E. 


5 


S. 


4 


s. b. w. 


4 


w.ly. 


2 


VBLE. 


1 


S.S.E. 


7 


N.b.W. 


4 


E.N.E. 


] 


S.E. b. £. 


2 


N. 


4 


S.W. 


5 


•• 


7 


•• 


1 



b c q 
b c m 
b c 
o c m f 
b c o 
b c m 



be q 
o f m 

og 
b c 
b c V 

b c o 
ocg 



b 
b c q 
b c q 

b c q 

b c q 
b rn 
b c 

beg 

ogqm 

b c 

b c 

be 

be q 

o c q 
b e q 
b c 



Sympr. 



Inches. 
29 '54 
29-43 
29-46 

29-63 
29"52 
29-56 
29-68 



29-42 
29-42 

29-55 
29-63 

29-44 
29-50 
29-69 
29-67 
29-58 

29-68 
29-72 
2974 

29-70 

29 '66 
29-60 
29 '51 

29-47 
29-42 
29-43 

29"62 



Barom. 



Inches. 
30.06 
29-96 
29-94 
29-97 
29-93 
29-96 
29-96 



29-90 
29'83 
29-99 
30-07 
29-95 
30-00 

30-05 
30-07 
30-01 

30-10 

30-14 

30-19 

30-14 

30-04 
30-03 
29-92 

29-87 
29-84 
29-85 
30-00 



*29"94| 29-92 

29-87 I 29-81 

29-98 29-85 
30-08 ^ 29-98 
30-31 I 30-15 



Attd. 
I'her. 



o 

67 
70 

63 
61 
62 
64 
56-5 



67 
64 
59 
63 

65 
64 
60 
61 
63 

64 

58 

59 

60 

61 
61-5 
63 
61 
55 
59 

68 

58-5 
60 

52 
54 
51 



Temp. 
Air. 



o 

67 
68 

63-5 
60 
60 
63 
56 



64 
65 
59 
61 

65 
64 

59 
60 
61 

61 

58 

58 

60 

60 
60 
62 

60 
54 
58 

57 

58 

59 

49-5 
55 
50 



Temp. 
Water. 



56-5 

55 

56-5 

58 

57 
58-5 
53-5 
59-5 

59 

58 

59 
59-5 
58-5 
59-5 
60-5 

61 

61 

59-5 
60 

59 
58-5 
57-5 
57-5 

58 

58 
56-5 

57 
56-5 
54-5 
57-5 
56-5 
55*5 
56-5 

56 
55-5 
55-5 

55 
56-5 



Locality. 



Lat. S. Long.W. 

Valparaiso. 



33-22 



35 "52 
36-51 
37-'40 

39 "51 
40-41 



77-34 



33-43 


76-20 


31-16 


76-08 


34-16 


78-00 



77-34 
78-00 

78-02 

77-23 



San Carlos, Isl. Chiloe 



* Index of Sympr. set four-tenths higher. 



ABSTllACT OF METEOROLOGICAL JOURNAL. 



35 



Day. 


Hour. 


Winds. 


Force 


Weather. 


i 
Sympr. Barom. 

1 


Attd. 
Ther. 


Temp. 

Air. 


Temp. 
Water. 


Locality. 


NOVB 


MBER, 1834. 








Inches. 


Inches. 









56 


Lat. S. Long.W. 


24 


4 A.M. 


E.S.E. 


I 


b C 


30-18 


30-19 


48 


48 


56-5 
56-5 


SanCarlos,Isl.Chil6e 


25 


Noon. 


VBLE. 


I 


b C 


30-05 


30-03 


58 


58 


56 
58 
53-5 


•• 


26» 


" • 


S. 


5 


be 


30-26 


30-25 


55 


54 


55 

54 


41 -42 Near 


•i- 


•• 


s.s.w. 


7 


b cq 


30-15 


30-12 


54 


55 


54 

54-5 


41-41 the 


• • 


Midt. 


s- 


8 


c q 1 


30-16 


30-16 


54 


53 


55-5 


land. 


28 


Noon. 


•• 


5 


b c q 


30-21 


30-19 


53-5 


54 


54-5 
54 


41-32 76-17 


29 




E. 


2 


b c 


30-10 


30-16 


53 


54 


54 
53 


42-02 78-25 


30 


• • 


E.N.E. 


4 


cgq 


29 "94 


29-88 


54 


54 


53-5 


43-25 77-38 


Dece 


MBEH. 
















54-5 




1 


Noon. 


VBLE. 


1 


b c 


29-82 


29-97 


61-5 


62 


55 
57-5 
56 


44-26 76-38 


2 




N. b. \V. 


2 


be 


30-03 


30-05 


60 


59 


57-5 
57 
54 


44-29 75-30 


3 


• • 


N.N.W. 


6 


b c qp 


29"83 


29- 


55 


55 


54-5 
54-5 


Chonos Islands. 




4 P.M. 


N.E. 


7 


c q p r 


29-80 


29-76 


57 


56 


54 




4 


Noon. 


W.N.W. 


7 


b c q r 


29-84 


29-80 


53-5 


53 


54 
53 


45-05 Close 


5 


•• 


s. w. b. W. 


4 


be 


30-06 


30-00 


58 


58 


54-5 

54 
53 


to the 


6 




S.W. 


5 


bep 


30-20 


30-23 


55 


54 


51-5 
51-5 
51-5 


sliore. 


7 




s. b. W. 


4 


be 


30-24 


30-23 


55 


55 


52 
51-5 


San Pedro. 


8 


• • 


w. 


1 


eg m 


30-11 


30-20 


56 


57 


52 




9 


•• 


N. 


1 


cgd 


29-86 


30-23 


54 




52-5 


•• 


10 




N.E. 


4 


be 


29-99 


30-21 


58 


57 


52-5 
53 
51 


•• 


u 




VBLE. 


2 


cgp 


29-87 


30-20 


56 


55 


53-5 

54-5 

54 


Near the land. 


12 


• ' 


VC.N.W. 


4 


be q 


29-89 


30-14 


57 


56 


54-5 
54 


45-02 


13 




W. 


2 


oe m 


29-82 


2975 


55 


55 


53 
52-5 
51-5 


"Vallenar Road. 


14 


• ' 


w.s.w. 


8 


b e q p 


29-30 


29-28 


51 


48 


52 
52 




^ ^ 


4 P.M. 


S.W. 


10 


b c q p 


29-30 


29-26 


52 


50 


51-5 




15 


Noon. 


s. s. w. 


7 


b c q p 


2974 


29-64 


49 


48 


52-5 
52-5 






» c 


eth Noveml 


ler, T 


emperature c 


)f water from this ( 


Jay taken 


at 9 A.M 


. 1-30 and 7 p.m. 



36 



ABSTRACT OF METEOROLOGICAL JOURNAL, 



Day. 


Hour. 


Winds ] 


^orce 


Weather. 


Sympr. 


Batom. 


Attd. 
Ther. 


Temp. 
Air. 


Temp. 
Water. 


Locality. 


Decembea, 1834. 








Inches. 


Inches. 










52 
52-5 


Lat. S. Long.W. 


16 


Noon. 


S.W. 


5 


b cq p h 


2974 


29-69 


51 


50 


Valleiiar Road. 




















52-5 






















52-5 




17 




s. b. w. 


4 


be 


29-90 


29-70 


51 


50 


54 
53-5 
53-5 




18 


* * 


* * 


4 


be 


29 '94 


29-90 


52 


52 


53-5 

53 

52 
52-5 


45-12 


19 


.. 


s.s.w. 


2 


be 


29 '98 


30-02 


50-5 


50 


45-13 




















52-5 






















53 




20 




S.W. 


4 


be 


29-77 


29-75 


51 


51 


53-5 
54 


46-55 


21 




w. 


4 


cgp q 


29-82 29-78 


51 


50 


53-5 
53-5 


Port San Andres. 


22 


• 1 


S.E. 


2 


b C q 


29-72 2^-66 


56 


55 


55 
54 


• • 


23 


•• 


w. 


6 


b c qf 


29-97 


29-94 


50 


49 


53 




24 




S.W. 


5 


beg 


29-55 


29-55 


55 


55 


53 

53-5 

53 


Christmas Cove. 


25 




VBLE. 


2 


b e q p 


29 "34 


29-29 


53 


53 


54 
54 


• • 


26 


« • 


N.W. 


5 


cq 


29-67 


29-60 


50 


49 


52-5 

52-5 

53 

52 5 


• • 


27 


• * 


VBLE. 


2 


b c q p 


29-61 


29-55 


53 


52 


53 
53 


•• 


28 




W. S.W. 


4 


be 


29-76 


29-70 


51 


50 


53 
53-5 
52-5 


46*26 


29 


10 A.m. 


S.W. 


5 


b c q p 


29-80 


29-82 


48 


47 


53 

52-5 

53 


46-02 


30 


Noon. 


N.W. 





oeg 


29-93 


29-92 


54 


53 


54 
53-5 
54 


OffYnchemo Island. 


31 


■■ 


VBLE. 


1 


c 


29-73 


29-65 


59 


59 


55 

54-5 


•• 


Janu 


ARY. 1835. 




















1 


Noon. 


N.W. 


5 


cgqr 


29-45 


29-72 


54 


53 


54 

54 
53-5 
52-5 


Patch Cove. 


2 




VBLE 


2 


cgqp 


29-65 


29-73 


53 


51 


54 
52-5 
52-5 




3 




N. W. 


5 


ogqr 


29-64 


29-60 


52 


52 


53 
53 


•. 


4 




W.N.W. 


1 


c 


29-73 


29-76 


56 


55 


54 
54 


• • 


5 


•• 


N. N. W. 


■ 4 


gr 


29-84 


29-84 


55 


55 


53-5 


1 


6 




s. b. w. 


4 


be 


29-90 


29-90 


55 


55 


53-5 
53 
53 


Off Lemu Island. 



ABSTRACT OF METEOROLOGICAL JOURNAL, 



37 



Day. 


Hour. 


Winds. 1 


Force 


Weather. 


Sympr. 


Barom. 


Attd. 
Ther. 


Temp. 
Air. 


Temp. 
Water. 


LoCAtlTV. 


jANUi 


IRY, 1835. 








Inches. 


Inches. 











Lat. S. Long.W. 


7 


Noon. 


w. b. s. 


2 


be 


29-88 


29'9i 


54 


54 


53* 
55-5 


43-48 





10 A.M. 


N. 


1 


cm r 


29-76 


29-87 


58 


57 


54-5 


Port Low. 


9 


Noon. 


VV.N.W. 


1 


beg 


29-78 


29-88 


58 


57 


53-5 
54 
54 


•• 


10 


' * 


N.W. 


5 


cgqr 


29*47 


29'85 


57-5 


56-5 


54-5 

55 

54-5 


"' 


11 






8 


cgqp 


29 '52 


29-85 


58 


56 


53-5 
53-5 


■ • 


•• 


6 P.M. 




8 


eom qr 


29-24 


29-82 


54-5 


53 


53 




12 


Noon. 


S.W. 


4 


b c q p 


2975 


29-82 


56 


55 


53 

52-5 

52 


■■ 


13 




N.W. 


6 


c m q r 


29-60 


29-81 


55 


54 


52-5 
52 
51-5 


• • 


14 


" 


S.W. b. s. 


6 


be q 


2974 


29-82 


53 


52 


52 

52 

51-5 


• • 


15 


* * 


S.W. 


2 


b c 


30-02 


29-96 


56 


56 


52-5 

53-5 

53 




i6 


• • 


N.W. 


4 


eg 


30-08 


30*12 


56 


55 


54-5 

53 

52-5 


Oflf Hiiafo. 


17 


a » 


~ 





beg 


29*90 


30-04 


60 


61 


54'5 
56 




i8 


• « 


s. 


4 


b c m 


2979 


29-95 


65 


62-5 


55-5 

58 


San Carlos. 


19 


• • 


s. w. 


1 


be 


29-98 


30-00 


60 


59 


54 
53 
59 
57-5 


TNear the English 
\ Bank. 


20f 


* * 


* • 


2 


b c m 


29-88 


30-01 


65 


64 


59-5 
60-5 

59 


San Carlos. 


21 


• • 


N.W.b. w. 


4 


cor 


29-70 


30-01 


60 


59 


58 
57-5 
57 


• • 


22 


• • 


S.W. 


5 


be 


29-97 


30-01 


63 


63 


58-5 
58 


•• 


23 


•• 


w.s. w. 


5 


be 


29-84 


30-02 


65-5 


68 


57 
58 


• • 


24 




•• 


2 


b c 


2978 


30-01 


65-5 




59-5 
59-5 




25 


. • 


w. b. N. 


2 


b 


29-70 


30-03 


65-5 


66-5 






26 






4 


b m 


2970 


30-00 


67 


66 




.. 


27 




w. s. w. 


4 


be 


2974 


30-01 


63 


61 


58-5 


r « 


28 




N.W. 


4 


cgq 


29 "57 


30-01 


64 


63 


58-5 
58 




29 


.. 


W.N.W. 


1 


cgp 


29-63 


30-00 


64 


53 






30 




w.s.w. 


4 


be 


30-07 


30-01 


61 -5 


62 




.• 


31 






2 


b c V 


2973 


30-01 


64 


64-5 




• • 






* 7th, W 


ater T 
t J 


hemnometer broken ; new one 
an. 20th, 2 a.m., observed an e 


nearly 1' 
ruplion c 


lower th 
)f Osorno 


m the Sti 


mdard. 



38 



ABSTRACT OF METEOliOLOGICAL JOURNAL. 



Day. 


Hour. 


Winds. 


Force 


Weather. 


Syrapr. 


Barom. 


Attd. 
Ther. 


Temp. 
Air. 


Temp. 
Water. 


Locality. 












Inches. 


Inches. 











Lat. S. Long.W. 


Febr 


UARY, 1835. 




















1 


Noon. 


N.W. 


4 


be 


29-76 


30-02 


66 






San Carlos. 


2 




w.s.w. 


5 


bcgq 


2977 


30-00 


60-5 


59-5 






3 


•• 


s.w. 


4 


gcp 


29-82 


30-01 


55 


53 


56 


• ■ 


4 


• • 


* * 


4 


oc p 


2977 


30-02 


53 


50 


52 
52 
51 


• • 


5 


* * 


s.s.w. 


4 


be 


29-62 


30-02 


53 


53 


54-5 

51-5 

53 


41 -23 Close 


6 


• • 


W. N. W. 


2 


be 


29-96 


30-09 


55 


55 


53 

53-5 

53 


40-33 to the 


7 




N.N.E. 


5 


q d 


29-97 


30-03 


54 


53 


54-5 
57-5 


shore. 


8 


• • 


S.S.W. 


1 


bcm 


29-82 


30-06 


59 


58 




40-11 


9 


10 a.m. 


E. 


I 


be 


29-B5 


30-05 


61 


60 


59-5 
61-5 


Valdivia. 


10 


Noon. 


N. 


4 


b V 


29-67 


29-93 


64 


65 




• • 


11 




N.N.W. 


2 


b c 


29 '55 


29-85 


65 


68 




• • 


12 


•• 


N. 


5 


b 


29-68 


29-90 


62-5 


62-5 


61 
62-5 


•• 


13 


, , 


W. 


2 


be 


29-71 


29-98 


67 


67 


• • 




















63 




14 


• • 


N. 


5 


be 


29-50 


30-10 


66 


66 






15 


• • 


S.W. 


2 


c gp 


29-60 


30-09 


63-5 


64 






16 


• • 


N. 


4 


c g 


29-58 


29-80 


62-5 


63 






17 


• ■ 


N. N. W. 


4 


be g 


29-69 


29-89 


62 


61 






18 


• • 


w. b. s. 


2 


c g 


29-78 


30-00 


65 


64 




• • 


19 


• • 


S.E. 


4 


be 


29-70 


30-04 


66 


64 




.. 


20* 


6 A.M. 


E 


1 


be 


29-70 


29-99 


60 


59 


59-5 


• • 


• • 


Noon. 


N. b. w. 


5 


be 


29-66 


29-98 


66 


67 


62-5 






6 P.M. 


VBLE. 


4 


b e q 


29 "59 


29-92 


66-5 


66 


59-5 




21 


Noon. 


K.E. 


1 


be 


29-68 


30-04 


66 


65 


63 

59 

53-5 


• • 


22 




S.S.W. 


4 


bra 


29-75 


30-01 


59 


58 


55-5 




- 


















53-5 
54-5 


39-37 Near 


23 


■ " 


S. 


1 


bcm 


29-70 


30-96 


58 


57 


53-5 
55-5 


38-57 the 


24 


" • 




2 


be 


29-72 


30-95 


58 


58 


54 
54-5 


38 -45 land. 


25 


• • 


N.W. 


4 


c f 


29-74 


30-93 


57 


58 


56-5 
56 


38-17 Off Mocha. 


26 


•• 


N. 





gqr 


29-44 


30-60 


53 


53 


55 

56 

56 

56-5 


• • 


27 


" 


N. 


4 


be 


29-54 


30-87 


60 


60 


5B-5 
58 


38-28 


28 




S.S.E. 


1 


b c r 


29-59 


30-17 


61 


59 


57-5 
57 
58 


38-18 






*20 


hFeb 


ruary, ir40 


A.M., felt a severe 


shock of 


m earthq 


uake. 



ABSTllACT OF METEOROLOGICAL JOURNAL. 



39 



Day. 


Hour. 


Winds. 


Force 


Weather. 


Sympr. 


Barom. 


Attd. 
Ther. 


Temp. 
Air. 


Temp. 
Water. 


Locality, 


VlABC 


H, 1835. 








laches. 


Indies. 









58-5 


Lat. S. Long.W. 


I 


Noon. 


N.N.W. 


2 


C HI 


29*60 


30-17 


66 


65 


58-5 

57 
57-5 


Off Moeha. 


2 


■ * 


VULE. 


2 


be 


29-67 


30-17 


62-5 


63-5 


59 
59-5 
60-5 


37-59 Near 
the 


•3 




S.W. 


4 


beg 


29-78 


30-17 


65 


63 


62-5 

60 

57-5 


37-32 land. 


4 


• • 


S. 


5 


be 


29-64 


30-18 


64 


63 


58 
57-5 


Coneepcion Bay. 


5 


• • 


• • 


5 


b vq 


29"59 30"i8 


69 


69 




•• 


^ ^ 


4 P.M. 


S. S.W. 


/ 

6 


b q m 


29-46 ' 3o'i8 


70 


69 






6 


Noon. 


N. 


2 


be 


29-53 1 30-18 


65 


63 




4 « 




















55-5 




7 


" • 


N.N.W. 


1 




29 "54 


30-17 


63 


62 


58 
57 
55-5 


" " 


8 


•• 


S. 


4 


f 


29-61 


30-18 


59 


58 


58 
59-5 


35-17 


9 


• • 


VBI.E. 


1 


m 


29-64 


30-18 


61 


60 


59 
61 


33 '54 72-34 


10 


2 A.M. 




2 


belt 


29-56 


30-18 


62 


61 


60 




• • 


Noon. 


N.W. 


2 


egni 


29-64 


30-19 


62 


61 


61 
61 


33-39 72-20 


11 


.• 


VBLE. 


1 


c o in 


29-57 


30-19 


63 


62 


61 
62 


33-32 72-07 


12 


• • 


■ N. 


1 


oc d 


29-53 


30-18 


62 


61-5 




Valparaiso. 


13 


10 A.M. 


s.s. w. 


4 


b c q 


29-56 


30-16 


67 


65 






H 


Noon. 


— 


o 


b V 


29-40 


30-18 


70 


69 






15 


10 A.M. 


S.W. 


4 


b V 


29-33 


30-17 


70 


66 






i6 


Noon. 


— 





c m 


29-58 


30-18 


63 


63 






17 


• • 







b c m 


29-44 


30-18 


65 


64 


55-5 
59-5 




i8 


■■ 


s. 


5 


be 


29-71 


30-05 


59 


57 


60-5 
60 
63 


32-52 74-01 


19 


* • 


S.E. b. s. 


6 


be 


29-78 


30-14 


62 


61 


62-5 

62-5 

63 


33-09 75-55 


20 




S S.E. 


5 


be q 


29-80 


30-20 


63 


63 


64 
64 
63 


33-46 


21 


• • 


" ' 


6 


beq 


29-70 


30-08 


64 


63 


62-5 
63 
63-5 


33-49 77"oo 


22 






5 


oeg 


29-67 


30-04 


64 


63 


64 
64-5 


34-11 79-03 


23 


•• 


• • 


5 


beq 


29-80 


30- 


65 


64 


65 
6=. 


34-57 81-41 


24 


•• 


VBLE. 


4 


be 


2975 


30-10 


65 


64 


65 

64-5 

63 


35-13 79'53 


25 


• • 




4 


be 


29-70 


30-08 


64 


64 


63-5 
63 


34-59 78-03 







«3d 


March, 10-26 


A.M., felt a severe 


shock of 


an earthf 


luake. 



40 



ABSTEACT OF METEOROLOGICAL JOURNAL. 



Day. 


Hour. 


Winds. 


Force 


Weather. 


Sympr. Barom. 


Attd. 
Then 


Temp. 
Air. 


Temp. 
Water. 


Locality. 


March, 1835. 








Inches. 


Inches 











Lat. S. Lat.W. 




















60 




26 


Noon. 


S.E. 


4 


b c m 


*30-i9 






61 


62 

62 

57-5 


35-38 76-15 


27 




s. 


4 


C ni q 


30'i3 






56 


54 

56 

53-5 


36-28 73-54 


28 




•• 


I 


o c m 


30-28 






59 


55 

54 


Concepcion Bay. . 


29 




VBIE. 


4 


b cq 


30-17 






62 


52 


/Standing out of the 


30 




s. s. w. 


4 


b c m 


29 "93 






58 


55-5 
52-5 


)_ Bay of Concepeion. 


31 




N. 


5 


b c m q 


30-09 






56 


53-5 
54 




APJIIL. 






































54 




1 


Noon. 


VBLE. 


1 


bcf 


30-21 






60 


55 
54-5 


Island of St. Mary. 


2 


•• 


•• 


1 


b m 


30 "09 






59 


53 
57-5 


Concepeion Bay. 


3 


.. 


S. 


4 


b cq 


30-21 






58 




.. 


4 




.. 


4 


b c m 


30-12 






61 




• • 


5 


10 a.m. 




4 


be 


30-23 






63 




• • 


6 


Noon. 


s. 


2 


b c m 


30-14 






65 


54-5 




7 




s.w. 


2 


b m 


30 '09 






67 


59-5 
57 
56 




8 


• • 


N. 


4 


f 


30-07 






58 


55-5 

56-5 

56 


r Soutb Harbour, in 
\. Santa Maria. 


9 


■ • 


N.E. 


1 


c m 


30-22 






55 


56-5 
56 




















55-5 




10 




• • 


1 


b c m 


30-22 






58 


56-5 

53-5 

56 




11 


' " 


S. 


1 


b c ra 


30-22 






59 


56-5 
.56-5 


Concepeion Bay. 


12 


•• 


N. 


1 


b e 


30-05 






70 




■ • 


13 










b 


30-10 






59 




• . 


ti4 


10 a.m. 


N. 


4 


fd 


30-19 


30-20 




61 






15 


* • 


S. 


2 


be 


30-20 


30-24 




57 


57 


• • 


16 


10 a.m. 




2 


be 


30-20 


30-18 




57 


58 
57-5 
54-5 


Tome Bay. 


17 


8 A.M. 




o 


c o 


30-02 


30-08 




57 


53-5 
53-5 


Coliumo Bay. 


18 


















54 




9 •• 


N. b. w. 


5 


eg 


30-05 


30-07 




57 


54 


• • 




















54-5 






















55 




19 


9 •• 


VBLE. 


2 


f 


30-12 


30-16 




57 


57 
57 


• • 








* 25th Marc 


h, P.M., set Sympr. five-tenths highe 


r. 






t From 


14th A 


pril Cabin T 


hermometer used, which agreed with 


the Stan 


dard. 



ABSTRACT OF METKOKOLOGICAL JOUllNAL. 



41 



Day. 


Hour. 


Winds. 


Force 


Weather. 


Sympr. 


Barom. 


Attd. 
Ther. 


Temp. 
Air. 


Temp. 
Water. 


Locality. 


Aprii 


., 1835. 








Inches. 


Inches. 









55-5 


Lat. S. Long. W. 


20 


8 a.m. 


s. 


2 


bf 


30-16 


30-20 




57 


55-5 
53-5 


35-35 


21 


8 .. 


— ' 





bm 


30-13 


30-17 




54 


54 
54-5 
54-5 


or-,^ /OfftheRiver 
35 '9 \ Maule. 


22 


Noon. 


s. 


4 


bv 


29-98 


30-03 




60 


55-5 

57 
58 


33-51 






















23 




N.E. 


2 


c 


30-13 


30-16 




58 


58-5 
58 
56-5 


Off Valparaiso. 


24 




S. 


4 


bf 


30-11 


30-16 




59 


58 
57-5 
58-5 


• • 


25 


• • 


S.S.E. 


2 


of 


30-17 


30-21 




58 


57-5 

53 

57-5 


Oif Horcon. 


25 


• • 


S.W. 


1 


of 


30-12 


30-18 




58 


58 
57 


Horcon Bay. 


27 


•• 


s.w. 


4 


b c q 


30-19 


30-20 




60 


56 
55 
55 


Port Papudo. 


28 









eg 


£0-21 


30-23 




54 


55-5 

55-5 

54 


• • 


29 




s.s.w. 


5 


be 


30-20 


30-25 




59 


55 
55 
55-5 


Port Pichidanque. 

/ Off Port Picbi- 
!_ dan que. 


30 


• * 


s. 


2 


b m 


30-13 


30-17 




59 


56 
55 


May. 






































55 




1 


Noon. 


VBLE. 


1 


b c m 


30-03 


30-07 




59 


56 
58-5 
59-5 


31-24 


2 




W. 


1 


com 


30-12 


30-19 




59 


59-5 
60 

58 


Off MaytenciJIo. 


3 


■' 


S.W. 


2 


ogm 


30-14 


30-23 




59 


58-5 
56-5 
57 '5 


Off Lengua de Vaea. 


4 




s. 


2 


c 


30-18 


30-24 




58 


58-5 

57-5 

58 


Herradura. 


5 


• • 


• • 


2 


c 


30-16 


30-25 




62 


58 
57 
56-5 


• > 


6 




N.N.W. 


2 


b 


30-13 


30-17 




59 


58 
56-5 


• • 


7 




N.W. 


2 


b 


30-10 


30-16 




60 




• • 


8 


• • 


— 





com 


30-24 


30-28 




56 




• • 


9 


• • 


W. 


4 


be 


30-21 


30-29 




61 




• • 


10* 


• • 


w.s.vv. 


4 


be 


30-23 


30-29 


56 


54-5 




.• 


11 


• • 




2 


be 


30-13 


30-25 


63 






«• 


12 


• • 


N.W. 


4 


c m 


30-09 


30-15 


56 


56 




• • 


13 


N.N.W. 


4 


c g 


30-23 


30-28 


58 


57 




• • 


• From this date used 


deck 


Barom, with 


a correction addec 


I of 0- 28, 


its avera 


ge dlff. fr 


om Cabin Barom. 














8 











4S 



ABSTRACT OF METEOKOLOGICAL JOURNAL. 



Day. 


Hour, 


Winds. 


Force 


Weather. 


Sympr. 


Barom. 


Attd. 
Ther. 


Temp. 
Air. 


Temp. 
Water. 


Locality. 


May, 


1835. 








Inches. 


Inches. 











Lat. S. Long.W. 


14 


Noon. 


N. N. E. 


1 


be 


30-21 


30-30 


63-5 






Herradura. 


15 




N. N. W. 


1 


beg 


30-16 


30-27 


64 


65 






16 




w.s.vv. 


4 


be 


30-14 


30-25 


63 


63 






17 


8 a.m. 


S.E. 


) 


e r 


30-16 


30-21 


57 


56 






18 


Noon. 


s. 


5 


b c V 


30-14 


30-26 


65 








19 




N.N.W. 


2 


b e V 


30-06 


30-14 


58 


57 






20 






1 


b c m 


30-10 


30-14 


58 


56 






21 




N.W. 


2 


c m 


30-06 


30-15 


57-5 


56-5 






22 




N. 


1 


com 


30 '09 


30-13 


57 


57 






23 






1 


beg 


30-21 


30-27 


60 


59 






24 




s.w. 


4 


be q 


30-13 


30-23 


62 


61 






25 




— 





cod 


30-20 


30-24 


57 


56 






26 









eg 


30-26 


30-28 


59-5 


58 






27 




w.s.w. 


4 


b c V 


30-10 


30-31 


63 


59 






28 






4 


be 


30-03 


30-26 


61 


60 






29 






2 


be 


30-16 


30-15 


60 


59 






30 




N.W. 


4 


be 


30-13 


30-23 


58 








31 




W.N.W. 


4 


be 




30-23 


61 


59 






June 






















1 




N. 


2 


e g w 


30-16 


30-26 


57-5 


67 






2 




N.N.W. 


4 


b c 


30-13 


30-18 


61 


59-5 






3 




S.W. 


4 


beg 


30-17 


30-29 


63 


61-5 






4 


.. 


N. N. W. 


2 


b c V 


30-18 


30-25 


61 








5 


.. 








eg 


3011 


30-16 


55-5 


56 






6 


9 A.M. 







com 


30-15 30-19 


55 


53-5 


55-5 




7 


Noon. 


•• 





m 


* 


30-25 


58 


56 


56 
57 




8 


• • 


S.S.E. 


5 


b m q 




30 -451 


58 


57 


55-5 
56 
60 


30-26 72-22 


9 


• • 


• • 


4 


b c q 




30-45 


59 


59 


60 

58-5 
61 


30-49 74-18 


10 


" ' 


* • 


4 


b e 




30-46 


61 


61 


62 
62 
62 


31-11 75-44 


11 


*■ 


S. 


4 


b c q 




30-41 


60 


59 


61-5 
58 
58 


31-22 74-55 


12 






2 


bch 




30-44 


59 


58 


56-5 

57 
56-5 


31-36 73-10 


13 


• • 


N.N.E. 


4 


8 ra 


30 -541 


30-47 


56 


56 


55-5 
55-5 

56 

54 


Off Pichidanque. 


14 


•• 


N. 


4 


og 


30-49 


30-44 


56 , 


54 


Valparaiso. 


15 


•• 


— 





eg 


30-56 


30-46 


56 


53 5 


52-5 
53-5 


.. 


16 


• • 


N. 




m r 


30-48 


30-46 


54-5 


53 




1 


17 




S.E. 




b c V 


30-50 


30-45 


56 








18 


• • 


N. 




b c 


.30-56 


30-44 


59 


58 






19 


•• 


N.E. 




eg 


30-39 


30-44 


58 


57 




1 


20 




N.W. 




beg 


30-50 


30-45 


58-5 


59 




1 


21 


•• 








b V 


30-58 


30-45 


61 


56 




,. 


22 


•• 


N.N.W. 


2 


b e V 


30-24 


30-44 


55-5 


54-5 




•• 


23 


6 A. jr. 


N. 


8 


bcgq 


30-11 


30-43 


56 


55 








Noon. 


N. 1). «•. 


9 


egq 


30-09 


30-44 


58-5 


57-5 














* Syi 


np. sent on board . 


Schooner 












f Baromet 


er tub 


e loose : use 


d it no more. 




t Nc 


w Sympr 





ABSTRACT OF METEOROLOGICAL JOURNAL. 



43 



Day 


] Hour. 

1 


Winds. 


Force 


Weather. 


Sympr. 


Barom. ^Ud. 

1 


Temp. 
Air. 


Temp. 
Water. 


Locality. 


June 


, 1835. 








Inches. 


Inches. 








Lat. S. Long.W, 


23 


6 P.M. 


N.N.E. 


9 


cgqp 


30-13 






54 




Valparaiso. 


24 


4 A. M. 


N.N.W. 


6 


c q p 1 


30-18 






55 




, , 


.. 


Noon. 


N. b. w. 


7 


cgq 


30-29 






56 




, , 


.. 


9 P.M. 


w. 


1 


b c q p 1 


30-45 






52-5 




^ _ 


•25 


Noon. 


w.s.w. 


2 


b c p 


30-62 






57 




• • 


26 




VBLE. 


1 


bv 


30-62 












27 




N. 


I 


b c 


30-50 






57 






28 


•• 


N.E. 


1 


eg 


30-69 






56-5 


54 
54-5 


• ■ 


29 


•• 


W. 


1 


b 


30-63 




59 




54 
55-5 


• • 


30 


. . 


s. 


6 


be q 


30-48 


30-26* 




60 


58-5 


30-17 73-23 


July. 


















59 




1 


'■ 


' • 


4 


ogq 


30-38 


30-17 


61 


57 


53-5 
58-5 
58-5 


27-41 71 "39 


2 


" 







ogm 


30-30 


30-12 


61 


58 


58-5 

58 

58-5 


Off Copiapo. 


3 


8 A.M. 


N. 


4 


bo 


30-34 


30-13 


60 


55-5 


57-5 
57-5 
56-5. 


Copiapo. 


4 


Noon. 


^~ 





eg 


30-34 


30-18 


62 




57 
57 


•• 


5 


•• 


s.s.w. 


4 


b c 


30-37 


30-18 


60 


57 


56-5 

57 

56-5 


-• • 


6 


8 a.m. 


s. 


I 


beg 


30-43 


30-24 


62-5 


56 


57 
57 


•• 


7 


2 P.M. 


VBLE. 


1 


ogm 


30-30 


30-13 


61-5 


58-5 


59-5 
60 


25-57 71*23 


8 


Noon. 







ogm 


30-28 


30-14 


62 


59 


60-5 
60-5 
60-5 


25-32 71-29 


9 


■■ 


VBLE. 


1 


og 


30-39 


30-24 


62 


58 


60-5 
61 
61-5 


24-43 71 "21 


10 


" • 


S. b. E. 


4 




30-44 


30-31 


63 


60 


62 

62 

62-5 


23-18 71-26 


u 


• • 


S.E.b.S. 


2 


c 


30-30 


30-18 


64-5 


61 


62-5 
61 
61 


20-49 70-54 






















12t 


• • 


VBLE. 


1 


ogm 


30-26 


30-14 


63-5 


60 


60-5 
59-5 
59-5 


Off Iquique. 


»3 




S. 


2 


be 


30-29 


30-18 


64-5 


62 


60 

59 '5 


Iquique. 


14 


•• 


S.S.W. 


4 


b c 


30-32 


30-20 


64-5 


61 


59-5 
58 
61 


• • 


15 


• • 


VBLE. 


2 


m 


30-34 


30-18 


64 


60 


62-5 
62-5 
62-5 


19-42 70-59 


16 


• • 


• • 


2 


m 


30-32 


30-22 


65 


62 


62-5 
61 -5 


18-47 72-19 










* Cabin Barometer. 












t July 12, 10-35 


A.M., felt the shock of an e 


arthquali 


e. 



u 



ABSTRACT OF METEOROLOGICAL JOURNAL. 



Day. 


Hour. 


Winds. 


Force 


Weather. 


Sympr. 


Barom. 


Attd. 
Ther. 


Temp. 
Air. 


?rr: ^°- 


LLITY. 






















Lat. S. 


Long.W. 


July, 


1835. 
















63 




17 


Noon. 


s. 


4 




30-32 


30-23 


65 -e 


62 


63 17-43 
62-5 
62-5 


73-55 


18 


• • 


S.E. 


4 


be 


30 '36 


30-28 


66 


63 


61-5 15-57 
60 
60-5 


76-20 


19 




■ * 


5 


be q p 


30-31 


30-18 


65 


61 


59-5 12-55 
60 

58-5 


77-19 


20 












30-20 


65 




60 Ca 
53-5 


llao. 


21 




s. 


4 


beg 


30-28 


30-21 


64 


62 






22 


, , 


w. 


1 


eg 


30-3' 


30-24 


65 


63 






23 


, , 


— 





beg 


30-26 


30-21 


64 


62-5 






24 




s. 


2 


be 


30-25 


30-20 


64-5 


61-5 






25 






4 


eg 


30-27 


30-19 


64 


61 






26 


, , 




1 


eg 


30-25 


30-18 


64 


61 -5 






27 


. , 


w. 


2 


be 


30-28 


30-21 


64 


63 






28 




s. 


5 


be 


30-30 


30-21 


65-5 


62-5 






29 




S.S.E. 


4 


beg 


30-32 


30-28 


66 


65 






30 


« • 




5 


beg 


30-37 


30-20 


66 " 


63 'o 






31 


.. 


s. 


4 


beg 


30-25 






62 






AUGD 


sr. 




















1 


• • 


W.N.W. 


1 


be 


30-21 


30-18 


66 


63-5 






2 




S.S.E. 


4 


eg 


30-21 


30-17 


66 


63-5 






3 




W.S.W. 


1 


eg 


30-25 


30-18 


65 


60-5 






4 




W. 


2 


eg 


30-24 


30-17 


65 


62 






6 


• • 


s. 


4 


be 


30-26 


30-21 


64-5 


65 






6 


• • 


• • 


5 


be 


30-26 


30-21 


65-5 


63-5 






7 


.. 


S.E. 


4 


b c g m 


30-18 


30-16 


66 


64 


58-5 




8 


.. 


N.W. 


2 


be 


30-20 


30-16 


65 


63 






9 


.. 


S. 


2 


beg 


30-23 


30-20 


65-5 


62 






10 


• • 


S.S.E. 


5 


beg 


30-26 






60-5 






11 


• ■ 


.. 


2 


beg 


30-23 


30-19 


65 


62 






12 


• • 


s. 


4 


b eg 


30-00* 


30-21 


65-5 


62 






13 


3 P.M. 


w. 


2 


be 


29-96 






65 






14 


Noon. 


s. 


4 


be 


29-97 






62 






15 


.. 


S.S.E. 


4 


beg 


29-97 






61 






16 


.. 


•• 


4 


beg 


29-96 






64-5 






17 


.. 


s. 


4 


b c m ; 29-94 






63 






18 


• • 


• • 


5 


c g ! 29-90 






62 






19 


• • 


w. 


2 


beg 29-85 


30-i4t 


63-5 


63 






20 


• • 


• ■ 


4 


b e 29-8.5 






61 -5 






21 




VBLE. 


1 


eg 1 29-81 






65 






22 


• • 


W.S.W. 


1 


beg 129-92 






63 






23 


• • 


S 


4 


c m vv ' 29-95 






63 






24 


9 A.M. 


S.S.E. 





b e g m 1 30-02 


30-25 




69 






25 


Noon. 


S. 


4 


b e 30-00 






59 






26 


• • 


•• 


2 


b eg 


29-93 






64 






27 










b eg 


29-85 






62 






28 


• • 


s.w. 


2 


beg 129-85 






61 






20 


•• 


s. 


4 


beg 


29-92 






63 






30 


•• 


.. 


5 


beg 


29-93 






63 






31 


• • 


W.N.W. 


- 2 


beg 


29-89 






62 






Sept 


EMBER. 




















1 


1 Noon. 


S.W. 


2 


b eg 


29-87 






63 




. 








* 12th August, changed Sympr. 




t 10 a 


M. 









ABSTIIACT OF METEOROLOGICAL JOURNAL. 


45 


Day. 

Septi 
2 


Hour. 


Winds. 


Force 


Weather. 


Sympr. 


Barom. 


Attd. 
Ther. 


Temp. 
Air. 


Temp. 
Water. 


Locality. 


;mber,1835. 
Noon. 


s. b. w. 


4 


be 


Inches. 
29-89 


Inches. 






63-5 





Lat. S. Long.W. 
Callao. 


1 3 


•• 


s. 


4 


beg 


29-90 






63 




^ , 


4 


9 A. M. 


S.S.E. 


4 


beg 


29 '96 


30-20 




61 






5 


Noon. 




4 


beg 


29-89 






61 -5 






6 


' • 


s.s.w. 


4 


beg 


29-96 






63 


57 
57* 


• • 


7 


• • 


S.S.E. 


4 


eg 


30-03 






61 


57-5 
58-5 
60-5 


a • 


8 


• • 


S.E. 


5 


e 


29-98 






64 


61-5 
60 

61 -5 


11-51 78-12 


9 


« • 


S.S.E. 


4 


ogm 


29-90 






64 


62 
63-5 
63-5 


9-58 79-42 


10 


10 A.M. 


S.E. 


2 


DC 


29-90 


30-16 




645 


64 
63 
64 

64-5 


8-09 81-19 


11 


Noon. 


S.S.E. 


4 


b c m 


t29-i7 






64 


6-52 83-19 




















64-5 






















64 




12 


• ' 


S E. 


2 


b c m 


29-12 






67 


64-5 
64-5 


5-05 84-31 


13 


•• 


• • 


4 


bom 


29-09 






68-5 


65-5 
66-5 


3-i8 85-49 


• ■• 


3 P.M. 




4 


b c m 


29-03 


30-07 


70-5 


67 


66-5 
65 




H 


10 A.M. 


• • 


4 


b e m 


29-12 


3o-i8t 


70-5 


67 


66-5 
66 


1-53 88-13 


15 


• • 


S. 


2 




29-12 


30-22 


71 


66 


67-5 
68-5 


1-07 89-01 


i6 


















67-5 




9 A.M. 


S.S.E. 


2 


b c m 




30-22 


70-5 




69-5 


Oif Bamngton Isl. 




















67 




1" 




S. b.E. 


2 


c mp d 


29-11 


30-20 


71 


68-5 


69-5 

70 'i^ 


/ Stephens Bay, 














/ 


/" 

70-5 


I. Chatham Island. 


i8 


















70-5 






S.S.E. 


5 


c mq 


30-09 


30-23 


72 


70 


70-5 


■ • 




















70 






















68-5 


' 


19 




• • 


4 


egm 


30-18 


30-26 


71-5 


68-5 


71-5 
71-5 
70-5 


Working round 
the Island. 


20 




" 


4 


be 


30-15 


30-24 


71-5 


70 


71 
67-5 




21 


• • 


VB LE. 


1 


beg 


30-11 


30-21 


72 


70-5 


63 
68-5 
68-5 


Stephens Bay. 


22 




N.W. 


2 


be 




30-21 


73 




70 

69-5 

69 


• • 


23 


10 .. 


VBLE. 


1 


egm 


30-07 


30-25 


74 


71 


66-5 
68-6 


• • 




* Fron 


1 Sept. 


7th, Temp 
t 


1 1 

erature of Water taken at 9 
Sept. lOth, changed Sympr. 


1 
A.M., l-30,and6p.M. 




• t 


Sept. 1 


4 th, Barom 


eter in cabin taken at 9 a.m. 


from this date. 

























46 



ABSTRACT OF METEOROLOGICAL JOURNAL. 



Day. 


Hour. 


Winds. 


Force 


Weather. 


Sympr. 


Barom. 


Attd. 
Ther. 


Temp. 
Air. 


Temp. 
Water. 


Locality. 


September, 1835 








Inches. 


Inches. 










67 

67-5 

66 

65-5 


Lat. Long.W. 


24 


10 A.M. 


S.E. 


4 


oc 


30-16 


30-23 


71-5 


68 


Off Charles Island. 


25 


9 •• 


S.S.E. 


4 


cog 


30-13 


30-23 


71-5 


69 


Post-oflBce Bay. 


26 




S.E. 


4 


b c q 




30-23 


72 


72 


65 


• • 




3 P.M. 




4 


bcgq 


29 '99' 


30-15 


73 


71-5 


64 




27 


6 A.M. 




4 


beg 


30-15 






65 


64-5 
63-5 


Black Beach Road. 


28 


9 A.M. 


S.S.E. 


4 


beg 


30-18 


30-27 


71 "5 


66-5 


63-5 

66-5 


; 


29 


, , 










30-22 


70-5 




62 


Albemarle Island. 


• • 


Noon. 


S.E. 


5 


bcgpq 


30-07 






67 


58-5 


s.w. extremity. 


•• 


3 P.M. 


•• 


6 


b e m q 


29 "97 


30-10 


70-5 


70 


63-5 
62 




30 


Noon. 


W.S.W. 


2 


ocg 


30-10 


30-19 


70-5 


66 


63-5 
65-5 


Elizabeth Bay. 


October. 




















1 


9 A.M. 


VBLE. 


1 


b c na 


30-13 


30-22 


70-5 


67 


63-5 

65-5 

62 


Tagus Cove. 


2 






1 


b e g m 


30-13 


30-22 


71 


67 


67-5 
66 

63 


• • 


3 


10 .. 


W. 


2 


bom 


30-10 


30-21 


71-5 


67 


66 
66 
67 


Banks Bay. 


4 


• • 


S.E. 


4 


be m q 


30-14 


30-22 




68 


69 

68-5 
68 


Off Abingdon Island. 


5 


•• 


S. 


4 


c m (1 


30-07 


30-23 


71-5 


67 


67-5 
68-5 


•• 


6 


• > 


S.E. 


4 


oh 


30-10 


30-21 


71 


69 


67-5 
68-5 

69 
70-5 


f Off Towers (or 
\ Douwes) Island. 


7 


• • 


S. 


4 


ocg 


30-12 


30-20 


71 


66-5 


68-5 
66-5 
64-5 


OffBindloes Island. 


8 


9 •• 










30-22 


70 


68 


66 

65-5 
67 


James Island. 


9 


•• 








be 


30-07 


30-21 


72 


66 


69 
67 
67 


•• 










* 










1 


10 




S.E. 


4 


oc 


30-14 


30-24 


70-5 


65 


68-5 
69 


• • 


11 




S. 


4 


c p 


30-12 


30-25 


72 


67 


66-5 
68-5 


Chatham Island. 


12 




S.S.E. 


2 


be g m 


30-09 


30-22 


72 


69 


69 

68-5 

71 


• • 


13 


■■ 


S. 


4 


m p d 


30-06 


30-20 


72 


67 


70 
70 
70 


• • 


14 


■■ 


S.S. . 


4 


oc q 


30-08 


30-21 


72-5 


68 


68-5 
69 
66-5 


Hood Island. 


15 


Noon. 


s. 


5 


c gq m 


30-04 


30-17 


72 


69 


65-5 
64-5 


Post-office Bay. 






















i 



ABSTRACT OF METEOROLOGICAL JOURNAL. 



47 



Day. Hour. 



October, IS-TS. 
16 I 10 A.M. 



17 



19 



20 



22 10 

23 
24 

25 
26 
27 
28 

29 

30 

31 
November. 



10 .. 



10 A.M. 



1 

Winds, 


Force 


Weather. 


S.E. 


4 


c m q 


S. 


4 


be 


S.E. 


2 


bch 


VBLE. 


4 


b c m 


S. 


2 


b c m 


•• 


4 


c q p 


VBLE. 


2 


bcgp 


S.E. 


1 


c p q 


•• 


4 


c q 


• • 


4 


b c q 


E.S.E. 


4 


be 


E. b. N. 


4 


be 


• • 


4 


be 


E. 


4 


be 




4 


bch 


•• 


4 


be q 


E. b. S. 


5 


b c q h 


E.N.E. 


4 


be 


N.E. b. E. 


4 


b e 


E.N.E. 


5 


be 


N.E. 


4 


b e q 



Inches. 
30-07 

30-10 
30-00 
30-98 
30-98 
30-02 
30-04 
30-07 
30-04 

30 "09 
30-03 

29 '99 



Barom. 



Inches. 
30-23 

30-22 
30-19 
30-16 
30-16 
30-17 
30-19 
30-22 
30-18 
30-18 

30-19 
30-18 



I 
29-95 30-16 



29 '95 

29-95 
29-99 

30-00 

29-88 

29-89 

29-86 
29-84 



30-19 

30-20 
30-22 

30-23 
30-19 

30-19 

30-17 
30-15 



Attd. 


Temp. 


Temp. 


Ther. 


Air. 


Water. 











72-5 


69 


65 
65-5 
68-5 


72-5 


67 


68 
66 
66 


72 


70 


69 
70-5 
68-5 


73 


69 


72 
73 
73 


74-5 


72 


75 

75 

74-5 


75 


71 


74-5 

74 

71-5 


74-5 


70 


70-5 
66-5 

65 


73 


66 


66 

66 

66-5 


7-^-5 


68 


67-5 
67-5 
67-5 


72-5 


69 


67-5 

68 

68-5 


73 


70 


70 
70 
70-5 


73-5 


72 


70-5 
71 

72 


73-5 


74 


73-5 
73-5 
72-5 


75 


73 


72-5 

73 

74-5 


76 


75 


73-5 
73-5 


76-5 


73 


74-5 


77 


78 


75-5 
75-5 


77-5 


79 


76-5 
76 
76 


7B-5 


77 


76-5 
76-5 
76-5 


78-5 


77 


77 
77 


80 


79 


77-5 



Locality. 



Lat. Long.W. 

Post-office Bay. 

( Albemarle Island, 
\ East side. 

/ Off James Island 
\_ Sugar-loaf. 

/ Close to Abingdon 
\^ Island. 

Off Wenman Islet. 



0-51 N. 93-03 

0-23 N. 96-53 

0-305. 99-04 

1-47S. 100-19 

3-04 s. 102-15 

4-54 104-34 

6-32 107-00 

7-18 109 48 

7-49 112-06 

8-34 114-34 

9-26 117-39 

10-14 120-35 

11-03 123-27 

11-39 125-36 

11-56 128-03 

12-44 130-42 



48 



ABSTRACT OF METEOROLOGICAL JOURNAL. 



Day. 


Hour. 


Winds. 


Force 


Weather. 


Sympr. 


Barom. 


Attd. 
Ther. 


Temp. 
Air. 


Temp. 
Water. 


Locality. 


NOVE 


MBEB, 1833- 








Inches. 


Inches. 









77*5 


Lat. S. Long.W.^ 


6 


10 A.M. 


N.b.E. 


4 


b C q 


29-86 


30*17 


80 


77 


78 
77*5 
77*5 


13*26 132*49 


7 


Noon. 


N. 


4 


be 


29-82 


30-17 


81 


79 


77*5 
76*5 

77 


14*05 134*43 


8 


8 a.m. 


N. N. E. 


2 


og q t 1 r 


29*92 


30*19 


80 


74 


77*5 

77*5 

78 


14-24 136-51 


9 


10 .. 


•• 


4 


c p 


29-80 


30-14 


80 


76 


77 
77 


14*38 138-44 




11 .. 




6 


q r 






























76*5 




10 


10 .. 




5 


c q p 


29-84 


30-10 


78*5 


73 


77 
77 

77 


15*13 139-54 


11 


•• 


N. b. E. 


4 


b c 


■29-85 


30*14 


79 


76 


77*5 
78 
78 


15-24 141*26 






















12 


•• 


Z.N.E. 


4 


be 


29-86 


30-20 


80-5 


78 


78-5 

78-5 


15-23 143*22 


13 


2 A.M. 




4 


q rl t 


29-82 






77 


77*5 




• • 


10 .. 




4 


b c q 


29*92 


30*24 


81 


80 


78 


15-44 145-12 




4 P.M. 


E. 


4 


be 


29-83 


30*16 


81*5 


78 


77*5 

77*5 




14 


9 A.M. 


E. b. N 


4 


b c m 


29 '93 


30*23 


81 


77 


77*5 
77 


16-46 147*47 


15 


10 .. 


•• 


5 


b c m 


29*92 


30*25 


81 


78 


76-5 
77*5 


Matavai Bay. 


i6* 






















17 


9 •• 


E. 


4 


b c q 


29 '89 


30*27 


80-5 


79 . 






18 


• • 


VEI.E. 


2 


b eg 


29*92 


30-22 


80-5 


75 




.. 


>9 


10 .. 


S.E. 


2 


be 


29-82 


30-19 


81 


81 


78 
79 


Papawa Cove. 


20 




N.E. 


2 


b c m 


29*80 


30*13 


80 


78 


• ■ 




















78*5 




21 




VBLE. 


1 


c g 


29*78 


.30*15 


80-5 


76 


76*5 


Matavai Bay. 


22 


• • 




1 


c rn t 


29-76 


30*12 


78-5 


79 


77*5 




23 


•• 


■ • 


1 


oe 


29-78 


30*13 


79 


80 




• ■ 


24 


•• 


E. b. N. 


4 


b c p 


29*76 


30*14 


79 


77 




.. 


25 


* • 


S.E. 


4 


b e q 


29*76 


30*11 


79 


78 


78-5 


• • 


26 




S.W. 


1 


be 


2970 






78 


78 

77*5 

77 


Port Papiete. 


27 


• a 


S.S.E. 


4 


b e m 


29*71 


30-07 


81 


77 


78*5 

77*5 
77*5 


17-14 150-31 


23 




S. 


1 


bv 


29*69 


30-09 


80 


77 


79 
78 
77*5 


17*17 152-15 


29 




E. b. N. 


4 


be 


29*67 


30-07 


80-5 


80 


78-5 
78-5 

77*5 


17-25 153*24 


30 


• • 


N.E. 


2 


be 


29-70 


30*05 


81-5 


80 


79*5 
78*5 


17-54 155-00 








» CaUe 


d this day Tuesda 


y 17th N 


ov. 







i 



ABSTRACT OF METEOROLOGICAL JOURKAL. 



49 



1 

Day.' Hour. 

1 


Winds. 


Force 


Weather. 


i 
Symp r 


Batom. 


Attd. 
Ther. 


Temp. 

Air. 


Temp. 

Water. 


Locality. 


DbCembbr, 1835. 








Inches. 


Inches. 









77-5 


Lat. S. 


Long.W. 


1 


10 A.M. 


S.E. 


2 


b c 


29-64 


30-05 


8i-5 


79 


79 

78-5 

78 


18-16 


156-56 


2 


" • 


• • 


1 


b c V 


30-04* 


30-10 


81-5 


77 


80 
79-5 

77-5 


18-35 


158-13 


3 


•• 


•■ 


4 


be 


30-22 


30-19 


82 


81 


78-5 
78 


18-57 


159-44 


4 


• • 


E.b. N. 


4 


beg 


30-28 


30-18 


81 


78 


77-5 

77 


20-00 


162-29 


5 


• • 


K.E. 


4 


b c 


30-19 


30-16 


81 


77 


78-5 

78-5 
78 


21-00 


164-55 


6 


• * 


N.E. b. E. 


4 


b c 


30-20 


30-19 


82 


79 


77-5 
75-5 

75-5 


22-02 


167-00 


7 


• • 


E. 


4 


be 


30-26 


30-20 


81-5 


78-5 


75-5 

74-5 

73 


22-58 


169-39 


8 


• • 


• • 


5 


oep 


30-30 


30-18 


80 


74 


73-5 
73 
71-5 


23-56 


172-00 


9 


• " 


E. b. N. 


4 


ocp 


30-28 


30-13 


77-5 


71 


69-5 
69-5 

72 


24-51 


174-27 


10 


• • 


E.S.E. 


6 


be 


30-31 


30-13 


76-5 


73 


70-5 
69 
68 


26-00 


177-50 


11 


• • 


E. b. S. 


4 


be 


30 "36 


30-16 


73 


68-5 


68-5 
68 
67 


28-08 


179-52 


12 


• • 


E.S.E. 


1 


be 


30-32 


30-15 


72-5 


67 


71-5 

69-5 

68 


29-44 


178-44' 


13 


• • 


S.S.E. 


5 


be 


30-43 


30-13 


70-5 


64 


68-5 

69 

65-5 


30-13 


177-06 


14 


• * 


S.E. 


2 


b eq 


30-55 


30-29 


69-5 


66 


66-5 

66-5 

66 


31-46 


175-42 


15 


• • 


E.S.E. 


2 


be q 


30-60 


30-33 


69-5 


65 


66-5 

66-5 

66 


32-51 


174-11 


i6 


• • 


S. 


4 


be 


30-46 


30-19 


70 


64 


66 
65-5 


33-i8 


175-01 


17 


.. 


S.W. 


7 


b c q 


30-27 


29-92 


67 


61 


64-5 


34-20 


175-36 


• • 


4 P.M. 


•• 


6 


be q 


30-12 


29-79 


69 


61-5 


64 

63-5 

63 






18 


10 A.M. 


s. b. E. 


7 


be q 


30-37 


29-94 


67 


57 


63 
63-5 


34-26 


174-57 


»9 


2 .. 


•• 


8 


be q 


30-36 






5B 


62-5 






• ■ 


10 .. 




4 


b e q 


30-44 


30-07 


65-5 


60 


62-5 
63 


34-28 


174-33 




* 1 


St Decembe 


•, P.M., set Sympr. 


three ten 


ths highe 


r. 





50 



ABSTRACT OF ^[ETROROLnGICAL JOURNAL, 



Day. 
Dece 


Hour. 


Winds. 


Force 


Weather. 


Sympr. 


Barom. 


Attd. 
Tlier. 


Temp. 
Air. 


1 
WS. LOCALITV. 


UBER,1835. 








Inches. 


Inches. 









60-5 


Lat. S. 


Long.E. 


20 


Noon. 


VBLE. 


5 


bcq 


30-46 


30-16 


67 


62 


62-5 

61-5 
62 


3517 


174-17 


21 


10 a.m. 








b c m 


30*60 


30-30 


68 


66 


63-5 
63 


Bay of Islands. 
New Zealand. 




















61-5 




■ 


22 


Noon 


s. 


1 


be m 


30-61 


30-35 


68 


69 


65-5 
63-5 


, 


• • 


23 


• • 


N. N. E. 


4 


b cm 


30-53 






68 


63-5 
66-5 




• • 


24 


10 A.M. 


N. 


2 


b c 


30-50 


30-27 


70 


67 






• • 


25 




VBLE. 


1 


o c r 


30-53 


30-27 


70-5 


66 






• • 


26 


Noon. 


E.S. E. 


2 


bcin 


30-63 






65 






, , 


27 


10 A.M. 


S.E. 


4 


b c 


30-70 


30-41 


68 


64 






, , 


2B 






4 


b c 


30-69 


30-45 


68 


64 






• • 


29 


Noon. 


E.S.E. 


4 


bcq 


30-60 






65 






, , 


30 


10 a.m. 


E. 


4 


b c 


30-41 


30-19 


69 


65 


66 




• • 




4 P.M. 


E.N.E. 


5 


be 


30-32 


30-06 


695 


62 


65-5 
63-5 








Midt. 


K.E. 


8 


oqgr 


30-10 






63 








31 


4 a.m. 




10 


ocqr 


29-98 






65 


63 






• • 


lO . , 


• • 


5 


o c p 


30-01 


29-74 


70-5 


65 


635 


34-15 


17304 


•• 


4 P.M. 


• • 


I 


c p 


30-00 


29-75 


72 


65 


63 






January, 1836. 








































64 






1 


10 A.M. 


N. 


4 


be 


30-20 


29-95 


70-5 


65 


58-5 

65 

65-5 


Off Three Kings. 
























2 


4 p.\'. 


VEI.E. 


4 


be 


30-04 


29-85 


71-5 


67 


64-5 

64 

62-5 


34*21 


170-02 


3 


10 a.m. 


W". 


4 


be 


30-10 


29-85 


70-5 


64 


63-5 
64 
63 


35-05 


168-29 


4 




s. 


5 


b c q p 


30-20 


29-90 


69 


64 


64-5 
64-5 
655 


34-51 


166-32 


5 


• • 


N.E. 


I 


e 


30-37 


30-12 


70 


64 


67-5 

67 

66-5 


34-21 


16505 


6 


■■ 


E. 


1 


b c 


30 -iS 


30-13 


71 


68 


68 
67-5 

67 
66-5 


34-18 


164-28 


7 




N. 


2 


be 


30-36 


30-16 


72-5 


67 


34-27 


162-57 




















69-5 
























70 






8 


•• 


N.W. 


5 


bcq 


30-20 


30-06 


73 •£ 


72 


67-5 


35-10 


160-21 




















68-5 ; 






















68-5 




9 


Noon 


S. 


4 


c r 


30-16 


29-95 


73 


64 


67 34-56 
67-5 


158-51 


lO 


2 A.M. 


• • 


8 


bcq 


30-22 






63 


68-5 , 




•• 


Noon. 


•• 


6 


b c qg 


30-30 


30-02 


71 


68 


73 33-46 


156-13 


' * 


4 P.M. 


s. b. £. 


7 


bcq 


30-28 


30-02 


69-5 


67 


71-5 
67-5 






11 


10 A.M. 


• • 


4 


bcq 


30-36 


30-13 


68 


64 


68 34-14 


153-23 


















68 





ABSTKACT OF METEOROLOGICAL JOURNAL. 



^1 



Day. 


Hour. 


Winds. 


Force 


Weather. 


Syinpr. 


Barom. 


Attd. 
Ther. 


Temp. 
Air. 


Temp. 
Water. 


Locality. 












Inches. 


Inches. 










Lat. S. Long.W. 


Janu 


ARY, 1836. 
















68-5 




12 


Noon. 


£. 


2 


be 




29-99 


71-5 




70-5 
70-5 


Sydney Cove. 


»3 


9 A.M. 


S. 


1 


eg tip 


30-19 


30-04 


71-5 


63 






14 


, , 


s.s.w. 


2 


cgP 


30-20 


30-03 


72 


64 






15 




N. 


2 


beg 


29-87 


29-79 


73-5 


70 






Itf 


, , 


s. 


2 


be 


29-95 


29-81 


69 


66 






17 




w.s. w. 


4 


be 


30-01 


29-84 


68-5 


65 




.. 


18 




VULE. 


1 


eg 


30-21 


30-08 


71-5 


69 




• ■ 


19 


a • 


N.E. 


1 


eg 


30-25 


30-12 


72 


69 






20 


• > 


, , 


1 


be 


29-86 


29-84 


74 


72 






21 




VBLE. 


1 


beg 


29-83 


29-80 


75 


72-5 






22 


. . 


E.N.E, 


2 


be 


30-15 


30-06 


76 


72 




a a 


•23 


• . 


N.E. 


5 


beg 


30-37 


30-22 


73-5 


72 






24 




N.W. 


2 


be 


29 '97 


29-96 


74 


72 




.a 


•25 


. • 


S.E. 


4 


eg p d 


30-40 


30-16 


72 


63 






26 


6 A.M. 


S.S.W. 


1 


b c 


30-56 






58-5 






27 


9 a.m. 


N.N.W. 


1 


beg 


30-69 


130-43 


71-6 


64 




a • 


28 




VV. N. W. 


1 


bcgp 


30-63 


30-41 


71-5 


63 




•a 


'•29 


•• 


N.E. by E. 


2 


be 


30-37 


30-25 


72-5 


67 


71 
70-5 


•• 


30 


Noon. 


N.E. 


4 


b c 


30-21 


30-16 


74 


70 


Port Jackson. 




















69-5 






















68 




31 


10 A.M. 


N. 


4 


m 


30-24 


30-18 


73-5 


70 


68 
67-5 


36-32 151 17 


Febr 


UARV. 




















1 


10 A.M. 


N. 


6 


c u p 


29-78 


29-73 


73 


67 


62-5 






Noon. 




9 




29-70 


29-58 


74-5 


67 


62 


39-19 150-22 




2 P.M. 


N. b. E. 


10 


e q m 














. . 


4 .. 


N. b. W. 


5 


c q m 


29-75 


29-61 


74 


65 


59-5 







2 A.M. 


W.N.W. 


8 


be q 


29-89 






57 


56-5 
58 




* * 


10 .. 


• • 


5 


b e V 


29-92 


29-66 


63 


56 


57-5 

57 

57 '5 


42-01 149-21 


3 


•• 


VBLE. 


4 


b c q 


30-22 


29'94 


64 


56 


58 


42-48 14956 


4 




W.N.W. 


4 


b e q 


♦29-64 


29*55 


65 


56 


56-5 




.. 


4 p. M. 


W. 


5 


b e q p 


29-62 


29'54 


64-5 


56 


56-5 


Van Diemen's Land. 


• • 


Midt. 


W.N.W. 


6 


b e q 1 


29-72 






50 


57 
56-5 




5 


10 A.M. 


W. 


5 


b e q p 


29-76 


29-65 


63 


51 


57*5 

57 


Storm Bay. 


6 




VBLEa 


2 


b c q 


29-82 


29 '74 


62 


61 




Hobart Town. 


7 


9 A.M. 


S.W. 


4 


beg 


30-25 


30-14 


62-5 


53 




a. 


8 




VBLE. 


1 


eg 


30-52 


30-41 


62-5 


56 




aa 


9 






I 


be 


30-55 


30-47 


64 


60 




.'. 




Noon. 


S. E. 


5 


be 


30-52 


30-46 


64 


63 




■ • 


10 


9 A.M. 


N.E. 


2 


be 


30-49 


30-42 


63 


58 




• • 


11 


a . 


N.N.W, 


4 


be 


30-14 


30-19 


65-5 


67 




• ■ 


12 




S.E. 


4 


b e g m 


30-09 


30-08 


68 


63 




• ■ 


13 


.a 


E. 


1 


beg 


29-97 


30-03 


66-5 


64 






>4 


Noon. 


N.N.W. 


6 


bcq 


29-55 


29-77 


69 


74 






• , 


4 P.M. 


N.W. b. N. 


7 


be q 


29 "47 


29-71 


69-5 


76 




.. 


•• 


9 •• 


S.E. 


7 


be q 1 1 29-67 






69 




•• 










* Feb. 3, P.M., Hympr. set tv 


vo tenths 


lower. 







52 



ABSTRACT OK METEOROLOGICAL JOURNAL. 



Day. 


Hour. 


Winds. 


Force 


Weather. 


Sympr. 


Barom. 


Attd. 
Ther. 


Temp. 

Air. 


Temp. 
Water. 


Locality 


Feer 


UARY, 1836. 








Inches. 


Inches. 











Lat. S. 


Long.W. 


15 


9 A.M. 


N.W. b N. 


2 


beg 


2978 


29-76 


68 


55-5 




Hobart Town. 1 


16 


• • 


N.W. 


5 


be 


30 'CO 


30-01 


66 


61 


57-5 

59-5 

59 




• • 


17 


• • 




2 


CgP 


30-11 


30-08 


67-5 


59-5 


59-5 
58-5 
57-5 




• • 


18 


10 A.M. 


N. 


4 


be 


30-46 


30-28 


65 


58 


57-5 
56 -.5 


43-58 


147-58 


'9 


, , 


N. E. b N. 


2 


od 


29-86 


29-89 


66 


59 


56 


44-07 


145-14 




4 P.M. 


N. 


4 


c p 


29-86 


29-85 


67 


56-5 


54-5 






•• 


6 .. 


S. 


7 


00 m p q 


29-95 






55 


56 

55 






20 


10 A.M. 


VBLE. 


4 


e q 


30-12 


30-00 


62-5 


54 


43-03 


143-35 




















55 
























53-5 






21 


•• 


VBLE. 


2 


be 


30 '32 


30-16 


62 


51 


54 
54 


42-55 


142-03 


22 


•• 


E. 


4 


be 


30-37 


30-26 


62 


54 


54-5 
54-5 


42-29 


139-46 


23 


• • 


N.E. 


5 


ogm 


29-96 


30*92 


63-5 


56 


54 

53 

52-5 


42-06 


135-27 


24 


• • 


X. N. W. 


4 


c u g 


29-84 


30-73 


61-5 


52 


53-5 

54 
53-5 


41-45 


133-49 


25 


" • 


S.S.E. 


1 


b V 


29-85 


30-77 


61-5 


54 


55 

55 

53-5 


41-28 


132-29 


26 


• " 


s s.vv. 


4 


bom 


30-07 


29-94 


62 


55-5 


56-5 

56 

55-5 


40-56 


130-54 


27 


* • 







oe 


30-22 


30-14 


62 


56 


55 
54-5 
55-5 


40-34 


129-01 


28 


• • 


VBLE. 


6 


c d 


30-05 


30*00 


62-5 


56 


56 
55-5 
56-5 


40-13 


127-05 


29 


•• 


•• 


1 


c p 


29-92 


29-88 


61 


50 


56-5 
57-5 


39-38 


125-29 


March. 








































58 






1 




VBLE. 


4 


c 


30-34 


30-16 


61 


55 


58 
58-5 
57-5 


38-02 


124-38 


2 




N. W. b. N. 


4 


be 


30-41 


30-27 


62 


58 


57 

57-5 

59 


39-26 


123-56 


3 




VBLE. 


2 


be 


30-45 


30-36 


63 


59 


59 
58-5 
58-5 


38-03 


123-20 


4 




■■ 


1 


ocg 


30-36 


30-33 


64-5 


60 


59-5 

60-5 

62 


37-39 


122-67 


5 




N.N.E. 


4 


be m 


29-93 


29-96 


67 


65 


64 
63 
63-5 


36-49 


120-41 


6 




VBLE. 


4 


b c q 


30-16 


30-10 


64-5 


61-5 


65-5 


King George Sound. | 




















66-5 




1 



ABSTllACT OF METEOROLOGICAL JOURNAL. 



53 



Day 


Hour. 


Winds. 


Force 


Weath er. 


Sympr. 


Barom. 


Attd. 
Ther. 


Temp. 
Air, 


Temp. 
Water. 


Locality, 


Mar 


:h, 183C. 






Inches. 


Inches. 











Lat. S. 


Long. E. 1 


7 


10 A.M. 


E.S.E. 


5 


be 


30-13 


30-19 


66-5 


63-5 


66-5 


King George Sound. | 


8 


9 •• 


S.E. 


4 


be 


30-09 


30-21 


67 


66 








9 






4 


b c q 


29-80 


30-02 


68-5 


68 






• • 


10 


Noon. 


W.N.W. 


6 


b c q 


2q-68 


29-83 


70 


70 








, , 


6 P.M. 


w. s. w. 


7 


be q 


29-78 






60 








11 


9 A.M. 


VBLE. 


1 


^g 


29-93 


29-99 


70 


63 






• • 


12 


•• 


W.N.W. 


5 


eg qp 


30-19 


30-12 


67 


53-5 


62-5 




« * 


13 




s.w. 


6 


b e qp 


30-18 


30-16 


65 


59 


62-5 

62-5 

64 




■ • 


14 


•• 


s. 


4 




30-45 


30-32 


64-5 


56 


65 
65-5 




* « 












i 






64 






'5 


10 .. 


VBLE. 


2 


b e q 


30-48 30-37 


66 


58-5 


62 
62 




• • 




















65-5* 






16 




E. 


2 


be 


30-41 


30-40 


65-5 


62 


67-5 
66-5 

63-5 


35 '34 




17 


• • 


N.E. b. N. 


4 


b V 


30-13 


30-20 


67-5 


65 


68-5 
64 
66 


35-02 


114-00 
























i8 


• • 


VJILE. 


1 


b m 


30-03 


,30-11 


69-5 


66 


69-5 

68-5 

66 


34-32 


113-39 


19 


• • 


W. b. N. 


4 


b eq 


30-14 


30-17 


70 


65 


66 
65-5 
67-5 


32-43 


112-58 


20 


• * 


s. 


4 


be 


30-27 


30-29 


69-5 


64 


68-5 

67-5 

69 


30-34 


111-14 


21 


.. 


s. b. E. 


5 


b e p 


30-30 


30-35 


69-5 


67 


68-5 

71 

72 


28-08 


109-31 
























22 




S.E. b. s. 


5 


b cq 


30-18 


30-30 


72 


71 


72 
71-5 
73-5 


25-38 


107-27 


23 




S S.E. 


5 


b e 


30-00 


30-22 


73-5 


74 


74 
73-5 
73-5 


23-08 


105-51 


24 


• • 


E.S.E. 


4 


b m 


29-96 


30-22 


76-5 


75 


75-5 
75-5 
75-5 


20-56 


104-22 


25 




S.E. 


4 


be 


29-94 


30-23 


78 


76 


76 
76 
76-5 


18-44 


103-00 


26 


•• 


•• 


5 


b c m 


29-88 


30-17 


79 


76 


77-5 
78 


16-03 


101-17 


27 


• • 




7 


ocm q 


2975 


30-07 


80-5 


77 


79 '5 


13-22 


99 '07 


.. 


4 P.M. 


.. 


7 


b c q 


29-63 


29-98 


82 


81 


79 "5 
79 






28 


10 A.M. 


, . 


8 


e q p 


29-70 


29 '98 


82 


75-5 


78-5 


12-28 


97*49 


• • 


4 P.M. 




7 


ocm q p 


29-62 


29*92 


81 


79 








29 


10 A.M. 


S. 


7 


c m q 


29-64 


29-96 


81 


78 


78-5 








Noon. 


S.W. 


6 


c m qp 


29-61 


29-88 




78 


79 


12-25 


97-31 


* • 


8 P.M. 


• • 


8 


cmq p 


29-66 






75 


78-5 








» 16th Marc 


h, 6a. 


M., passed tl 


irough a remarkat 


le tideri] 


jplB) or m 


eeting o£ 


waters. 





























54 



ABSTRACT OF METEOROLOGICAL JOURNAL. 



Day. 


Hour. 


Winds. 


Force 


Weather. 


Sympr. 


Barom. 


Attd. 
Ther. 


Temp. 
Air. 


Temp. 
Water. 


I 

Locality. 


vr ' -~- 








Inche s 


Inches. 











Lat. S. 


Lo.ig. E. 


Marc 


H, isae. 
















78-5 






30 


10 A.M. 


w.b. N. 


4 


c q p 


2971 


30-02 


81-5 


76 


79 
78-5 
78-5 


11 "49 


9'3o 


31 




N.W. 


4 


be 


2970 


30-04 


82 


79 


79 


12-18 


97'15 


April 


















79 "5 

78-5 

80 






1 


•• 


N.E. 


2 


be 


29 '75 


30-09 


82-5 


80 


12-08 


97-01 


2 


• • 


E.S.E. 


I 


b c m 


2978 


30'i5 


82-5 


81 


79 '5 
82-5 


Keeling 


Island. 


3 


9 A.M. 


, ^ 


4 


be 


29-82 


30-18 


82 


80 




, 


, 


4 


• w 


E. 


4 


b e 


29-86 


30-22 


82-5 


80 




, 


. 


5 


8 .. 


E. b. s. 


6 


b eq 


29-84 


30-21 


82 


80 


79-5 








Noon. 


E.S.E. 


6 


b e q 


29-81 


30-20 


82-5 


81 


80 


. 


. 


.. 


6 P.M. 




6 


bcgq 


29-78 


3015 


82-5 




79-5 






6 


8 A.M. 


• • 


7 


be q m 


29-83 


30 -2 1 


82 


79 


78-5 




1 
1 


• • 


Noon. 




7 


b c q m 


29-83 


30-21 


82 


80 


79-5 


. 


' 


■ • 


6 p. M. 


• ■ 


7 


b c q m 


29-81 


30-18 


82-5 


79 


79-5 






7 


6 A.M. 




8 


b c q 


29-87 














• • 


9 •• 




7 


b c q ra 


29-87 


30-23 


82 


79 




. 




8 


Noon. 


S.E. b.E. 


7 


b e ni q 


29-81 


30-23 


82 


80 








9 


9 A.M. 




6 


b c q mp 


29-85 


30-20 


81 -5 


79 




. 


. 


10 


. , 




5 


b c q m 


29-84 


30-18 


81-5 


78-5 




. 


• 


11 


Noon. 


. . 


5 


b c q m 


29-80 


30-17 


81* 


79 




. 


. 


12 


9 a.m. 


•• 


5 


b c g qp 


29-82 


30-16 


80-5 


78 


78-5 


• 


• 


13 


10 .. 


E.S.E. 


4 


be 


2974 


30-14 


81-5 


79 


79 

79 

78-5 


12-12 


94.38 


14 


.. 


, , 


4 


b e p 


29-80 


30-16 


81 


76 


12-37 


92-19 




















78-5 






15 


* • 


E. b. s. 


4 


be 


29-76 


30-11 


81 


79 


78-5 

79 

79 
79 '5 


12-59 


89-56 


16 


, , 


E. 


2 


b c m 


29-72 


30-11 


82 


80 


i3"23 


87-41 




















79 '5 
























79 






17 


• • 


E.S.E. 


4 


b c 


2976 


30-12 


81 -5 


78 


79 '5 
79 

77-5 


14-04 


85-44 


18 




E. 


1 


qep 


29-84 


30-10 


82 


74 


78 

78 

78-5 


14 '37 


83-07 


19 




S.E. 


5 


b c q 


29-81 


30-11 


80 


77 


79 
78-5 
78 


i5'i8 


So'io 


20 




E.S.E. 


5 


be 


2973 


30-15 


81-5 


79 


78-5 

78-5 

78 


16-02 


76-50 


21 




S.E. 


5 


ocpq 


29-76 


30-11 


81-5 


80 


79 '5 
79 

77'5 


16-48 


73-37 


22 


• • 


N.E. 


2 


b 


2975 


30-16 


82 


79 


79 
78-5 


17-28 


71-36 


23 




E.b. N. 


2 


b e m 


2977 


30-16 


82-5 


79 


78-5 
78-5 


17-39 


69-49 


24 


• • 


• » 


2 


b e V 


29-81 


30-20 


82-5 


80 


79 '5 


17 05 


67-58 










1 








79 










* Api 


il nth, lost Setf-regiBtering T 


iiennome 


ter in sou 


nding. 





AnStRACT OF METEOROLOGICAL JOURNAL. 



55 



Day. 


Hour. 


Winds. 


Force 


Weatlier. 


Sympv. 


Barom. 


Attd. 
Tiier. 


Temp. 
Air. 


Temp. 
Water. 


Locality. 


April. 1835. 








Inches. 


Indies 










79 

78-5 


Lat. S. 


Lat. E. 


25 


10 A.M. 


s. 


4 


b c u g 


29-82 


30-18 


82-5 


79 


i8-i8 


66-39 




















78-5 
























78-5 






26 




■■ 


4 


be 


29-85 


30-20 


81 


78 


78-5 
78 
78 


18-33 


64-14 


27 




S.S.E. 


2 


be 


29-85 


30-21 


80-5 


78 


78-5 
78 
78-5 


18-32 


61-50 


28 




S.E. 


2 


be 


29-89 


30-23 


81 


77 


79 
78-5 


19-30 


59-44 


29 


•• 


•• 


4 


b c p q 


29-88 


30-23 


81 


78 


78-5 
78 


Mauritius. 


30 


9 •• 


s.w. 


2 


bop 


29-84 


30-16 


79 


76 




Port Louis. 


.. 


Noon. 


E. 


4 


be 


29-81 


30-15 




78 




, 


, 


May. 






















I 


9 A.M. 


S.E. 


5 


be 


29-89 


30*22 


79-5 


78 








2 




S. E. b. E. 


5 


beq 


29-95 


30-23 


78-5 


78 








3 


Noon. 


E.S.E. 


2 


be 


29-81 


30-22 


79-5 


81 








4 


9 A. 31. 








be 


29-89 


30-23 


79 


77 








5 


.• 


E.N.E. 


2 


be 


29-91 


30-21 


78 


76 








6 




S.E. 


2 


beq 


29-96 


30-24 


77-5 


75 








7 


•• 




2 


be 


29-95 


30-31 


77-6 


76 








8 




S.S.E. 


5 


beq 


30-05 


30-37 


77-5 


76 








' 9 


• • 


S.E. b. S. 


4 


be 


30*06 


30-39 


77-5 


75 








10 


10 .. 


S.E. 


5 


b c qp 


30-12 


30-38 


78-5 


74 


77-5 
76 


20-15 


'55-08 


11 


•• 


.. 


5 


b c q p 


30-16 


30*45 


78 


76 


76 

76-5 

76 


21-57 


52-06 


12 


• » 


■' 


5 


beq 


30-28 


30*50 


78 


74 


76-5 
76 
75 


23-58 


49-03 


13 




VBLE. 


4 


be 


30-31 


30-53 


77 


73 


76 
73-5 
73-5 


26-07 


46-07 


H 




E. N. E. 


2 


be 


30-13 


30-37 


76*5 


74 


74-5 

74 

74-5 


27-31 


42-40 
























'5 




VBLE. 


1 


b c 


30-06 


30*32 


77-5 


74 


75-5 

75 

73-5 


27-30 


41-01 


16 


" 




1 


be 


30-10 


30-34 


76-5 


71 


74 
73-5 

TO 


27-22 


40-06 


»7 


« • 


E. 


2 


be 


30-17 


30*44 


76*5 


71 


72-5 
73-5 


27*50 


37-52 


18 


















72-5 








S.E. 


4 


beg 


30-26 


30-46 


77-5 


73 


73 


28*15 


35-09 




















72-5 






>9 


' " 


E.N.E. 


5 


b c m 


30-27 


30-47 


76-5 


73-5 


73-5 

72-5 


30*21 


32-44 


20 


* " 


N.E. 


5 


be 


30-14 


30-34 


77 


72 


73-5 
73-5 


32-28 


29-43 


21 


' ■ 


S.W. 


7 


oe q 


30-08 


30*16 


75 


67 


71-5 
70-5 


33-49 


27*28 


22 


• • 


N.E. 


4 


be 


30-26 


30-31 


73 


62 


63-5 
63 


34-29 


25*27 



56 



ABSTRACT OF METEOKOLOGICAL JOURNAL. 



Day. 


Hour. 


Winds. 


Force 


Weather. 


Sympr. 


Barom. 


Attd. 
Ther. 


Temp. 
Air. 


Temp. 

Water. 


1 
Locality. 










Inches. Inches. 











Lat. S. 


Long. E. 


May, 1830. 
















63 






23 


10 A.M. 


N. N. E. 


4 


C q 


29-74 


29 "94 


73 


66 


64 

63 

62-5 


34-49 


22-48 j 
























24 


•• 


VBLE. 


2 


be 


30-12 


30-21 


72 


63 


63-5 

62-5 

63 


34-43 


22-41 

1 

21-58 


25 


•• 


N.W.b.W. 


5 


be 


30'20 


30-26 


68 


61-5 


62 
62-5 


35-29 


26 


•• 


N.W. 


7 
6 


b c q 


30-07 


30-10 


71 


61 


62 
61-5 


35-15 


2 1 -22 


27 


•• 




a 


be 


30-14 


30-20 


68-5 


62 


62 
6i 
60 


35-06 


20-24 


28 


•• 


s.w. 


2 


b 


30-03 


30-09 


69 


61 


61-5 
61 


34-53 


19-58 


29 


2 A.M. 


N.W. 


10 


b c q 1 


29-73 






60 










Noon. 


.. 


9 


ogq u 


29-69 


29-75 


69 


59 


60-5 


35-11 


20-02 


.. 


4 1'. jr. 


, , 


10 


be q 


29-68 


29-78 


68 


58 










Midt. 


vv. 


8 


b cq 


29-84 






59 








30 


10 A.M. 


s.w. 


5 


be q 


30-16 


30-14 


67-5 


60 


60-5 


35-12 


19-42 


31 


■ • 


VBLE. 


2 


b c r 


30-35 


30-36 


67-5 


57 


60 
61 


Cape of Good Hope.! 


June. 






















1 


9 A.M. 




5 


beg 


30-29 


30-35 


655 


59 




Simon Bay. | 


2 










be 


30-48 


30-53 


64-5 


60 








3 


, , 


S.S.E. 


6 


be q 


30-47 


30-53 


65 


61 








4 


, , 








b m 




30-47 


65 


64 








5 


, , 


, , 





b m 




30-45 


65 










6 


• • 


VBLE 


1 


bcm 


30-36 


30-42 


65 


67 








7 


Noon. 


N.N.W. 


6 


b m q 


30-10 


30-37 




75 








8 


9 A.M. 


W. 


4 


b c q 


30-32 


30-40 


66-5 


63 








9 


, . 


S.S.E. 


2 


be 


30-45 


30-51 


64 


57 








10 


Noon. 


N.W. 


I 


bcm 


30-32 






64 








11 


, , 


E. 


1 


b c 


30-09 






63 








12 


• • 


VBLE. 


2 


b e 


30-16 






60 








13 


• • 


N.W. 


4 


b e q p 


30-29 






57 








14 


, , 


N.N.W. 


4 


CO g q 


30-25 


30-33 


63 


60 


- 






15 


• • 


N.W. 


4 


bcm 


30-12 


30-22 


63 


60 








16 


, , 


, , 


6 


e q r 


30-00 


30-08 


63-5 


57 








17 


6 A.M. 


s. b. E. 


8 


egqp d 


30-07 


30-18 


62-5 


54 


55-5 








Noon. 


S.S.E. 


5 


bcq 


30-24 


30-33 


62-5 


56 








18 




N. N. W. 


4 


b c 


30-39 


30-45 


62-5 


58 


55-5 

58-5 
58-5 






19 


10 A.M. 


. . 


4 


b c 


30-15 


30-20 


63 


57 


58-5 
60-5 


34-57 


17-08 


20 


6 .. 


N. 


9 


c q g 


29-85 






58 


61-5 
59 






.. 


10 .. 


N.W. 


9 


bcq 


29-92 


29-93 


65 


58 


34-57 


16-55 


•• 


4 P.M. 


• « 


8 


b e q 


29-98 


30-06 


65-5 


57 


59-5 
59-5 






21 


10 A.M. 


VBLE. 


1 


b c 


30-36 


30-38 


65 


59 


60 

59-5 
59-5 


33 '35 


16-55 


23 


• • 


• • 


2 


bcm 


30-30 


30-35 


65 


58 


60 
59-5 


32-47 


17-12 







ABSTRACT OF 


METEOROLOGICAL JOURNAL. 




51 


Jay. 


Hour. 


Winds. 


Force 

1 


Weather. 


Sympr. 


Barom. 


Attd. 
Ther. 


Temp. 

Air. 


Temp. 
Water. 


Locality. 












Inches. 


Inches. 











Lat. S. 


Long. E. 


fDNK, 1B3(J. 
















58-5 






23 


10 A.M. 


VBLE. 


1 


beg 


30-32 


30-43 


66 


59-5 


59-5 
59-5 
59-5 


31-47 


17-01 


24 


• • 


S.S.E. 


1 


b c m w 


30 "29 


30-36 


66-5 


61 


58-5 
59-5 
60-5 


30-35 


15-38 


25 


'• 


VBLE. 


1 


be 


30-24 


30-34 


67 


60 


60-5 
61 


29-18 


13-44 


26 


* • 


S. 


4 


be q 


30*36 


30-44 


66 


61 


61 

61-5 
61-5 


27 "49 


11 52 


27 


• « 


S.S.E. 


5 


cgq 


30 '37 


30-44 


67 


61 


62-5 


25-44 


9-14 


28 


• • 


VBLE. 


2 


ocg 


30-17 


30-31 


66 


62 


63-5 
65 


23-36 


6-58 


29 


c • 


• • 


2 


beg 


30-11 


30-27 


66-5 


63 


655 
65 


23-04 


5-13 


30 


• • 


.. 


1 


be 


30-17 


30-45 


68 


65 


65 
66 


21-59 


4-49 


nLT. 
















65-5 






1 


• • 




2 


c 


30-24 


30-42 


68-5 


65 


66 
66-5 


21-00 


3-16 


2 




S.E. 


4 


oeg 


30-16 


30-39 


69 


67 


67 
67» 


19-58 


1-19 E. 


3 


• • 


VBLE. 


2 


oeq 


30-14 


30-37 


69 


65 


67-5 
67-3 
67-3 


18-56 


0-24 w. 


4 


• • 




4 


cgq 


30-14 


30-33 


69 


65 


68 
68 
68 


18-14 


2-04 w. 


5 


• • 


N. 


1 


be 


30-04 


30-31 


69-5 


68 


69 
68-7 
68-2 


17-57 


3-43 w. 


« 


■■ 


VBLE. 


2 


be 


30-06 


30-30 


71 


67-5 


69 

68-5 

68 


17-07 


3-43 


7 


• • 


S. 


4 


c 


30-12 


30-32 


71-5 


68 


69 
68-5 


16-17 


3-37 


8 


• ♦ 


S.E. 


4 


b C q 


30-15 


30-42 


72 


69 


68-5 
68-5 


St. 


Helena. 


9 


9 .. 


S. 


4 b c qp d 


30-15 


30-39 


71 


67 


68-5 
68-5 






10 


Noon. 


S.S.E. 


4 b cqp 


30-11 


30-35 


71 


68 






11 


9 A.M. 


• ■ 


4 bcgqp 


30-11 


30-39 


71 


67 








12 


• • 


S.E. 


4 


bcgp 


30-13 


30-39 


71 


66 








13 


• • 


• • 


2 


be q p 




30-36 




66 








H 


• • 




2 


be 


30-10 


30-36 


70-5 


67 


68-5 

68 

69-5 






15 


10 .. 


VBLE. 


4 


b c q p 


30-02 


30-26 


71-5 


65 


70 
70 


14-11 


7-53 


16 


















70-5 






• • 


S. 


1 


be 


29-90 


30-20 


72-5 


68 


71* 

71 

72 


13-27 


8-53 
























»7 


• • 


• • 


2 


be 


29-97 


30-28 


73 


72 


72-5 


12-17 


1015 


















72-3 






* 3d and IGth, Temperature of water take 


n at nigh 


t. 





58 



ABSTRACT OF METEOROLOGICAL JOURNAL* 



Day. 


Hour. 


Winds. 


Force 


Weather. 


Sympr. 


Barom. 


A ltd. 
Ther. 


Temp. 
Air. 


Temp. 
Water. 


Locality. 


July, 1835. 








Inches. 


Inches 









73 


Lat. S. Long.W. 


18 


10 a.m. 


S.E. 


4 


be 


30*00 


30-31 


74 


70 


74 

74 
75 


10-27 12-04 


19 


• • 


•• 


5 


b c q p 


29 '94 


30-29 


76 


73 


75-3 
75 


8-11 


20 


Noon. 


, , 


6 


b cq p 


29-89 


30-30 


76-5 


76 


Ascension. 


21 


9 A.M. 




4 


b cgqp 


29 '93 


30-29 


75-5 


72 




.. 


22 


•• 


•• 


4 


b c q 


29 '92 


30-28 


76 


74 


75-3 


•• 


23 


Noon. 


" 


5 


b c q 


29 '89 


30-30 


77 


75 


75 
75-5 
75-5 


• • 


24 


10 A.M. 


S.S.E. 


4 


b c q 


29 '98 


30-33 


76-5 


73 


75 '5 

75 
74 '5 


9 -08 16-52 


•25 


■■ 


S.E. 


4 


be q 


"ig'Q^ 


30-31 


76-5 


73 


75 
74 '5 
74 


10-28 19-35 


26 


« 


•• 


5 


b c q 


29-96 


30-30 


77 


74 


74-5 
75 

74 


11-17 22-43 






















27 


• ' 


• • 


5 


b c q 


29-96 


30-31 


77 


72 


74-5 
74-5 


11-47 26-13 


28 


9 .. 


VBLE. 


4 


be 




30-32 


77 




75 
75-5 


12-05 29-05 


29 


10 .. 


E. 


2 


b c m 


29-89 


30-27 


77*5 


73 


75-5 

■76 


12-19 31-33 


30 


•• 


• • 


4 


be 


29-85 


30-24 


77-5 


74 


76-5 
76-5 


12-44 34-14 


31 


• • 


• • 


4 


b c 


29-87 


30-29 


78 


76 


76 


12-51 36-31 


AUGCST. 




















1 






4 


be 


29-90 


30-32 


78-5 


75 


74-5 




2 


9 •• 


S.S.E. 


4 


be 


29-90 


30-32 


78-5 


75 




Eahia. 


3 


• • 


S.W. 


4 


be 


29-95 


30-34 


77-5 


73 






4 












30-32 


77-5 






• • 


5 


Noon. 


s.s.w. 


2 


be 


29-90 


30-32 


77-5 


75 


74 


• • 


6 




S.W. b. w. 


4 


b c 


29-88 


30-30 


77 


73 


75*5 

75 
74 


• • 


7 


1 A. M. 


VBLE. 


4 


b c q 


29-94 


30-31 


77 


74 


75-5 
75-5 


13-02 38-15 


8 


• • 


•• 


2 


og 


29-92 


30-31 


77 


74 


75-5 


12-55 37-47 


9 






4 


be 


29-90 


30-32 


78 


76 


75-5 
76 


12-53 37-23 


10 




S.E> 


5 


b cq 


29-90 


30-31 


77-5 


74 


76-5 
76-5 
76 


11-30 36-17 


11 




VBLE. 


4 


be q 


29-94 


30-31 


78 


74 


76 

75-5 

75 


9-45 35-20 


12 


• • 


S.E. 


4 


ocmgqp 


29-90 


30-26 


77-5 


73 


76 
75-5 


7-58 


»3 


Noon. 


•• 


6 


beq 


30-11* 


30-30 


78-5 


75-5 




r Pernambuco, 
\ Inner Harbour, 


, 






» Set Syi 


npr. 0-26 higher, 1 


2th Augu 


St, P.M. 


1 







ABSTRACT OF 


METEOROLOGK^AL JOURNAL. 


59 


Day. 


Hour. 


Winds. 


Force 


Weather. 


Sympr. 


Barom. 


Attd. 
Ther. 


Temp. 
Air. 


Temp. 

Water. 


Locality. 


Adoust, 1836. 








Inches. 


Inches. 











Lat. Long.W, 


H 


9 A.M. 


S.E. 


4 


be 


30-14 


30"29 


78 


75 


75-5 
76-5 
76-5 
76 


f Pernambuco, 
L in the Roads. 


15 


• • 


• ■ 


4 


be 


30-12 


30-28 


78 


76 


76-5 

77 

75-5 


• ■ 


16 


10 .. 


E.S.E. 


5 


bcgpr 


30-10 


30-24 


78-5 


74 


76-5 
76-5 


* • 


J7 


•• 


S.E. 


4 


beg 




30-22 


78-5 


76 


76 
76-5 
76-5 


•• 


18 


• • 


E. 


5 


b c q 


30-06 


30-25 


79-5 


77 


76-5 

77 

76-5 


6-53S. 34-30 


*9 


• • 


S.E. 


5 


bcq 


30-10 


30-26 


80 


76 


76-5 
76 

76-5 


4-22S. 33-30 


20 






4 


b c q 


30-11 


30-30 


80 


78 


76 
76-5 
75-5 


1-58 s. 31-57 


21 






4 


be 


30 "09 


30-24 


80 


75 


76 
76-5 

77-5 


0-15 N. 30-41 


22 






4 


be 


30-07 


30-25 


79 


76 


77-5 
77 
78 


2-08 29-35 


23 


" 




4 


bcq 


30-06 


30-26 


80 


76 


78-5 
73-5 
79 


4-09 28-40 


24 


• • 


s. b. w. 


2 


be 


30-04 


30-25 


80-5 


79 


79-5 
79 
79 


6-09 26-48 


25 


■* 


S.W. 


2 


be 


30-00 


30-25 


81 


79 


79 
78-5 
78-5 


8*07 25-25 


26 


" 


VBLE. 


2 


be 


'30-00 


30-20 


82 


77 


79 

79-5 

79 


9-57 24-18 


27 


• • 


• ' 


2 


b e m 


29-86 


30-14 


82 


80 


81 
80 


10-40 23-42 


28 


2 A.M. 


S.W. 


10 


ogqr 


29-72 






76 






• • 


10 .. 


s. 


2 


e 


29-96 


30-16 


82 


78 


78-5 

79-5 


12-27 23-27 


29 


* * 


VBLE. 


1 


bom 


29-98 


30-23 


82 


78 


81 

79-5 
78-5 


13-41 23-22 


30 


• • 


N.b.E. 


2 


b c m 


30-00 


30-24 


82-5 


78 


79-3 
79 -2 


14-20 23-05 


31 


9 .. 


N.E. 


4 


bcq 




30-23 


80-5 




77 


Torto Praya. 


iBPTEMBEB. 






































78 




1 


• • 


N.N.E. 


4 


be 


30-01 


30-26 


81 


77 


78-5 
78 


• • 


i 3 


• • 


N.E. 


4 


be 


30-04 


30-28 


81 


78 




. . 


3 


.. 




5 


bcq 


29-97 


30-26 


80-5 


79 




.. 


1 4 


• • 




4 


bcq 


29 '94 


30-22 


81 


79 






5 


10 .. 


•• 


5 


be 


30-02 


30-23 


82 


77 


78-5 


14-24 25-21 

























60 



ABSTRACT OF METEOROLOGICAL JOURNAL. 



Day. 


Hour, 


Winds. 


Force 


Weather. 


Sympr. 


Barom . 


Attd. 
Ther. 


Temp. 
Air. 


Temp. 
Water. 


LOCAIITY. 


Septembeb,1836. 








Inches. 


Inches. 










78 
78 


Lat.N. 


Long.W. , 


6 


10 A.M. 


N.E. 


•4 


b C m q 


30 •22* 


30-26 


81 


78 


16-01 


27-44 




















77-5 




1 




















77 






7 


• • 


• ' 


5 


b c m 


30*26 


30-28 


80 


78 


76-5 

76-5 

76 


18-12 


29-58 

1 
1 


8 


* * 


E.N.E. 


5 


be 


30-35 


30-32 


78-5 


74 


76-5 
76 

75-5 


20-46 


3154 j 


9 


• * 


VBLE. 


5 


bcqp 


30 "39 


30-32 


77-5 


73 


76 

75-5 

75 


23-07 


32-25 


10 


• « 


E.N.E. 


4 


be 


30-39 


30-36 


77 


76 


75-2 

74-5 

74 


25-41 


34-34 


11 


* ' 


E. b. N. 


2 


be 


30-39 


30-38 


76-5 


73 


74-5 
74-5 
74-5 


27-52 


35-47 


12 


■' 


W.N.W. 


2 


be 


30-32 


30-31 


77 


73 


75-5 

75 

73-5 


28-42 


35-17 


13 


• • 


N.E. 


2 


be 


30-34 


30-27 


77 


72-5 


75-5 

75 
74-5 


29-59 


36-23 


M 


, , 


S.E. 


2 


b c 


30-32 


30-29 


77-5 


76 


30-37 


36-23 




















73-5 






15 


• • 


s.w. 


5 


bem 


30-25 


30-26 


78-5 


74 


74 
74 
73*5 


32-41 


3430 


i6 


•• 


s.s.w. 


5 


b c m 


30-26 


30-22 


78-5 


74 


72-5 
71-5 


35-15 


32-22 


17 


6 a.m. 


s. 


8 


om qg 


30-16 








*7 1 






•• 


10 .. 


• • 


6 


b c q m 


30-24 


30-18 


78 


73 


69-5 

70 

69-5 


36-49 


29-31 
























i8 


9 .• 










30-26 


77 


73 


70-5 
69-2 


38-03 


27-39 


19 


10 .. 


N.N.W. 


2 


be 


30-50 


30-36 


75 


66 


68-5 






20 


• • 


S.W. 


1 


b cf 


30-42 


30-35 


73"5 


71 




Angra 


Roads. 


21 




VBLE. 


1 


e n 


30-40 


30-35 


74-5 


72 






• • 


22 




S.W. 


4 


OCT 


30-42 


30 -SI 


75-5 


72 


68 






23 


• • 


VBLE. 


1 


be 


30 '60 


30-48 


75 


70 


70 
69-5 


37-58 




24 


•• 


S.S.E. 


4 


b e 


30-62 


30-50 


73 


69 


70-5 
70 


OflF St. 


Michaels. 


25 


• • 


S. 


2 


ocg 


30-46 


30-34 


74 


70 


69 
68 


39-20 


24-30 


26 


• • 


N.W. 


2 


be 


30-37 


30-24 


72 


66 


67-5 
66 

65-5 


41-05 


22-07 


27 


• • 


• • 


4 


be 


30-52 


30-32 


68-5 


63 


65 
64-5 


42-28 


19-32 


28 


• • 


W. 


4 


c g d 


30-36 


30-16 


69 


67 


64t 
64-5 


44-33 


16-29 


29 


• • 


• • 


' 10 


cgqp 


29-88 


29-54 




59 


61 










* 5th Sept, Noon, set Sympr. 0-17 I 


lighcr. 










t 27th Sept 


, P.M., 


broke Wat 


3: Therm 


ometer ; 


used fror 


n this tim 


e Ivory ( 


No. 25.) 





ABSTRACT OF METEOROLOGICAL JOURNAL. 



61 



Day. 


Hour. 


Winds. 


Force 


Weather. 


Sympr. 


Barom. 


Attd. 

Ther. 


Temp. 
Air. 


Temp. 
Water. 


LOCAHTV. 


Septk 


MBER,1836. 








Inches. 


Inches. 











Lat.N. Long.W. 


29 


10 A.M. 


N.W. 


9 


b c q m 


30-11 


29-73 


65-5 


59 


61-5 


45-43 13-43 


• • 


4 P.M. 


N. 


7 


be q 


30-37 


30-03 


67-5 


60 


62 




30 


10 a.m. 


N.W. 


2 


be q 


30-46 


30-17 


65-5 


58 


60-5 
61 
60-5 




» • 


4 p.m. 


VBLE. 


2 


e q 


30-38 


30-06 


66 


59 


46-31 11-41 


• • 


Midt. 


S.W. 


8 


gqp 


30 "00 






60 






October. 








* 












1 


10 A.M. 


N.W. 


9 


be 


29-58 


29-52 


67 


61 


59-5 




■ • 


2 P.M. 


. , 


10 


be q p 


29-46 








58-5 


48-15 8-58 


■ • 


4 .- 


• • 


9 


b e q p 


29-51 


29-46 


67-5 


56 


58-5 




3 


10 A.M. 


W. 


5 


b c q p 


29-80 


29-72 


63 


51 


55 
56-5 




• • 


9 p.m. 


s. 


5 


b e q p 


29-30 


29-56 


60 


52 




Falmouth. 


* • 


Midt. 




11 


ougq 


29-16 


29-08 




49 






3 


10 a.m. 


N.N.W. 


4 


bcq 


29-64 


29-691 


60-5 


50 


56-5 


• • 


• • 


6 p.m. 


S.W. 


4 


b c q p 


29-72 


29-67 


60-5 


50 






4 


9 a.m. 


— 





b 




29-67 


60 


52 






• • 


Noon. 


S.W. 


2 


b 


29-76 


29-71 


59-5 


54 




• • 


, , 


4 P.M. 


N.W. 


2 


b 


29-80 


29-74 


59-5 


53 


56-5 




5 


9 A.M. 


K. 








30-02 






55 




»• 


4 p.m. 


S. 


2 


be 


30-18 


30-06 


59 


56 




Plymouth. 


6 


9 a.m. 


N.N.W. 


2 


b c m 


29-97 


30-04 


59 


53 






•• 


4 P.M. 


w.s. w. 


1 


beg 


29-86 


•29-86 


59 


55 




• • 


7 


9 a.m. 


S.W. 


5 


bcq 


29-58 


29-59 


59-5 


55 








3 P.M. 


S.S.E. 


6 


bcq 


29-44 


29-46 


59-5 


58 




• • 


"s 


9 A.M. 


S.W. 


2 


be 


29-59 


29-55 


60 


54 




• • 


• • 


3 P.M. 


s.s.w. 






29-59 


29-55 


59-5 


57 






9 


9 A.M. 


w. 


5 


be q 


29-56 


29-53 


58 


54 




• • 


10 


9 .. 


., 


6 


b c q p 


29-47 


29-44 


59 


55 




• • 


• • 


3 P.M. 


w.s.w. 


6 


b c q p 


29-50 


29-50 


59 


56 


56-5 




11 


4 A.M. 


S.W. 


11 


bcq 


29-34 






51 








9 A.M. 


w. 


2 


begq 


29-50 


29-48 


58-5 


53 




• • 


• • 


3 P.M. 


S.W. 


4 


b c p 


29-54 


29-52 


58-5 


55 






12 


9 A.M. 


w.s.w. 


4 


begq 


29-76 


29-73 


58-5 


54 




• ■ 


.. 


4 P.M. 


S.S.E. 


9 


eg qr 


29-42 


29-42 


59 


53 






• ■ 


8 .. 


w.s.w. 


11 


b c q p 


29-08 


29-13 


59 


55 






.. 


10 .. 




10 


be q p 


29-11 


29-12 


58-5 


55 






13 


10 A.M. 


w. 


5 


b e q p 


29-49 


29-39 


58 


53 




• ■ 




3 P.M. 


S.W. 


4 


bcq 


29-51 


29-49 


57-5 


56 








Midt. 




9 


b c q p 














H 


9 A.M. 


S.W. 


4 


be 


30-03 


29-96 


57 


54 




.- 


, , 


3 P.M. 


• . 


4 


be 


30-08 


30-03 


68 


57 




.. 


15 


9 a.m. 


s.s.w. 


2 


b c 


30-00 


29-96 


57 


55 




• • 


16 


9 •• 


S.E. 


2 


b c m 


30-35 


30-25 


59 


54 




• • 


• • 


3 P.M. 


• , 


5 


bcq 


30-26 


30-24 


59 


58 






17 


9 A.M. 


E.S.E. 


4 


bcq 


30-27 


30-23 


60 


60 




• • 


. , 


3 P.M. 


S.E. 


5 


be q 


30-19 


30-23 


61 


61 






18 


9 A.M. 


• • 


2 


b c m 


30-30 


30-25 


61 


60 


56-5 




• • 


Noon. 


S.S.E. 
VBLE. 


2 


b c m 


30-29 


30-24 




61 


57 




• • 


4 P.M. 


W.S.W. 


1 


b e m 


30-28 


30-26 


61-5 


60 


57-2 




19 


10 A.M. 


N.N.W, 


4 


b c m 


30-56 


30-47 


61 


56 


57-2 




• • 


4 P.M. 


N. 


2 


b m 


30-54 


30-50 


62 


56 


58-3 
57-5 


50-17 


20 


10 A.M. 


S.E. 


2 


b cm 


30-70 


30-60 


61-5 


57 






21 


10 .. 




4 


be m 


30-63 


30-46 


60-5 


53 


57 








* 1st Oct., A.M., set Sympr. 0-27 lo 


wer. 










t 3d Oct., 12-30 A.M., Barometer lowe' 


it 29-08. 







63 



ABSTRACT OF METEOROLOGICAL JOURNAL. 



Day. 

OCTO] 


Hour. 


WinJs. 


Force 


Weather. 


Sympr. 


Barom. 


Attd. 
Ther. 


Temp. 
Air. 


Temp. 
Water. 


Locality. 


jEB, 1836. 























21 


3 r.M. 


S.E. 


5 


b c m 


30-56 


30-44 


59-5 


53 


57-5 




22 


10 A.M. 




2 


b c m q 


30-68 


30-53 


59-5 




57-5 




, , 


3 P.M. 


E 


4 


be 


30-68 


30-54 


59-5 


53 


56-5 




23 


9 A.M. 


N. 


<2 


b m 




30-55 


59 










4 P.M. 


VBLE. 


2 


b c m 


30 '66 


30-52 


58 


51 


57-5 




24 


10 A.M. 








b c m 


30-62 


30-53 


58 


54 




Downs. 




4 P.M. 


N.W. 


2 


bf 


30-63 


30-50 


59 


55 


56-5 

57 




25 


10 A.M. 


.. 


4 


bf 


30-56 


30-44 


59-5 


52 


57 






4 P.M. 




2 


f m 


30-50 


30-37 


59 


52 


55-5 
54-5 




26 


10 A.M. 


N.W.b. N. 


2 


b m 


30- 


30-35 


60 








• • 


4 P.M. 


N.W. 


1 


ogm 


30-36 


30-28 


60 


51 


54-5 
54-5 




27 


10 A.M. 


W. 


8 


c q 


30 '00 


29-88 


59 


49 


53-5 


Thanaes. 


.. 


6 P.M. 


N.W. 


6 


b c q 


30-25 


30-04 


57 


41 


53-5 
52-5 




28 


10 A.M. 




4 


b c q 


30-26 


30-11 


56 


40 


52-5 
51-5 






8 P.M. 










30-02 


55 






Greenwich. 


29 


9 A.M. 


N. b. E. 


2 


og 


29-87 


29-69 


53 


35 






• • 


Noon. 


N.N.E. 


4 


ogs 


30-00 






35 




• • 


• • 


3 P.M. 


N. b. E. 


4 


beg 


30-10 


29-91 


53 


35 






30 


9 A.M. 










30-20 


51-5 










Noon. 


N. 


1 


b m 


30-44 






36 




• ■ 


• . 


3 P.M. 










30-22 


51-5 








31 


8 A.M. 










30-28 


52 


32 








Noon. 




1 


b m 


30-52 






37 




• • 




3 P.M. 


• • 


1 


bm 


30-51 


30-28 


51-5 


39 






NOVE 


MEER. 




















1 


9 A.M. 


w.s.w. 


1 


be g m 


30-50 


30-28 


49-5 








• • 


Noon. 


s.w. 


2 


cgm 


30-48 






38 




• • 




3 P.M. 


• • 


2 


cgm 


30-49 


30-32 


50 


40 






2 


9 A.M. 


w.s.w. 


1 


b c g m 


30 -,30 


30-13 


52 


49 








Noon. 


w. b. s. 


2 


cgm 


30-23 






52 




a • 


3 


9 A.M. 


w.s.w. 


1 


b c g m 


30-08 


30-05 


54 


47 






• • 


Noon. 




2 


b c g m 


30-01 






51 






4 


9 A.M. 


w. 


4 


egqm 


29-87 


29-78 


54 


45 






• . 


Noon. 


.. 


4 


cgqm 


29-83 






46 




• • 


'• 


3 P.M. 


• • 


4 


e m p d 


29-78 


29-68 


53-5 


44 






5 


9 A.M. 


VBLE. 


2 


be gq 


29-43 


29-36 


53-5 


45 






• • 


Noon. 


W.N.W. 


4 


b eg qp 


29-53 






44 




• • 


• • 


3 P.M. 




5 


b cq 


29-63 


29-47 


53 


45 






6 


9 A.M. 


W.S.W. 


2 


be 


29-82 


29-66 


52-5 


37 




• • 


• • 


3 P.M. 


W.N.W. 


4 


b eq 


29-87 


29-66 


51-5 






Woolwich, 


7 


9 A.M. 


.. 


2 


b enn 


29-99 


29-82 


52 


35 






• • 


3 P.M. 


N.W. 


2 


b e m 


30-08 


29-91 


50-5 


42 






8 


8 P.M. 


S.W. 


1 


b e m 


30-46 


30-28 


48 


38 




• • 


9 


9 A.M. 


• a 


2 


b eg 


30-38 


30-18 


48 


45 




• • 



"While the Beagle was at Plymouth, in 1831, an excellent marine barometer, made by Jones, 
(with an iron cistern) was sent by water from the maker's hands. This instrument was suspended 
in my cabin, with the cistern at the level of the sea (excepting during the first eight months, when 
it was placed six feet higher), and by it all the barometrical observations recorded in this table were 
taken or corrected. 

In 1836, while conveying the same barometer by land fiom Woolwich to London, it was seriously 
injured, and therefore, to give value to its indications while on board the Beagle, I annex some cor- 
responding observations, made at the Royal Observatory, and at Somerset House. 



63 
EXTRACT 



THE REGISTERS OF THE STANDARD BAROMETERS OF THE 
ROYAL SOCIETY, AT SOMERSET HOUSE; AND OF THE ROYAL 
OBSERVATORY, AT GREENWICH.* 



Day. 


Hour. 


a.S. Bar. 


Attd. 
Then 


R.O. Bar. 


Day. 


Hour. 


R.S. Bar. 


Attd. 
I'her. 


R.O. Bar. 


November, 1831 








Dece 


MBER, 1831' 








5 


9 A.M. 


29-520 


47-6 


29-40 


1 


9 a.m. 


30-170 


46-8 


30-06 


6 






29-607 


47-3 


29-44 


2 




30-027 


46-7 


29-92 


8 






29-666 


49 '3 


29-58 


3 




30-148 


47-7 


30-05 


10 






30-421 


43.4 


30-30 


5 




29-837 


48-8 


29-73 


11 






30-245 


47-4 


30-13 


6 




29-432 


48-8 


29-32 


12 






30-326 


51-0 


30-22 


7 




28-924 


50-7 


28-83 


13 






29 '994 


51-8 




8 




29-139 


51-3 


29-05 


14 






30'053 


45-3 


29-93 


9 


• « 


29-190 


55-3 


29-08 


15 






29-478 


44-2 


29-38 


9 


3 P.M. 


29-206 


56-3 


29-13 


i6 






29-312 


41-4 


29-21 


10 


9 A.M. 


29-418 


53-8 


29-31 


17 






29 '585 


39-7 


29-47 


12 


• • 


29-307 


53-8 


29-21 


i8 






29-691 


38-5 


29-58 


14 




29-573 


51-5 


29-48 


19 






29'4'36 


40-7 


29-32 


18 


. . 


29-373 


49-5 




22 






29-850 


48-8 


29-75 


19 




29-567 


46-7 


29-46 


23 






29-966 


52-7 


29-87 


19 


3 P.M. 


29-643 


47-6 


29-54 


24 






30-032 


53-4 


29-92 


27 


3 P.M. 


30-418 


40-0 


30-32 


25 






29-960 


54-3 


29-85 


28 


9 A.M. 


30-428 


40-4 


30-32 


26 






29*944 


54-e 


29 83 


28 


3 P.M. 


30-392 


42-7 


30-27 


27 






30-321 


46-7 


30-20 












OCTOI 


3EB, 1836. 








OCTO 


BEB, 1836. 








7 


9 a.m. 


29'5ii 


54-8 


29-40 


7 


3 P.M. 


29-423 


56-7 


29-31 


8 






29-386 


56-0 


29-29 


8 




29-390 


58-6 


29-26' 


10 






29-219 


54-4 


29-11 


10 


.. 


29-322 


58-9 


29-20 


11 






29-247 


57-9 


29-14 


11 




29-388 


60-0 


29-28 


13 






29-140 


57*5 


29-02 


13 


.. 


29-333 


59-5 


29-16 


14 






29-782 


56-4 


29-68 


14 


.. 


29*717 


59-2 


29-80 


16 






30-229 


54-7 




16 


. . 


30-212 


57-8 




17 






30-210 


55-7 


30-10 


17 


• • 


30-176 


57*7 


30-08 


18 






30-174 


56.9 


30-06 


18 


. • 


30-150 


60-3 


30-02 


19 






30-241 


58-5 


30-15 


19 




30-322 


60-3 




21 






30 '332 


52-2 


30-22 


21 


• • 


30-305 


55 '5 


30-20 


22 






30-398 


51-2 


30-29 


22 


• • 


.30-382 


53-9 


30-28 


23 






30-408 


49-3 




23 


.. 


30-378 


52-2 




24 






30-394 


51-5 


30-28 


24 


.• 


30-360 


53-6 


30-25 


25 






30-371 


52-6 


30-15 


25 


■ • 


30-225 


53-2 


30-12 


26 






30-196 


52-6 


30-07 


26 




30-113 


54-4 


30-01 


29 






29-473 


42-3 


29-35 


29 


.. 


29-703 


41-6 


29-55 


30 






30-019 


39 "0 




30 


.. 


30-035 


41 -0 




31 






30-089 


37-3 


29-97 


31 




30-009 


40-0 


29-97 


NOVEMBEB 










NOVE 


MBER. 








1 


9^ 


l.M. 


30-099 


37-6 


29-97 


1 


3 P.M. 


30-008 


40-4 


29-90 


4 


. 




29-570 


45-4 


29-46 


4 


.. 


29-451 


47-0 


29-34 


5 


. 




29-140 


45-6 


29-03 


5 




29-287 


'47 -2 


29-14 


6 


. 




29-459 


42-1 




6 


.. 


29-439 


44-6 




7 


•• 


29-631 


40-0 


29-52 


7 


•• 


29-722 


42-8 


29-60 


* Royal Society Barometer about 95 


feet, and Ob 


servato 


ry Baromete 


r about 156 


feet abo 


ve the mean 


level c 


f the sea. The heights of the m« 


■reury are giv 


en as re 


ad off, with 


3Ut any corr 


action or 


reduction. 



64 



FIGURES USED TO 

Calm. 

1 Light Air 

2 Light Breeze 

3 Gentle Breeze 

4 Moderate Breeze . 

5 Fresh Breeze , 



DENOTE THE FORCE OF THE WIND. 



Or just sufficient to give steerage way. 



Or that in which a man- 
of war, with all sail set, 
and clean full, would go 
in smooth water from 



6 Strong Breeze . . 

7 Moderate Gale 

8 Fresh Gale 



9 Strong Gale . 
10 Whole Gale 



Or that to which a well- 
conditioned man-of- 
war could just carry- 
in chase, full and by 



1 to 2 knots. 
3 to 4 knots. 
5 to 6 knots. 
Royals, &c. 

Single-reefed topsails and 

top-gall, sails. 
Double-reefed topsails, 

jib, &c. 
Treble-reefed topsails, 

&c. 
Close-reefed topsails and 

courses. 



11 Storm 

12 Hurricane 



.Or that with which she could scarcely bear close-reefed 
main-topsail and reefed fore-sail. 

.Or that which would reduce her to storm stay-sails. 

. Or that which no canvass could withstand. 



LETTERS DENOTING THE STATE OF THE WEATHER. 

b Blue sky; (whether clear, or hazy atmosphere). 

c Clouds ; (detached passing clouds). 

d Drizzling rain. 

f Foggy f Thick fog. 

g Gloomy (dark weather). 
h Hail. 
1 Lightning. 

m Misty (hazy atmosphere). 

o Overcast (or the whole sky covered with thick clouds). 
p Passing (temporary showers), 
q Squally. 

r Rain (continued rain), 
s Snow. 
t Thunder. 

u Ugly (threatening appearances). 
V Visible (clear atmosphere). 
w Wet dew. 
. Under any letter, indicates an extraordinary degree. 

By the combination of these letters, all theordinary phenomena of the weather 
may be expressed with facility and brevity. 

Examples :—Bcm, Blue sky, with passing clouds, and a hazy atmosphere. 
Gv, Gloomy dark weather, but distant objects remarkably visible. 

Qpdlt, Very hard squalls, with passing showers of drizzle, and accompanied 
by lightning with very heavy thunder. 



TABLE 



LATITUDE, LONGITUDE, AND VARIATION OF THE COMPASS, 

ALSO 

TIME OF SYZYGIAL HIGH WATER, RISE OF TIDE, 
AND DIRECTION OR SET OF FLOOD TIDE STREAM IN THE OFFING. 



ENGLAND. 

Devonport — Clarence Baths — at high water"! 

mark.inthe meridian of GovernmentHouseJ 

Falmouth — Pendennis Castle 

AZORES ISLANDS. 

Terceira — Mount Brazil — summit 

St Michael's— St. Braz Castle 

CAPE VERDE ISLANDS. 

St. Jago — Port Praya — Quail Island, the "I 
west point (called also Gun Point) .( 

St. Paul — Penedo, or Penado de San Pedro ~l^ 
— summit J 

BRAZIL. 

Fernando de Noronha — Fort Concepgdo ... 

Pernambuco — Fort Picao 

Bahia — Fort San Pedro 

Bahia — intheoffing 

Abrolhos — Santa Barbara — e. summit 

Rio de Janeiro — Villegagnon Islet — well . 

Santa Catharina — Anhatomirim Islet — flag-1 

staff J 

PLATA. 

Buenos Ayres — landing-place (mole) 

Montevideo — Rat Island 

Gorriti — well at n.e. end 

Point Piedras — extremity of gi'assy part 

River Sanborombon — entrance of 

River Salado — entrance of 

San Antonio, Cape — north extremity, above\ 
high water ... J 

PAMPA. 

Medano Chato— summit of 

Medano Silla— summit of 

Medanos Point — south-east summit 

Mar Chiquito — bar of 

Corrientes Cape — eastern summit 

Mogotes Point— south-east summit 

Ventana Mount — highest summit 

San Andres Point— south-east high cliff ... 

Hernieneg Point 

Gueguen River 

Black Point — cliff summit 

Argentino Fort 

Nakedness Point — southern summit 

Wells— Anchorstock Hill -(Point Johnson) 



Lat. 
North. 



Long. 

West. 



50 22 00 

50 08 33 



38 38 35 
37 43 58 



14 54 02 
o 55 30 

SOUTH. 

3 50 00 

8 3 35 

12 59 20 

13 00 00 
17 57 42 

22 54 40 
27 25 31 



34 35 30 
34 53 20 

34 57 02 

35 26 50 
35 41 40 

35 43 15 

36 18 30 



36 28 00 
36 37 10 

36 59 05 

37 47 30 

38 05 30 
10 36 

1" 45 
17 20 
38 22 40 
38 36 00 
38 39 00 
38 43 50 
38 49 40 
38 56 55 



38 
38 
38 



4 10 00 

5 02 45 



27 13 00 
25 40 15 



23 30 00 



29 22 00 



32 25 00 
34 5' 30 
38 30 45 
38 20 00 
38 41 30 

43 08 45 
48 34 45 



58 21 53 

56 13 15 
54 57 35 

57 05 11 
57 18 45 
67 19 15 

56 45 51 



56 40 15 
56 40 55 

56 40 43 

57 21 45 
57 29 15 
57 30 35 

61 56 18 
57 39 05 

57 51 45 

58 40 00 

58 47 30 

62 14 41 

59 36 55 
61 58 30 



Van 
West. 



25 00 
24 10 



24 19 
24 15 



16 30 
/ 15-I6 V 
Unl83i; 

9 30 



7 00 

5 54 
4 18 

2 00 

EAST. 
2 00 

6 30 



11 40 

12 40 
12 28 
12 30 
12 30 

12 30 

13 00 



13 30 

13 50 

14 00 



14 00 

15 20 

15 00 



H.W. 



h. m. 

5 17 
5 35 



2 30 
o 15 



Noon. 



4 00 
4 23 
3 30 



about 
noon 
when 
at all 
regu- 
lar. 

Noon. 



11 00 
10 40 



10 00 

9 55 
8 20 



5 51 



R. &S. 

Feet. 
20 E. 

17 E. 

6 

7 

5 N.W. 



w. 

N. 

s. 

s. 

. w. 



Varble. 



Varble. 



8 N.E. 
8 N.E. 



G() 



TABLE OF POSITIONS. 



PAMPA — conthmed. 

Asuncion Point 

Hermoso Mount — summit 

Ziiraita Island — south extreme of... 
Ariadne Island — south extreme of 

Labyrinth Head — summit 

Colorado Head — one mile north of the en- 
trance 

Colorado River — mouth ... 

Indian Head (Union Bay) 

Snake Bank — south-east extreme of ... 

Ilubia Point— summit of 

Del Carmen Fort 

Ilaza Point — summit over extreme 

Leading Hill — summit 

Negro River — Main Point 

EASTERN PATAGONIA. 

Nipple Hill— summit of 

Direction Hill — summit of 

San Antonio Port — Point Villarino 

Fort Hill — centre of 

False Sisters — eastern summit 

Helen Blutf— s.w. cliff 

Bermeja Head — eastern summit 

Sierra Point — summit of 

Pozos Point — summit of cliffy extremity 

San Antonio Sierra — summit of 

Norte Point — cliffy extreme 

Entrance Point — east 

San Jose, Port — Point San Quiroga — extrem 

Bajos Point 

Castro Point — rise over extremity 

Valdes Port— entrance 

Cantor Point 

Pyramid — near Pyramid Road 

Ercules Point — eastern cliff 

Delgado Point — south-east cliff 

Western Port — rocky point in 

Lobos Peak 

Nuevo Head 

Nuevo Gulf— Point Ninfas— East Cliff 
Chupat River — middle of entrance 

Delfin Head — summit 

Lobos Head — summit 

Tombo Point — extreme 

Atlas Point — summit 

Raza Cape — eastern summit 

Rock of Salaberria 

Santa Elena — Spanish Observatory 

San Jose Point — eastern summit 

Santa Elena, Port — south-vv^est cove, Beagle' 

observatory (not the Spanish) 

San Fulgensio Point 

Blanca Islet ... 

Dos Bahias Cape — summit over extreme 

Monte Mayor Mount 

Arce Island — summit near centre of ... 

South Cape — near Oven 

Leones Island — south-eastern summit ... 





Lat. 
South. 


Long. 
West. 


Var. 
East. 


H.W. 


R. 


SiS. 




o / // 


/ // 


/ 


h. m. 


Feet. 




33 57 30 


60 38 00 




857 






... 


3B 58 50 


61 39 45 


14 50 


5 8 


12 w.s.w, 




39 11 00 


61 54 20 


15 10 


558 


1 2 w. N. w 


... 


39 15 .50 


62 00 20 


15 20 


5 20 


12 






39 26 30 


62 02 36 


15 30 


5 10 


12 




39 50 30 


62 05 30 


15 40 


340 


11 


N. 




39 51 40 


62 04 20 


15 40 


340 


11 


N. 


... 


39 57 30 


62 07 00 


>5 50 


3 10 


12 




... 


40 27 00 


61 54 30 


16 30 


2 30 


12 


>'. 




40 36 10 


62 08 40 


16 30 


2 15 


12 




... 


40 48 15 


62 58 06 


17 00 


• 15 


11 


N.W, 


... 


40 52 10 


62 18 15 


17 00 


Noon. 


12 




... 


40 56 36 


62 49 20 










... 


41 2 00 


62 45 10 


17 40 


11 


14 


N.E. 


... 


40 40 00 


64 50 15 










... 


40 48 CO 


65 10 10 










... 


40 49 00 


t34 53 55 


17 40 


10 40 


28 


N- 




41 06 30 


(15 10 30 










... 


41 09 00 


63 03 30 










... 


41 09 00 


63 55 30 


17 40 


10 50 


18 


E. 


... 


41 11 00 


63 07 30 










... 


41 35 45 


64 54 50 










... 


41 40 30 


64 54 00 


17 50 


930 


24 


H. 


... 


41 41 10 


65 12 10 










... 


42 03 00 


6S 47 40 


17 50 


10 


20 


N.W. 




42 14 05 


64 21 45 


17 45 


10 


25 




me 


42 14 15 


64 27 10 










... 


42 18 00 


63 34 10 










... 


42 25 20 


65 04 00 










... 


42 30 25 


63 35 20 


'7 50 


815 


1 


(N, 




42 30 50 


63 36 00 










... 


42 34 50 


64 18 30 


17 50 


8 


14 






42 38 30 


63 34 10 










... 


42 46 15 


63 36 30 


17 50 


7 50 


12 




... 


42 47 00 


64 59 45 


17 50 


8 


14 






42 49 00 


63 43 50 










... 


42 53 00 


64 07 30 


17 50 


7 20 






... 


42 58 00 


64 ip 30 


17 50 


7 10 


13 


N. 


... 


43 20 45 


65 02 50 


18 06 


5 


12 


N. 


... 


43 3> 00 


65 12 06 










... 


43 46 40 


65 I- 30 


18 30 


440 


13 


N. 


... 


44 07 00 


65 14 30 










... 


44 11 40 


65 15 30 


18 50 


4 10 


14 






44 23 40 


65 15 30 












44 25 00 


65 07 20 










... 


44 30 40 


65 21 40 


19 10 


4 


>7 


N. 


"J 


44 30 45 


65 17 00 










44 32 15 


65 22 30 


19 06 


4 


18 


N. 




44 32 30 


65 22 00 










... 


44 54 50 


65 32 10 


19 00 


3 20 


12 




.• 


44 56 3o 


65 32 00 


19 00 


3 20 


12 


K- 


... 


44 57 35 


66 24 00 










... 


45 00 40 


65 29 15 










... 


45 03 50 


65 41 15 


19 00 


3 


14 


N.K. 


... 


45 04 00 


65 35 '5 




2 10 


12 





TABLE OF POSITIONS. 



67 



EASTERN PATAGONIA — continued. 

Melo Port— Sugar-loaf Islet, near 

Raza Islet 

Medrano Rocks 

Malaspina Cove — South Point 

Aristazabal Cape — south-east pitch 

Matalinares Head 

Salamanca Peak 

Novales Ledge. 

Cordova Head 

Tilly Road — Point Marques — eastern cliff 

Murphy Head 

Bauza Head — summit 

Casamayor Clitf 

Nava Head 

Three Points Cape — north-east pitch ... 
Sugar-loaf, near Cape Three Points 

Blanco Cape — north-east summit 

Rivers Peak 

Desire Port — eastern islet 

Desire Port — Spanish ruins 

Fresh- water islet, at the head of Port Desire | 

(where the fresh water reaches) ... J 

Penguin Island — mount at south end 

Sea Bear Bay, observatory on sandy beach \ 

at south side J 

Shag Rock — centre 

Mount Video 

Watchman Cape — summit of Round Mount) 

Islet j 

Bellaco Rock — summit 

Look-out Point 

Flat Islet— centre 

San Julian Port — Cape Curioso — south east | 

point ... J 

Wood Mount — summit 

Shell Mount 

Desengano — South Head — north-east extreme 

Sholl Point — monument 

Franc? de Paulo Cape — extreme cliif ... 

Beagle Bluff — summit 

Weddell Bluff— summit 

FALKLAND ISLANDS. 

Adventure Sound — O.S. (Observ? Spot) 

Albemarle Rock — Middle 

Barren Island — south-east extreme 
Beauchesne Island — north extreme 
Beauchesne Island — south extreme 

Berkeley Sound — entrance 

Bird Island — summit 

Bougainville Cape — North-east clift" 

Brisbane Mount — summit 

Bull Road — height near Point Porpoise 

Bull Road— O.S 

Calm Head — summit 

Carcass Island — summit 

Carlos San Port — summit northward of 
Choiseul Sound — Pyramid Point ... 
Carysfort Cape — north-east cliff ... . 



Lat. 
South, 



45 04 10 
45 06 10 
45 10 00 
4.5 10 10 
45 12 45 
45 24 00 
45 34 00 
45 43 10 
45 46 00 

45 57 00 

46 31 10 
46 41 20 

46 52 00 

47 04 40 
47 06 20 
47 17 20 
47 12 20 
47 29 45 
47 44 40 
47 45 00 

47 49 30 

47 55 35 

47 57 '5 

48 08 30 
48 13 40 

48 21 30 

48 29 20 
48 35 30 

48 43 00 

49 10 45 



49 
49 
49 
49 



13 45 

14 00 

14 30 

15 20 

49 41 >o 
49 55 10 
49 59 20 



52 12 20 
52 14 30 
52 24 36 
52 40 00 
52 41 00 

51 35 00 

52 10 45 
51 18 00 

51 29 50 
62 20 50 

52 20 45 

52 07 20 

51 16 50 
51 28 50 

52 01 20 
51 25 40 



Long. 
West. 


Var. 
East. 


H.W. 


R. &S. 


/ // 


/ 


h. ra. 


Feet. 


65 47 40 


19 20 


3 40 


15 N.E. 


65 24 30 








65 53 30 








66 31 50 


19 30 


2 50 


16 N. 


66 31 10 








67 02 30 








67 19 30 








67 17 20 








67 21 40 


19 40 


1 20 


20 N. 


67 34 20 


19 42 


1 15 


20 N. 


67 23 10 


19 40 


1 00 




67 10 30 


20 00 


1 00 


18 N w. 


66 56 40 








66 32 15 








65 51 00 


19 20 


12 50 




65 56 20 








65 43 30 


19 30 


47 


18 N.W. 


65 58 50 








65 49 20 


19 42 


12 10 


18I N. 


65 54 15 


20 12 


18 


18 N. 


66 22 50 


20 20 


Noon. 


20 


65 42 00 








65 45 40 


20 50 


12 45 


20 N. 


65 53 30 








66 25 50 








66 21 25 


20 00 


4 


24 N.N.E. 


m 12 15 


21 00 


Noon. 


24 


66 53 20 


21 00 


11 30 


25 


67 01 00 




13 


N.N.E. 


67 37 CO 


21 00 




N.N.E. 


67 44 50 


21 10 






67 48 00 








67 36 10 


21 00 


10 45 


30 N.N.E. 


67 42 00 


21 00 


10 30 


30 


67 36 00 






N. 


68 33 00 








68 31 40 








59 04 30 


19 30 






60 24 42 








59 42 22 








59 04 00 








59 05 00 








57 50 00 


19 00 


5 


6 N.W. 


60 55 12 








58 28 20 








57 55 20 








59 19 57 








69 20 28 


19 50 






60 56 22 








60 35 30 








59 02 00 








58 36 00 




5 58 


5 N- 


57 51 00 









68 



TABLE OK POSITIONS. 



FALKLAND ISLANDS — continued. 


Lat. 
South. 


Long. 
West. 


Var. 

East. 


H.W. 


R. &S. 


o 


/ // 


/ // 


/ 


h. m. 


Feet. 


Castle Rock — summit 


. 52 


12 25 


60 48 22 








Cow Bay 


. 51 


27 00 


57 49 00 




5 25 


8 N.N.W. 


Dangerous Point — east extreme 


. 52 


01 35 


58 20 47 








Dolphin Cape — north-west extreme 


. 51 


14 35 


58 58 30 








Driftwood Point— Islet off 


. 52 


16 40 


59 01 34 








Eagle Point, Nelson Head, near eastern ex- 


}- 


32 50 


57 47 00 








tremity 












Eddystone Rock— centre 


. 51 


11 30 


59 03 15 








Edgar Port, summit at south end of Entrance 


! 52 


06 15 


60 16 12 








Ridge 


J ^ 












Edgar Port, summit over South Head 


. 52 


02 10 


60 15 10 








Edgar Port— O. S 


. 52 


03 15 


60 16 16 


20 00 


7 15 


5 


Egmont Port— O.S 


• 51 


21 26 


60 04 04 


19 35 


8 20 


8 w 


Egmont Port — Cay — western centre 


. 51 


13 05 


60 03 10 








Elephant Cays— west extreme of western Ca 


y 52 


09 00 


59 52 52 








Elephant Jason — summit 


. 51 


10 20 


60 52 02 








Fanning Head-'south-west summit 


. 51 


28 06 


S9 08 35 








Flat Jason — north-west extreme .. 


. 51 


06 30 


60 55 20 








Fox Bay— eastern entrance — summit 


■ 52 


00 50 


60 00 52 








Frehel Cape — north cliff 


• 51 


23 16 


58 14 00 








George Island — south-west cliff 


• 52 


24 00 


59 48 12 








Gibraltar Rock— summit 


• 51 


"9 45 


60 47 02 








Grand Jason— summit 


• 5' 


04 30 


61 03 57 








Grantham Sound — summit of Islet north-west 
of 


}- 


35 30 


59 13 10 






4 


Harbours— Bay of — O.S 


• 52 


12 00 


59 22 00 




5 44 


8 


Hope Point — near West Point Island— O.S 


51 


20 51 


60 40 14 




9 18 




Horse Block Island 


. 51 


56 00 


61 08 00 








Jason Cay (or East Cay) — north- west extrem 


B 51 


00 38 


61 18 02 








Kelp Point— small height on 


■ 51 


52 20 


58 13 52 








Keppel Island — north-west cliff 


• 51 


18 45 


60 03 00 








Keppel Island — west summit 


. 51 


'9 15 


60 02 20 








Lively Island — south-east extreme 


• 52 


06 15 


58 25 02 








Long Island — small height near west end .. 


• 52 


14 40 


58 59 42 




6 


5 w. 


Louis Port — settlement, flagstaff at Govern- 
ment House 


}- 


32 00 


58 07 16 


19 00 






Louis Port Creek — west side of the narrowest 
part 


]- 


32 20 


58 06 58 








Low Kelp Patch — middle 


■ 52 


32 00 


59 39 00 








Low Mount 


. 51 


38 20 


57 49 30 








Macbiide Head — north cliff 


. 51 


23 00 


57 59 25 








Many-branch Harbour — summit over north 
point 


}.. 


31 05 


59 20 30 








Mare Harbour — height over north-east side 


51 


54 35 


58 27 37 








Mare Harbour — O.S 


• 5> 


54 11 


58 .so 08 




7 15 


8 w. 


Meredith Cape — southern cliff 


. 52 


i6 15 


60 39 07 








Midway Rock 


• 5» 


25 36 


59 10 00 








New Island — highest summit 


• 51 


42 07 


61 17 52 








New Island— Ship Islet, O.S 


. 51 


43 10 


61 16 59 








North Islet— summit of north cliff 


. 51 


39 15 


61 14 36 








North Look-out Hill— summit 


• 61 


29 10 


58 02 15 








North Fur Island — east extreme 


• 51 


08 15 


60 44 10 








North Keppel Island — north extreme 


. 51 


J3 30 


59 55 55 








Orford Cape — west summit 


• 51 


59 45 


61 06 22 








Passages Island— summit 


. 51 


34 55 


60 46 58 








Pebble Island — cliff summit near north-west 
end 


1- 


15 ^8 


59 47 20 








Pembroke Cape — eastern extreme 


• 51 


41 30 


57 41 45 








Pleasant Port- O.S 


. 51 


48 55 


58 u 26 




7 19 


5 



TAliLK OF POSITIONS. 



69 



FALKLAND ISLANDS — Continued. 

Poke Point — east extreme 

Porpoise Point— extreme , 

Race Point Cliff— extreme 

Rodney 13Iuff — western summit 

Salvador San Port— O.S 

Saunders Island — north-west summit 

Saunders Island — north-east point — extreme 

Sea Lion Island — west extreme 

Sea Lion Point — summit 

Sedge Island — north-west extreme 

Shag Rock 

Ship, or CoflBn, Harbour — Ship Islet — ) 

south-west extreme J 

Simon Mount — summit 

South Fur Islet — summit 

South Jason — summit 

Speedwell Island Harbour — O.S 

Split Cape — extreme cliff 

Split Island — west summit 

Steeple Jason — steeple summit 

Steeple Jason — north-west summit 

Stephens Port— east entrance point — summit 

Stephens Port — O.S 

Swan Island — French Harbour — entrance ... 

Tamar Cape — north cliff summit 

Tamar Harbour — eastern head — extreme ... 

Uranie Rock, off Volunteer Point 

Usbome Mount 

A'olunteer Point— eastern solid extreme 
AVest Point Island — summit over West Bluff 

West Cay — north-west extreme 

White Rock 

White Rock Point — north-east extreme cliff 

White Rock Harbour — south head 

White Rock Harbour — sharp peak 

White Rock Harbour— O. S 

Wickham Heights— middle summit of 

William Port— O.S 

William Mount 

Wreck Island — east extreme 

SOUTH OF 50° (exclusive of falk- 

LANDS.) 

Admiralty Sound — bottom — Mount Hope ... 
Agnes Islands — summit of Western Isle 

Aguirre Bay — Kinnaird Point 

Ainsworth Harbour — projecting point west"! 

side J 

Alikhoolip Cape — south extreme 

Anchor Bay — summit over anchorage 

Ancon Sin Salida — Central Island, summit of 
Andres San — Sound — summit of Middle 

Kentish Isle 

Andres San — Sound — south-east extreme . 

Anna, Point Santa— extremity 

Anne St. Island — central summit , 

Anne St. Peak 

Anthony, Cape St. — northern extreme cliff, 



} 



Lat. 
South. 



Long. 
West. 



51 36 25 

52 21 47 

51 25 00 

52 03 36 
51 27 05 
51 17 20 

51 18 55 

52 26 50 

51 21 47 

51 10 30 

52 14 30 

51 43 

51 38 

5» 15 

51 12 

52 13 
51 49 
51 28 
51 04 

51 02 
62 11 

52 11 
51 52 
51 16 
51 20 
51 31 
51 42 
51 31 
51 23 

60 59 
51 17 
51 24 
51 26 
51 27 
51 26 
51 43 

61 39 
61 42 
51 11 



10 

05 
60 
40 
00 
20 

05 
00 

16 
50 
16 
00 
60 
32 
45 
30 
15 
00 

47 
15 
23 
26 
56 
00 
60 
14 
15 
00 



64 26 30 
54 18 00 
54 67 06 
54 23 05 

56 11 50 
50 65 00 

52 12 46 
50 23 15 

50 33 00 

53 37 50 
53 06 30 
52 43 00 
64 43 30 



69 23 26 
59 19 22 
59 06 20 



61 
68 
60 



04 37 
20 04 

19 60 

60 05 07 

59 09 37 
58 21 00 

60 27 20 
58 39 42 

61 17 07 

58 28 50 
60 51 52 

60 53 42 

59 41 16 

61 20 37 
tJo 42 10 
61 09 37 
61 13 22 

60 42 27 

60 40 53 

61 08 00 
59 29 50 

59 25 42 
67 41 00 
58 49 48 
67 43 40 

60 43 12 

61 27 30 
60 63 52 



12 22 

13 00 

16 30 
16 38 
58 31 52 
67 48 28 
67 55 58 
13 20 



60 



69 02 55 

72 48 40 
65 47 00 

69 37 45 

70 49 00 
74 21 20 

73 19 30 

74 23 00 

73 42 
70 55 00 
73 16 30 

73 55 45 
64 34 00 



Var. 
East. 



19 42 



20 18 



20 24 



22 50 
22 50 



22 30 

23 10 
22 20 

22 25 

23 00 
23 30 



H.W. 



h. m. 



6 20 



6 45 



8 30 



7 45 

8 35 



7 17 



5 49 



4 20 



1 00 
o 50 



1 30 
o 07 
4 00 



R. &S. 



Feet. 



N. 

E. 



70 



TABLE OF POSITIONS. 



SOUTH OF 50^ — continued. 

Antonio, San — summit over 

Apostle Rocks — western large rock 

April Peak — summit 

Arenas Point — south extreme 

Astrea Island — summit 

Austin Point — north-east pitch ... 

Avalanche Point— extreme 

Aymond Mount — summit 

Bachelor River — entrance 

Bachelor Peak 

Back Harbour — outer point 

Balthazar Point — extreme 

Bamevelt — north-east extreme . . 
Bartholomev»r San, Cape — south- west, cliff 

Basalt Glen 

Bald Point, west extreme of cliff ... 

Bathurst Cape — summit 

Beagle Island — north-west summit 

Beaufoy Mount — summit 

Bell Mount — summit 

Bell Mount Summit — Valentyn Bay 

Bessel Point — extremity 

Benito Point— extreme 

Bennett Point — extremity 

Between Point — west low rise 

Bivouac — Last Hill 

Black Head — south-east point 
Boat Island — summit of (Diego Ramirez) 
Boqueron Mount — highest pinnacle 
Bougainville Cape — south-west summit 
Bougainville Cape— extremity 
Bolton Island — northern summit ... 
Bougainville Sugar Loaf — summit 
Bowles Island— north summit 
Brazo Ancho Point— eastern summit 
Brent Cove — point south-east of ... 

Brinkley Island — summit 

Brisbane Head — extreme summit... 

Broken Mount 

Broken Cliff Peak 

Brother, Middle — north-east summit 
Buckland Mount (Staten Land) ... 

Buckland Mount — summit 

Bueno Puerto — west point 

Burney Mount — southern summit 
Button Island— south-east summit 

Bynoe Island— summit 

Camden Head — summit 

Capstan Rocks— summit of largest 

Card Point— extremity 

Castle Hill 

Castlereagh Cape— summit 

Catherine Point, north-east extremity 

Catherine Isle, western point 

Cayetano Peak 

Ceres Island — summit 

Chalia Stream — junction with Santa Cruz 
Chancery Point, south- west pitch... 
Charles Island— Wallis Mark 



Lat. 
South. 



Long. 
West. 



53 54 40 

52 46 15 

50 10 50 

53 09 10 

54 36 30 

55 49 30 
54 56 00 

52 07 10 

53 33 00 

53 29 30 

54 47 25 

51 38 05 

55 48 25 

54 53 45 

50 11 00 

53 34 40 

55 14 15 

51 58 30 
55 36 15 

54 09 54 

54 53 »5 
53 00 40 

51 48 52 

52 38 45 

53 J3 50 
50 12 30 

55 33 45 

56 28 50 

54 10 40 
53 25 40 

53 27 00 

54 59 00 

53 57 32 

54 02 00 

50 08 55 

54 50 20 

51 58 45 

55 39 00 
55 24 20 
50 14 40 
54 42 35 
54 46 18 

54 26 00 

50 58 35 

52 20 00 

55 05 00 

54 19 00 

53 12 30 

55 24 10 

54 20 45 

50 09 15 
54 56 00 

52 32 00 
54 47 30 

53 53 04 

51 51 35 
50 11 1/5 

52 52 00 

53 43 57 



69 
69 32 
72 19 



O I II 

71 50 30 

74 47 50 

75 21 00 
68 12 10 

72 05 30 
67 03 00 

13 20 
10 

15 
72 19 30 

63 50 15 

74 00 30 

66 44 40 

64 45 3" 

70 u 00 

67 39 30 

68 00 00 

75 J2 45 

68 58 00 

72 07 10 

65 33 30 

73 46 40 
73 55 00 

71 30 00 

70 28 30 

71 41 00 

69 20 30 
68 42 30 

70 59 44 
70 13 15 
70 13 00 



Var. 

East. 



70 10 00 

71 27 57 

72 15 00 

74 41 45 

64 22 50 

73 43 00 

68 57 00 

69 45 19 
68 31 30 

65 29 50 
64 20 45 

70 22 30 

74 10 55 

73 26 00 
68 07 30 

12 44 
41 00 
17 30 
15 30 
72 34 00 

71 28 00 
68 44 10 

71 19 00 

72 09 40 

74 05 55 
70 10 30 
74 40 30 
72 05 45 



72 
71 
70 
70 



23 40 
23 50 



24 40 



24 06 



23 00 
22 40 



24 00 

23 00 
23 34 



23 20 

24 00 



23 50 
21 00 



21 00 
23 45 



24 15 
24 10 



21 00 
24 00 



H.W. 



h. m. 

Noon. 



2 20 



1 40 



4 40 
4 45 



3 30, 6 



1 30 



o 50 



12 15 

1 40 

2 40 

2 50 
2 55 

1 40 



TABLE OF POSITIONS. 



71 







Lat. 
South, 


Long. 
West. 


Var. 
East. 


H.W. 


R. 


&s. 


SOUTH OF 50^ — contimied. 


o / // 


1 II 





/ 


h. m. 


Feet. 1 


Charles Cape— pitch 


53 15 00 


72 20 00 












Cheer Cape— north-west jiitch 




51 41 00 


74 18 45 












Childs Island — summit 




53 21 30 


73 51 00 












Claiiricarde Point— south summit.. 




50 11 30 


74 35 30 












Clay Cliff Narrow — cliff summit .. 




54 54 00 


67 28 30 


23 


00 


3 00 


6 


E. 


Cliff Head— northern cliff' 




52 43 30 


70 19 15 












College Rocks— south-west rock .. 




53 37 20 


73 58 00 












Colnett Cape — northern cliff 




54 42 15 


64 18 30 


22 


30 


5 00 


9 


W. 


Cone Point — summit 




54 o5 35 


70 51 45 












Convent Hill— south 




51 53 00 


69 17 35 












Cook Port — Observatory Mark summit 


54 45 16 


64 02 45 












Cook Port — Observatory at south-west cor-\ 
nerof J 


54 46 27 


64 02 45 


22 


30 


5 30 


8 


N.W. 


Corona Island — summit 


53 15 15 


72 23 30 












Cortado Cape — extremity 


52 49 37 


74 26 40 


23 


40 








Cotesworth Island— Port William 


53 10 00 


74 34 00 












Coy Inlet — northern head 


50 54 7 


69 04 20 


21 


30 


9 30 


40 


N. 


Coy Inlet — height south side extreme 


50 58 30 


69 07 20 


21 


30 


9 30 


40 


N. 


Coy Inlet — south-east height 


50 59 00 


69 06 00 












Creole Point — extreme 


54 06 00 


72 12 30 












Crosstide Cape — extreme 


53 33 00 


72 26 30 


23 


35 


1 40 


5 


E- 


Cruz Mount — summit 


53 40 45 


72 04 00 












Cruz Santa Port — north point — south-east \ 
















extreme J 


50 05 30 


68 03 00 


20 


54 


9 48 


40 


N. 


Curious Peak— summit 


54 19 35 


70 12 15 












Cutter Cove— Jerome Channel 


53 22 00 


72 26 45 






4 30 


6 


N. 


Dampier Islands — southern summit 


54 53 00 


64 11 20 












Darwin Mount — summit 


54 45 00 


69 20 00 












Davies Gilbert Head— north summit 


53 5b" 30 


72 15 00 












Deceit Island — Cape Deceit — east extreme 


55 54 40 


67 02 25 












Deceit Islets — middle islet 


55 56 10 


66 59 00 


23 


30 


4 30 


8 


E. 


Deepwater Head — summit 


53 38 00 


73 44 00 












Deepwater Sound — O.S 


53 35 00 


74 34 55 


24 


20 


1 10 


5 


N.E. 


Delgada Point — extreme 


52 26 30 


69 34 10 












Deseado Cape — peaked summit near 


52 55 30 


74 37 30 












Desolation Cape — southern summit 


54 45 40 


71 37 10 


24 


30 


1 40 


4 


N.E. 


Detached Islet — summit 


54 53 20 


64 30 00 












Devil Island — summit 


54 58 30 


69 04 50 












Diana Peak 


52 08 00 


74 48 00 












Diego San — Cape — east extreme 


54 41 00 


65 07 00 


22 


50 


4 30 


10 


N.W. 


Dinero Mount — summit 


52 19 40 


68 33 20 












Direction Hill — north 


52 20 50 


69 32 50 












Dislocation Harbour — O.S 


52 54 15 


74 37 10 


23 53 


1 40 


4 


S.E, 


Divide Cape — east extreme 


54 59 10 


69 07 00 












Dog-jaw Mountains —western summit 


55 00 30 


67 41 00 












Dog-jaw Mountains — eastern summit 


55 02 20 


67 32 00 












Donaldson Cape— extremity 


51 06 10 


74 20 15 












Doris Cove — O.S 


54 58 50 


71 09 48 


24 


16 


3 


4 


E. 


Doris Peak— summit 


54 59 20 


71 11 40 












Dos-Hermanas — summit 


53 57 45 


71 25 15 












Duncan Rock — middle 


51 22 40 


75 28 20 












Dungeness Point — extremity 


52 23 50 


68 25 10 


22 


36 


8 50 


40 


W. 


Dutch Point — north extreme.., 


55 29 00 


67 39 30 












Dynevor Sound— north-eastern headland ... 


53 22 00 


73 35 00 












Dynevor Castle— summit 


52 35 00 


72 26 00 












Earnest Cape 


52 10 52 


73 18 30 












Eastern Peak — summit 


50 00 15 


75 '3 20 












Elizabeth Island— north-east Bluff 


52 49 10 


70 37 15 


23 


50 


05 


7 


N.E. 


Elizabeth Head— Adventure Passage 


54 56 30 


70 54 00 













72 



TABLE OF POSITIONS. 



SOUTH OF 50° — continued. 

Elvira Point— extremity 

Emily Island — summit 

Enderby Island— centre ■•• 

Entrance Mount — summit of Santa Cruz Cliff 
Esperanza Island — south-west extreme 
Espinoza Cape — north-east extreme of cliff... 

Evangelists — Sugar Loaf Islet 

Evans Island — western summit 

Evouts — north-east head 

Expectation Bay — north islet 

Fairweather Cape 

Famine Port— Observatory 

Felix Point — extremity 

Felipe, San — Bay of 

Felipe, San — Bay of 

Fifty Point — south-west summit 

Fincham Islands — summit of westernmost\ 

islet ' J 

Fitton Mount — summit 

Fitz- Roy Passage— N.W. end O.S 

Flamsteed Cape — extremity rock 

Focus Island — summit 

Fortune Bay — rivulet mouth 

Fortyflve Cape — extreme pitch 

Foster Mount — summit 

Friar Hill — southernmost summit 

Froward, Cape — summit of the Bluff 

Furies, East — largest rock 

Furies, West — largest rock 

Fury Peak — highest 

Gallant, Port — Wigwam Point 

Gal legos River — observatory mound 

Gallegos River — west head 

Gap Peak 

Gente grande, Point — north-west extremity 

George Point— extreme pitch 

George, Cape — Bluff summit 

Gidley Islet — summit 

Gloucester Cape — summit 

Good Success Bay — O.S 

Good Success Bay — north head 

Good Success Bay— south head 

Good Success Cape — southern extreme 

Goodwin Mount — summit 

Goree Road— Station Islet 

Goree Road — Guanaco Point, extreme 
Gracia. N.S. de— south extremity of cliff ... 

Graham, Cape — south-east pitch 

Grant Bay — head south-west of 

Graves Mount — summit 

Gregory Bay 

Gregory Bay ,. 

Gregory Cape — extremity ... 

Gregory Range— soulh-wesi summit 

Guanaco Hill 

Guia Narrow — north extremity — nearly mid."\ 

channel / 

Hall Cape — south extreme 

Hall Point — extremity 



Lat. 
South. 



53 49 12 
55 29 30 

54 13 00 

50 08 50 

51 11 45 

52 37 20 

52 24 18 

53 26 30 

55 33 00 

50 25 00 

51 32 05 
53 38 15 

52 56 00 
52 35 00 

52 40 00 
55 17 10 

53 44 15 

54 47 45 
52 39 00 
51 46 25 

51 53 23 

52 15 48 

53 23 00 

55 50 30 
51 50 08 

53 53 43 

54 38 00 
54 34 45 

54 25 40 
53 41 45 
51 33 20 
51 38 45 
53 55 00 
53 00 45 

55 12 20 

51 37 40 

53 10 45 

54 05 18 
54 48 02 
54 47 00 
54 48 45 
54 54 40 

54 19 30 
17 35 
19 00 

52 43 10 

55 16 40 
54 51 45 

53 45 00 
52 39 00 
52 39 00 

52 39 00 

53 34 30 
50 02 00 

50 43 30 

54 57 00 
52 49 45 



Long. 
West. 



55 

55 



72 03 55 

69 35 00 

71 57 35 
68 20 00 

73 15 00 
68 36 20 
75 06 40 

73 53 30 
66 45 00 

74 17 00 

68 55 20 

70 57 45 

74 12 45 

69 49 00 
69 42 00 

66 35 40 

73 45 30 

64 23 00 

71 31 00 

73 51 45 

72 48 00 

73 45 00 

72 31 45 

67 32 50 
69 08 20 

71 18 15 

72 12 00 
72 21 60 
72 19 20 
72 00 41 

68 59 10 

69 42 40 

69 39 50 

70 26 45 

66 36 20 

75 21 00 

72 13 00 

73 29 15 

65 14 00 
65 11 30 
65 12 20 

65 21 30 
70 51 00 

67 03 00 
67 10 00 
70 30 25 

66 30 30 

64 14 00 
70 37 30 
70 13 00 
70 13 00 
70 13 40 

70 22 50 
69 03 00 

74 26 40 

65 36 00 

71 25 54 



Var. 

East. 



22 54 
24 00 



22 00 

23 40 



23 30 



23 00 



23 40 
23 50 



23 20 
25 00 
25 00 

24 04 
21 47 



23 00 



23 45 

24 30 
22 48 



23 40 
23 30 



23 30 
23 30 
23 30 



22 00 



H.W. 



h. m. 



9 o 

o 7 



R.&S. 



Feet. 



30 N. w. 
6 to 7 



9 40 30 s. 
9 00 24 \v. 
4 45 8 N. E. 



1 30 



1 or 2 



o 50 8 
3 00 7 



1 o 

2 30 
2 30 

9 3 
8 50 



5 o 
1 30 

4 3 
4 15 



4 40 
4 00 



9 22 

10 22 

9 38 



6 N. K. 
4 N. E. 

4 N.E. 

5 or 6 E. 

48 N. 



6 N. E. 

5 S.E. 

9 N- 

9 N-. 



N.E. 
N.E. 



25 S. S.W. 

15 

12 S.S.WJ 



28. 

N.E, 

4 00 1 4 N, 



TABLE OF POSITIONS 



73 



SOUTH OF 50^ — co7iiinued. 

Halfport Bay — point 

Hamond Island— south-west summit 

Hart Mount — summit 

Harvey Point — south-west extreme 

Hat Isle — summit 

Hately Point— south-east extreme 

Henry Port — observatory 

Herschel Mount— summit 

Hewett Harbour — south point of 

Hobbler Hill 

Hole in Wall Point — south extreme 

Holland Cape — south-east extreme 

Hope Island — central extreme summit 

Hope Harbour — Hope Pointextreme 

Horace Peaks— southern summit 

Horn Cape — summit 

Horn False Cape — south extreme 

Hyde Mount — summit 

Ignocentes Island— summit 

Ildefonso Isles — northern rock 

Ildefonso Isles— liighest summit 

Ildefonso Isles— southern rock 

Indian Cove — south-east comer 

Indian Pass— first (Santa Cruz river) 

Indian Pass— second (Santa Cruz river) ... 

Inez Sta.— north cliff 

Inglefield Island — north extremity 

Inglefield Island — south extreme 

Inman Cape — cliff summit 

Ipswich Isles— southern summit 

Isabel Cape — summit 

Isabe' Cape — west extreme 

Isidro. San, Cape 

Isabella Island— O.S 

Isabella Isle — Murray Peak, northern summit 

Jane Mount— summit 

Jerdan Island — summit 

Jerome Channel — Jerome Point — summit ... 
Jerome, St., Point— south-east extreme 

Jesse Point 

John, St., Cape — north cliff 

John, St., Cape— east cliff 

Jonathan Mount — summit 

Joy Mount 

Juan, San, Point — south-west extremity ... 

Judge Rocks — westernmost 

Jupiter Rock 

Kater Peak 

Keel Point — Observatory true west of Shin- 
gle Point 

Kekhlao Cape — northern pitch 

Kempe Peaks — southern summit 

Kendall Cape— extremity 

Kennel Rocks— largest 

King Island— summit 

King Head — summit 

Latitude Bay — OS 

Labyrinth Islands — Jane Island, summit 
Laura Harbour (basin) — O.S 



Lat. 
South. 



} 



53 11 40 
55 18 45 

54 11 45 

55 18 25 
55 04 20 
52 58 30 
50 00 18 

55 49 45 

52 25 00 
50 11 40 

54 49 20 

53 48 33 

55 32 30 

54 07 30 

54 43 00 

55 58 40 
55 43 15 
55 43 40 
50 31 55 
55 49 00 
55 52 30 
55 53 30 
55 30 20 
50 08 00 

50 12 20 
54 07 00 
53 04 20 
53 06 10 

53 18 30 

54 10 30 

51 52 00 

51 51 50 

53 47 00 

54 13 05 

54 12 35 

55 31 10 
55 49 05 
53 31 30 

53 31 40 
55 02 45 

54 42 20 

54 42 50 

55 21 .50 

52 39 20 
50 39 52 

52 51 00 

54 24 15 

55 51 55 

50 06 45 

55 10 00 
54 23 30 

51 27 15 
54 17 30 
54 22 38 

53 13 30 

53 18 40 

54 19 10 
54 07 00 

I 



Long. 
West. 



Var. 

East. 






1 


II 


73 


18 


45 


70 


0(3 


30 


70 


50 


30 


67 


26 


20 


71 


08 


30 


71 


46- 


00 


75 


18 


55 


^7 


19 


15 


72 


50 


30 


72 


21 


00 


63 


55 


25 


71 


39 


25 


«9 


39 


50 


73 


07 


00 


71 


57 


25 


67 


16' 


00 


68 


05 40 


tf7 


29 40 


74 46 


30 


^9 


23 


00 


09 


18 


30 


«9 


17 


00 


09 


05 


00 


6q 


11 


00 


71 


36 


20 


b'7 


07 


50 


71 


53 


14 


71 


53 


00 


74 


19 


15 


73 


20 


40 


75 


10 


00 


75 


13 


00 


70 


57 


50 


72 58 


50 


72 


59 


00 


«9 


05 


00 


67 


29 


00 


72 


25 


30 


72 


25 


45 


bf) 


22 


30 


ti3 


43 


45 


^3 


43 


15 


70 


00 


00 


73 47 


00 


74 32 


45 


74 48 30 1 


72 


43 


40 


67 


33 50 1 


68 


23 


30 


70 


02 


00 


72 


30 


10 


74 


10 


04 


73 


02 


00 


71 


17 


00 


72 


01 


00 


74 


16 


44 


71 


00 


20 


73 


i8 


45 



o / 

23 40 



24 16 

20 50 
23 50 



24 00 

23 56 



24 10 

24 10 



23 56 
23 56 

24 00 



23 40 

24 20 



24 00 



22 30 
22 30 



24 00 



20 54 



23 50 

23 56 
28 50 

24 40 



H.W. 



R. &S. 



h. m. 
2 00 



3 00 
Noon. 



10 40 



4 40 
3 28 



3 20 

3 20 

4 00 
4 00 
2 00 



1 00 

2 00 



1 30 



5 30 
5 30 



1 00 



9 48 40 



Feet. 
6 E. 



9 E. 
6 N.E. 



6 E. 
6 E. 



6 N.K. 

4 S. E. 



2 05 

30 

1 00 



74 



TABLE OF POSITION'S. 



Lat. 
South. 



SOUTH OF 50° — continued. 

Law Peaks — northernmost 

Leading Hill - summit 

Lennox Harbour— O.S. 

Lennox Road— Luff Islet— summit 

Lindell Rock 

Lion Mount — summit 

Longchase Cape — western pitch 

Lort Point— eastern pitch 

Lucia, Santa— Cape — summit 

Magdalena Isle, Sta.— north-west cliff 

March Harbour — O.S 

Martha, Santa— Island — summit 

Magalhaens Strait— eastern entrance — Ob-1 

servation for tide J 

Magalhaens Strait— eastern entrance ... 
Magalhaens Strait— eastern entrance ... 
Magalhaens Strait — eastern entrance ... 
Magalhaens Strait— eastern entrance ... 
Magalhaens Strait- eastern entrance ... 
Magalhaens Strait— eastern entrance ... 

Martens Peaks— highest 

Martin, St., Cove— O.S 

Mary, St., Point— extremity 

Mateo, San, Point— extreme 

Maxwell Island— summit 

Maxwell Mount 

May Point — western extreme 

Medio Cape— north-east cliff. 

Mercy (Misericordia, orSeparation) Harbour 1 

— Bottle Island summit .= / 

Meta Islet — central summit 

Michael Point— extremity 

Mid Bay Rocks— largest 

Middle Islet — summit 

Middle Cape — north-west cliff 

Middle Cove, Wollaston Island — Observa-1 

tion Spot on beach J 

Middle Hill 

Mitchell Cape — north-west pitch 

Monday Cape — extreme of 

Monmouth Cape— west head 

Monmouth Island — summit 

Moore Monument 

Morrion, El— summit 

Murray Narrow— Eddy Point 

Nassau Island — south-east point 

Nativity Cape— western pitch 

Negro Cape — south-west extreme cliff. 

Newton Point — extreme of Windhond Bay... 
Newyear Islands — north-eastern point 
Nicholson Rocks — south-western rock 

Nodales Peak 

Noir Island— O.S 

Noir Island — Cape Noir— extreme 

Nombre Head — north-east cliff 

North Cove— O. S 

North Hill — summit 

Northern Rock (above water) off Diego Ra- 
mirez 



Long. 
West. 



52 53 00 
55 33 20 
55 17 00 

55 18 40 

56 Q4 30 

50 20 00 

54 45 40 

55 40 30 

51 30 00 

52 54 15 
55 22 35 
52 50 00 

52 26 00 

52 26 00 
52 32 00 
52 31 00 
52 22 00 

52 14 GO 

52 15 00 
55 43 00 
55 5» 20 

53 21 15 
5> 23 50 
55 47 30 

53 47 10 
55 22 20 

54 12 15 

52 44 58 

52 29 15 

50 17 00 

53 50 10 

55 36 15 

54 48 20 

55 35 30 

51 49 56 
55 57 30 
53 09 12 
53 20 30 
53 41 45 

51 39 30 
53 33 20 
55 01 00 

53 50 23 
55 27 30 

52 56 40 
55 15 45 

54 39 00 

55 03 00 

53 50 40 

54 28 15 
54 30 00 
52 39 00 
54 24 25 
51 47 30 

56 24 40 



Var. 

East. 



}l 



74 33 00 

69 iti 40 
66 49 00 

66 44 45 
68 43 10 

68 49 30 
71 04 00 

67 59 00 

75 29 00 

70 35 25 

69 59 34 

70 34 45 

68 57 00 

69 00 00 
68 59 00 
68 42 00 

68 39 00 

69 06 00 
G9 24 00 
67 19 00 
67 34 00 

70 57 45 
74 04 00 
67 30 45 
72 15 00 
70 09 30 

66 51 20 

74 39 14 

72 55 40 
74 48 00 

73 35 «o 

67 17 45 
64 45 20 

68 19 00 

69 22 40 
68 14 00 
73 22 00 

70 27 45 
72 11 45 

72 52 40 

73 32 15 

68 14 20 

71 04 30 

69 48 30 

70 49 00 

67 52 40 
64 06 20 

71 23 20 

71 09 45 

72 59 45 

73 05 30 

68 34 50 
72 18 10 

69 25 40 

68 43 00 



H.W. 



R &S. 



23 40 
23 40 



23 30 

22 00 

24 04 

23 58 
22 30 



22 00 



22 40 

24 23 

23 26 



24 10 



23 48 
23 00 



23 50 



23 00 



23 20 

23 40 

24 00 



22 30 
24 20 

24 40 

25 00 

24 30 

24 30 



Feet. 



4 40 
4 40 



4 30 



3 10 



N. E. 

N. 



8 56 45 w.s.w. 

8 47 

7 40 

8 37 
8 13 
8 24 
8 46 



s.w. 

s.s.w. 

42 w. 

39 S.S.W. 

w.s.w. 

35 



4 4> 



3 00 



1 10 



3 30 



3 00 



3 00 



2 30 



w. 

S.E. 



S.E. 
S.B. 



TABLE OF POt^lTlONS. 



SOUTH OF 50^ — continued. 

Nose Peak — summit 

Notch Mountain' — summit 

Notch Cape — extremity 

Observation Mount — summit 

Observation Mount — summit — on west coast 

Oeste Point — extremity 

Oracion and Isthmus Bays — Isthmus middle 

Orange Cape — north extremity 

Orange Peak 

Orange Bay— Burnt Island — summit ... 

Orange Bay — O.S 

Orozco Table — south-east summit 
Oazy Harbour — head at west en trance ... 

Packsaddle Island — summit 

Parker Cape — western summit over ... 
Parry Harbour — north-west point 
Paulo, Sail, Cape — north-east cliff 
Paulo, San, Mount — northern summit 

Pecket Harbour — south summit 

Peel Inlet — north-east extreme 

Penas Cape- — south-east cliff 

Penas Cape — offing near 

Peter Mount 

Philip, St., Bay 

Philip, St., Bay 

Philip, San, Mount — summit 

Phillip Cape— summit 

Phillips Rocks — largest, summit 

Picton Island — Cape Maria — south-east ex- \ 

treme j 

Pillar Cape (or Pilar) — northern cliff ... 

Pillar Rock, at extremity 

Pinto Hills — eastern summit 

Pio, San, Cape— south pitch 

Playa Parda — Shelter Isle summit 

Policarpo Point — extreme 

Pond Mount ... 

Porpoise Point — north-east extremity... 
Portland Bay — west point of islet 

Possession Cape— middle of cliff 

Possession Bay — western bank 

Providence Cape — south extreme 

Pyramid Hill^summit 

Preserve Islands — summit of west island 
Quarter Master Island — north point ... 
Quoin Head — south extreme, summit ... 

Quod Cape— extremity 

Ramirez Diego Islands — highest summit 

Red Hill 

Redbill Island — summit 

Rejoice Harbour — north point extreme 

Rees Cape — east pitch 

Renouard Island — summit 

Richardson Mount — summit... 

Roca Partida — summit 

Rocky Point — extreme 

Roldans Bell— summit 

Roos de Cape — north-east pitch 

Rose Mount — Whittlebury Island 



Lat. 
South. 



o t If 

53 52 30 
55 04 30 

53 25 00 

50 32 35 
52 28 58 

51 31 45 

52 10 00 
52 27 10 
52 28 15 
55 31 00 
55 30 50 

54 40 40 
52 42 00 

55 23 50 
52 42 00 
54 25 15 
54 16 20 
54 39 30 

52 47 10 
50 38 00 

53 51 30 

54 08 00 
52 22 00 
52 35 00 

52 40 00 

53 36 25 
52 44 20 

55 »4 10 

55 07 00 

52 42 50 
50 02 00 

52 23 00 

55 03 15 

53 18 45 

54 39 00 

53 51 45 
52 55 30 

14 45 
17 00 
19 00 
52 59 00 

54 27 00 

54 23 00 

52 56 00 

53 44 15 

53 32 10 

56 28 50 

55 34 00 

50 05 30 

51 02 15 
55 05 00 

52 34 50 

54 45 50 
50 45 00 

54 57 45 

53 57 40 

55 34 20 
55 13 20 



50 
52 
52 



Long. 
West. 



Var. 
East. 



H.W. 



/ 


// 


/ 


70 05 


20 




70 30 


30 




72 48 55 


23 40 


69 00 


20 




74 36 


02 


25 09 


74 08 


41 




73 40 


00 




69 28 


00 


22 30 


69 25 


10 




68 02 


20 


23 56 


68 05 


17 


23 56 


65 59 45 




70 36 35 


23 50 


68 04 


20 


23 50 


74 14 


30 




69 20 


00 




66 40 


05 




72 01 


00 




70 46 


15 


23 29 


73 36 


30 




67 33 


20 


22 00 


66 53 


00 




72 40 


30 




69 49 


00 


22 40 


69 42 


00 


22 40 


71 00 


00 




73 56 44 




70 57 


00 




66 46 


45 




74 43 


20 


23 50 


75 23 


15 


23 00 


72 20 


00 




66 30 


30 




73 01 


30 


23 45 


65 39 


30 




71 56 


30 




70 48 


00 


23 30 


74 40 


30 




68 56 


20 


22 40 


69 20 


00 




73 34 


45 


23 22 


71 07 


40 




71 35 


00 




70 22 


35 


23 20 


70 43 


15 


23 20 


72 33 


25 




68 42 


30 


24 30 


68 09 


00 




74 48 


00 




74 19 


45 




67 01 


00 


23 20 


73 43 


00 




63 51 


05 




75 02 


00 




65 46 


00 




71 47 


15 




67 20 


00 


23 45 


70 10 


00 





1 00 



9 00 



3 30 

o 30 
3 30 



12 00 

6 42 
6 27 

9 40 
9 00 



1 00 



1 oB 



Noon. 

8 40 
8 19 



R. &S. 



Feet. 



46 \v. 

5 N. 

6 N. 



12 N W. 
12W.N.W. 

30 s.w. 

24 



6 K. S. E. 



40 W. 
42 S.S.W. 



Noon. 9 N. 



Noon. 



4 00 



4 00 



3 30 7 



76 



TABLE OF POSITIONS. 



SOUTH OF SO' — continued. 

Round Cape (or Redondo Cape) — summit ... 

Rowlett Cape — extreme 

Rowley Cape — south-west pitch 

Ragged Point — extreme south 

Rugged Point — western extreme 

Sanchez Cape 

Sanderson Island — south extreme 

Sandy Point — extremity 

Santiago Cape — summit 

Sarmiento Mount — north-east peak 

Saturday Harbour — O.S 

Schetky Cape — southern pitch 

Schomberg Cape — western pitch 

Scott Island — summit 

Scourfield Cape — north-east pitch 

Sea Rock — summit 

Sebastian, San, Cape — northern height 

Selina Island — summit 

Sesambre — summit 

Seymour Mount — summit 

Sharp Peak — Wickhara Island — summit ... 

Singular Peak 

Skyring Mount — summit 

Sloggett Bay — Island, south extreme of 
Snowy Sound— extreme of Islet at entrance 

South Cape — south extreme cliff 

Southern Rock (Diego Ramirez) 

Spaniard Harbour — n.w. extreme 

Spencer Cape — south-east summit , 

Staines Peninsula— Isthmus centre 

Stepout Mount 

Stewart Harbour — O.S 

Stokes Monument 

Stokes Mount 

Sulivan Head — south-west summit 

Sunday Cape —north-east cliff 

Sunday Cape— summit 

Swim Bluff 

Tapering Point — extremity 

Tamar Cape — south extreme 

Tame-seal Islet — middle 

Tarn Mount — peak'at north end 

Turn Cape — extremity 

Tate Cape — summit 

Tekeenica Sound— nortli-west extremity ... 

Terhalten Island — summit 

Terhalten, Island — Cape Caroline — south-1 

extreme ._ ... f 

Thomas Point — extreme 

Three Peaks Mount — summit 

Tiger Mount , 

Tower Point— tower 

Tower Rocks— eastern rock 

Townshend Harbour — O.S , 

Trafalgar Mount — summit , 

Treble Island — southern summit 

Tres Puntas — Cape , 

Trigo Mount — summit , 

Tussuck Rock 



Lat. 
South. 


Long. 
West. 


Var. 
Eaot. 


H.W. 


R. 


<SiS. 


o 1 II 


1 II 


/ 


h. m. 


Feet. 


50 51 00 


69 04 50 


21 30 


9 30 '40 


N. 


54 14 -IS 


70 08 15 










54 55 00 


67 00 00 










55 39 10 


69 05 40 










53 47 10 


73 35 00 










51 06 56 


69 03 40 










55 38 40 


68 49 00 










53 09 ^5 


70 52 00 










50 42 00 


75 28 00 










54 27 15 


70 51 15 










53 »o 15 


74 18 00 


24 20 


2 00 


5 


S.E. 


53 21 40 


74 12 45 


24 00 


2 00 


5 


S.E. 


54 39 00 


72 07 00 


24 40 


2 30 


5 




55 16 50 


67 46 00 










55 45 15 


67 08 00 










55 15 00 


70 28 30 






A 


N.W. 


53 19 00 


68 09 50 


22 40 


7 00 


to 


54 55 20 


71 30 20 






NNW. 


55 27 15 


^^ 59 30 










54 19 05 


69 50 20 










54 06 50 


70 26 45 










50 24 00 


74 33 45 










54 24 48 


72 11 20 


24 30 


2 30 


5 




55 02 15 


66 20 00 










53 31 00 


72 40 00 










54 51 00 


64 45 40 










56 29 52 


68 42 20 


25 00 


4 00 


6 


E. 


54 53 00 


65 53 00 










55 55 00 


67 37 40 


24 30 


4 40 


8 


E. 


51 40 35 


73 41 40 










50 11 45 


70 16 45 










54 54 24 


71 29 02 


24 14 


2 50 


5 


S.E. 


51 02 00 


75 00 00 










50 29 00 


73 05 00 










55 20 50 


69 45 45 










53 39 50 


67 56 20 


22 50 


6 00 


12 


N.W. 


53 10 30 


74 22 00 










50 04 20 


69 33 00 










50 28 55 


74 41 45 










53 55 30 


73 48 10 


23 24 


2 30 


6 


E. 


53 23 30 


74 05 30 










53 45 06 


71 02 10 










54 24 08 


71 07 30 


24 00 


1 20 


6 


N. E. 


53 37 15 


73 51 30 










55 15 00 


68 54 00 










55 26 15 


67 01 30 


23 40 


4 30 


8 


E. 


55 21 10 


65 52 15 


23 45 


4 37 


8 


E. 


52 26 00 


72 48 00 










53 42 40 


72 44 15 










51 21 36 


69 01 46 










54 59 30 


66 01 30 










54 36 40 


73 02 50 


25 00 








54 42 15 


71 55 30 


24 34 


2 30 


5 


E. 


51 38 00 


74 24 45 










55 07 50 


71 02 20 


24 15 


3 00 


5 


S.E. 


50 02 00 


75 21 00 










51 15 04 


74 15 45 










54 34 00 


72 12 10 


25 00 


2 30| 5 


N.E. 



TAULE OF POSITIONS. 



77 



SOUTH OF 30" — continued. 

Twoboats Point — north extreme 

Upright Cape— north extreme 

Union Peak — summit 

Valentyn Harbour — Observation Mount 
Valentyn Cape — summit at extreme ... 
Vancouver Port — head south-west of ... 

Vauverlandt Islet — summit 

Vernal Mount — summit 

Vicente, San, Cape — extreme 

Vicente, San, Cape — south-west summit\ 

(west coast) J 

Vicente, San, Cape— west extreme ... ., 

Victory Cape — extremity 

Virgins Cape — south-east extreme 

Walker Bay — height south of , 

Waller Point — extreme 

Warping Cove — O.S 

Walter Point — eastern pitch of 

Webley Cape — Islet off extreme point 

Webster Mount — summit • 

Weddell Cape — south-west pitch ■ 

West Point — extremity 

West Hill — Hermite Island— summit ... .. 

West Mountain — summit 

West Channel— nortli head, summit ... .. 
West Channel — south head, summit ... •. 

West Cliff Cape — cliff extreme , 

Western Station — Santa Cruz river 

Westminster Hall — eastern summit ... ., 

Wiiitshed Mount — summit 

White Horse Islet — north summit ... .. 

Wilson Cape — south-west summit 

Windhond Bay 

Windward Bay — beach 

Wollaston Island — largest— summit of ... .. 

WooUya — settlement 

York Minster— summit 

WEST COAST OF PATAGONIA. 
Placed by Latitude from 50° Northwards. 

Double Peak Mount — western peak ... . 

Neesham Bay — beach 

Cape Primero — extremity 

Mount Corso — south-west summit 

Cathedral — Mount — summit 

Sandy Bay— east point 

Mouit Corso — N.E. summit 

Cape Brentou — summit 

Falcon Inlet — south-east extremity ... . 

Saumarez Island — Bold Head 

Fury Cove — height east of 

Falcon Inlet — Cape Wellesley — extremity . 

Offshore Islet — centre 

Picton Opening — middle of 

Mount Jervis — summit 

Level Bay— west point — extremity ... . 

Cape Montague — western cliff 

Western Rock — centre 



Lat. 
South. 



54 52 30 

53 04 03 

54 50 45 

52 55 00 

53 33 30 

54 49 50 

55 19 30 
54 06 28 

54 38 40 

51 30 00 

52 46 20 

52 16 10 

53 20 10 
50 22 00 

55 10 10 

54 24 08 

54 55 15 

55 16 15 

54 47 12 

55 33 00 
55 50 15 
55 50 30 
54 50 00 
50 22 15 
50 33 30 
50 36 30 

50 12 40 

52 37 18 

54 08 00 

51 07 50 

55 04 45 

55 15 00 
50 03 12 

56 27 44 
55 03 40 
55 24 50 



49 58 20 
49 53 54 
49 50 05 
49 48 00 
49 46 30 
49 45 40 
49 45 15 
49 39 00 
49 38 00 
49 32 48 
49 31 50 
49 28 30 
49 25 10 
49 15 00 
49 08 30 
49 07 45 
49 07 30 
49 01 00 



Long. 
West. 



69 37 00 

73 36 00 

70 08 00 

74 18 45 
70 33 45 
64 05 45 
67 57 00 

01 



71 
65 



24 
14 15 

74 00 15 

70 26 25 

74 54 39 
68 21 34 

74 53 15 

66 28 00 

71 08 20 

70 58 00 
68 06 00 
64 04 52 
68 45 00 

67 54 30 
67 46 45 

64 35 35 

75 22 00 
75 28 15 
75 31 45 

71 50 00 

74 24 10 
71 14 00 

75 14 40 
71 01 00 

67 50 00 

74 41 45 

68 43 01 
68 03 00 
70 02 30 



74 41 00 

74 59 00 

75 35 30 
75 34 00 
74 43 50 

74 16 45 

75 32 00 
75 31 00 

73 36 30 

74 06 15 

74 03 00 

73 54 25 

75 3S 00 
75 23 00 

74 11 15 

74 14 00 

75 37 00 
75 48 40 



Var. 
East. 



H. W. 



23 30 

24 00 

23 50 

22 50 

22 30 

24 57 

23 40 

24 20 



20 58 



20 20 



h. m. 

1 30 

2 00 

4 40 
4 30 



8 50 



3 30 



4 30 



4 n 



1 15 



R. &S. 



Feet. 



7 E. 
10 N.W. 



38 



/n. to 

X, N.W. 



9 E. 



10 



78 



TABLE OF POSITIONS. 



WEST COAST OF PATAGONIA- 

continued. 



Lat. 
South. 



Long. 
West. 



Wildcoast Head Cliff— summit 

Eyre Sound — north-east extremity 

Halt Bay — middle of islet close to 

Dyneley Point — extreme 

Parallel Point — extreme 

Parallel Peak— summit 

Station Head — summit of 

Conglomerate Point — extreme ... ... .• 

White Kelp Cove— summit over west side .. 

Breaker Peak— summit 

Middle Island — north point— extremity 

Point Breakoff — extreme 

Fallos Channel — Duplicate Mount — south"! 

summit / 

Black Island — south-east summit 

Dundee Rock — summit 

Cape Dyer — extremity 

Miller Island — south extreme _ ... 

Port Santa Barbara— Observation Point, l^ 

north extreme J 

Bynoe Islands— northern centre 

Millar Monument — at north extreme 

Campanula Island — summit at south end ... 
Good Harbour — Isthmus at the bottom 

Bynoe Island— western extremity 

Cape San Roman— north extremity 

Wager Island — eastern point — extremity ... 

Supposed position of Wager's Wreck 

Speedwell Bay — hill at north-east point 

Northernmost Islet — summit 

Ayautau Island— summit of largest 

Channel's Mouth — largest rock off entrance 
Channel's Mouth — east side of northemmosti 

Hazard Islet J 

CHONOS ARCHIPELAGO. 

Xavier Island — Ignacio Beach 

Jesuit Sound — central mount 

Xavier Island — Lindsay Point — north-east"! 

extremity J 

Kelly Harbour — south point extreme 

Kelly Harbour — north point extreme 

Cape Tres Montes — extremity 

Cape Tres Montes— summit over 

Purcell Island — summit 

Cirujano Islet — north-east point 

Forelius Peninsula — Isthmus (narrowest part) 

Port Otway— Observation Spot 

Port Otway— summit over southern entrance) 

head , J 

Cape Raper— rock close to 

Bad Bay — summit west of 

Point Rees — extreme 

Sugar Loaf— summit 

Mitford Head— summit 

St. Paul's Dome — summit 

Small Islet near Cape Gallegos 

Cape Gallegos — summit 



48 57 30 
48 57 00 

48 54 15 
48 50 00 

48 47 45 
48 45 40 
48 39 00 
48 36. 15 
48 30 15 
48 28 00 
48 27 35 
48 26 00 

48 19 00 

48 12 00 

48 06 15 

48 06 00 

48 03 20 

48 02 20 

47 58 00 
47 55 50 
47 45 00 
47 45 00 
47 44 40 
47 44 30 
47 41 00 
47 39 30 
47 39 30 
47 38 10 
47 34 15 
47 29 30 

47 28 55 



47 10 00 
47 09 30 

47 03 15 

46 59 30 

46 59 00 
46 58 57 
46 57 50 
46 55 20 
46 51 10 
46 50 oo 
46 49 31 
46 49 30 



46 49 10 
46 47 10 
46 44 40 
46 42 40 
46 39 00 
46 36 16 
46 35 40 
46 35 00 



75 32 00 

73 41 45 

74 14 20 

75 26 00 
75 34 40 
75 31 00 

74 10 60 

75 35 00 

74 17 10 

75 32 30 

74 21 40 

75 33 40 
75 14 00 

74 32 00 

75 42 00 
75 34 20 

74 35 30 

75 29 20 
75 23 30 
74 41 30 

74 37 10 

75 20 20 
75 24 20 
74 52 30 

74 55 00 

75 06 30 
75 10 00 

75 14 00 
74 40 20 
74 29 30 

74 24 20 



74 25 40 

74 08 20 

74 16 00 

74 08 30 

74 05 50 

75 27 50 
75 27 55 
74 39 45 
74 21 45 

74 41 40 

75 19 20 

75 i8 00 

75 40 55 

74 51 40 

75 42 20 
75 15 00 
75 40 30 
75 13 40 
75 40 00 
75 28 30 



Var. 
East. 



H.W. 



R.&S. 



Feet. 



12 30 



12 00 



19 10 



11 45 



19 50 



20 32 



Noon. 



d 



TABLE OF POSITIONS. 



79 



CHONOS ARCHIPELAGO — Continued. 

Christmas Cove — O. S. — atsoutli-east extre-"\ 
mityofcove ... J 

Cone — summit 

Point Pringle — extremity 

Rescue Point — summit — northern 

Hellyer Rocks— middle 

Cape Taytao — western extreme 

SJjyring Monument — summit 

Mount Gallegos — summit 

Patch Cove — O. S. — under Mount Gallegos 

Pert Refuge— Puentes Island — summit 

Inche Island — south-east summit 

Anna Pink Bay — St. Julian Island— summit 

Mount Haddington — summit 

Mensuan Island — summit 

Mount Riviere — summit 

Midbay Rock — centre 

Cape Garrido — northern extreme 

Darwin Channel— north-east head 

Mount Isquiliac — summit 

Vallenar Road— O.S. — south-east extreme\ 
of Three-finger Island / 

Lemu Island — summit 

Paz Island — summit 

Huamblin (or Socorro) Island — south extreme 

Huamblin (or Socorro) Island — west head ... 

Ypun (or Narborough) Island — John Point! 
— extremity j 

Stokes Island — summit 

Cape Lort — summit over 

Hulk Rocks — northern — above water... 

Mount Main — summit 

Melletsh Island — western extremity ... 

Melimoyu Mountain — summit 

Tuamapu Island— summit 

Huaytecas Island — central summit 

Point Huayhuin — western islet off 

Port Low— O.S. on rocky islet in harbour 

Point Chaylime — north extremity 

Huacanec Islets — northernmost — small 

Queytao Islet — largest — summit 

ARCHIPELAGO OF CHILOE. 

Huafo Island — south extremity 

Huafo Island— east point (of coves) ... 
Huafo Island — summit over north west, or 

weather, point 

Huafo Island — northern rock j... 

Canoitad Rock— summit ... 

Yanteles Mountain — summit— southern 
Huapiquilan Islands — southern islet summit 
Larger Island Huapiquilan— southern summit 

San Pedro Mountain — summit 

San Pedro Passage — O.S. in cove 

Cape Quilan — south-west extreme 

Laytec Island — south-east extremity 

Corcorado Mountain — summit 

Huildad Harbour 

Point Sentinela — extremity 



} 



Lat. 




Long 




Var. 


Soutl 


. 


West 




East. 


o / 


// 


1 


II 


/ 


46 35 


00 


75 34 05 


20 40 


46 34 


10 


75 31 


GG 




46 30 


50 


75 33 


00 




46 18 


10 


75 13 


45 




46 04 


00 


75 14 


00 




45 53 


20 


75 08 


GO 




45 53 


10 


75 04 


00 




45 52 


45 


74 56 


45 




45 52 


15 


74 55 50 


20 31 


45 '51 


36 


74 51 


25 




45 48 


05 


75 01 


OG 


20 36 


45 47 


25 


74 55 


OG 




45 43 


25 


74 39 


50 




45 36 


00 


74 56 


00 




45 34 


45 


74 35 


00 




45 27 


30 


74 45 


00 




45 26 


10 


74 32 


20 




45 25 


GO 


74 25 


00 




45 20 


00 


74 21 


40 




45 18 


30 


74 36 


•5 


20 48 


45 12 


10 


74 34 


15 




44 57 


00 


74 40 


45 




44 55 50 


75 12 


45 




44,49 


30 


75 14 


45 




44 40 40 


74 48 


30 




44 40 


30 


74 33 


10 




44 32 


35 


74 50 


20 




44 16 


00 


74 33 


00 




44 09 


00 


74 11 


45 




44 04 


45 


74 23 


50 




44 01 


30 


73 07 


00 




43 58 


30 


74 15 


2G 




43 52 


45 


74 01 


00 




43 51 


00 


74 13 


00 




43 48 


30 


74 03 05 


19 48 


43 46 


10 


73 65 40 




43 46 


05 


74 03 30 




43 43 


00 


73 35 30 




43 41 


50 


74 46 


00 




43 38 40 


74 34 40 




43 35 


30 


74 48 


40 


19 00 


43 32 


00 


74 44 


20 




43 30 


GO 


73 50 


30 




43 30 


00 


72 50 


30 




43 29 


30 


74 15 


00 




43 26 


30 


74 17 50 




43 21 


00 


73 49 


00 




43 19 


35 


73 45 


20 




43 17 


IG 


74 26 


00 




43 15 


05 


73 36 


00 




43 11 


2G 


72 48 


40 




43 03 


00 


73 34 


00 


IB 30 


42 59 


25 


73 22 


30 





H.W. 



h. m. 
o 45 

G 14 

o 45 
o 45 



o 40 



11 45 
o 30 

o 37 
o 48 



R. i&S. 



Feet. 
5 N.] 

5 N.E. 

5 E. 

5 E. 



N.E. 



80 



TABLE OF POSITIONS, 



ARCHIPELAGO OF ciiiLOE — continued. 

Cape Ypuntad — north-west extremity 

Quilaii Cove— O.S 

Mount Vilcun — summit 

Minchinmadom Mountain — south summit ... 

Talcan Harbour— O.S 

Pirulil Head - north-west extremity 

Lemuy Island — Apabon peaked hil) 

Yal Point — summit 

Nihuel Islet— summit 

Alao Island — summit 

Huentemo Head — summit 

Cahuache Island — summit 

Castro Town— easternmost part 

Dalcahue — Chapel 

Cape Matalqui — west extreme 

Chaugues Islands— north summit 

Matalqui Height— summit 

Quicavi BluflF 

Quintergen Point— summit 

Oscuro Port— O.S 

Huapilinao Head— summit 

Lobos Head— summit 

Cocotue Height — summit 

San Carlos — town — landing-place at Mole ... 

Poloque Island— south point 

San Carlos Harbour — Point Arenas — O.S. 

San Carlos Harbour — English Bank 

Point Tres Cruces — extreme pitch 

Abtao Island — s. Point 

Cape Guabun — north-west extreme 

Point Sanoullan — north-eastern cliif 

Calbuco Fort — east end of island 

Calbuco — another observation 

Corona Head— northern pitch 

COAST OF CHILE. 

Mount Yate (or Llebcan) — summit 

Carelmapu Cove — O.S 

MauUin — Amortajado — north extreme 

River Coyhuin— mouth 

Point Godoy— south-west extreme 

Quellaype Mountain— summit 

Osorno Mountain— summit 

Point Coronel— south extremity 

Cape Quedal — summit 

Manzano Cove — rivulet — mouth , 

Milagro Cove — depth of 

River Bueno — entrance (bar) 

Point Galera — west extremity 

Falsa Point — summit over (highest) , 

Valdivia — O. S. near Fort Corral , 

Gonzales Head— northern pitch 

Valdivia Town — landing-place opposite 

church (Hospital Mole) 

Chanchan Cove — Islet off 

River Tolten— mouth 

Cauten (or Imperial) River — mouth .. 

Cauten Head Cliff — summit 

Mocha Island — south summit 



} 



Lat. 
South. 


Long. 
West. 


Var. 

East. 


H.W. 


R. 


&s. 


O 1 II 


/ // 


/ 


b. m. 


Feet. 


42 59 15 


74 16 50 










4'2 52 00 


73 33 00 


18 40 


29 






4'2 48 50 


72 52 50 










42 48 00 


72 34 30 










42 47 00 


72 58 00 




1 03 


16 


»■' 


43 44 40 


74 11 00 










42 40 00 


73 35 30 




55 




( 


42 39 00 


73 43 00 




55 




1 


42 36 10 


72 58 10 








1 

1 


42 35 00 


73 22 00 




31 


18 


N.!: 


42 34 20 


74 12 40 








!■ 


42 28 05 


73 18 45 










42 27 45 


73 49 20 


18 35 


11 


18 


N. 


42 23 00 


73 40 00 




26 






42 10 40 


74 14 00 










42 15 00 


73 18 00 




28 






42 10 30 


74 11 '0 










42 15 00 


73 24 00 




51 


20 


N. 


42 09 25 


73 24 00 










42 04 00 


73 29 00 




1 00 


20 


N. 


41 57 36 


73 32 20 




1 25 


15 


N.| 


42 04 00 


73 27 00 




29. 






41 56 40 


74 05 35 










41 52 00 


73 52 40 


18 33 


11 15 


6 


£. 


41 51 00 


73 06 00 




1 05 




' 


41 51 20 


73 56 00 


iB 00 


14 


6 


E. 


41 49 00 


73 54 00 




04 






41 49 30 


73 31 40 




1 13 


i& 




41 48 00 


73 26 00 




50 


18 




41 47 50 


74 05 55 










41 47 30 


73 35 20 




48 


17 




41 46 10 


73 10 45 




1 18 


22 




41 46 00 


73 11 00 




47 


18 




41 46 00 


73 57 30 










41 45 30 


72 31 50 










41 45 00 


73 45 00 




50 


10 


% 


41 37 15 


73 44 30 










41 40 00 


72 45 00 




52 


21 


», 


41 34 15 


73 50 20 










41 22 00 


72 43 30 










41 09 30 


73 36 45 










41 07 40 


73 31 45 










41 03 00 


73 59 50 










40 33 20 


73 45 50 










40 16 00 


73 45 00 










40 11 00 


73 44 00 










40 02 00 


73 46 40 










40 00 50 


73 40 50 










39 52 53 


73 29 00 


18 15 


10 35 


5 




39 51 15 


73 30 00 










39 49 02 


73 '8 30 


18 20 


10 45 


Varblel 


39 26 40 


73 18 30 








1 


39 07 45 


73 19 00 








1 


38 47 40 


73 26 00 








1 


38 40 40 


73 30 20 








1 


38 24 10 


73 56 50 








1 



TABLE OF POSITIONS. 



81 



COAST OF CHILE — conl'imied. 

Cape Tinia — summit of islet off 

Mocha Island — north summit 

Mocha Island — O.S. — east side, near north 1 

point j 

Molguilla Point — south-west extreme 

Point Tucapel— extreme 

River Lelibu — entrance 

Tucapel Head — summit 

Carnero Head — western summit 

Arauco Fort— middle 

Tubul River — south head — entrance 

Cape Rumena — north- \vest cliff — summit ... 

Laraquete River — mouth 

Point Lavapie — extremity 

Colcura Village— western pitch of hill 

Santa Maria Island — O. S. near rivulet (Iand-"l 

ing place) J 

Santa Maria Island — summit of west head ... 

Point Coronei — west extremity 

Concepcion City — middle — nearest to river... 

River Bio Bio— south entrance point 

Talcahuano — Fort Galvez 

Point Tumbes — north-west cliff 

Mount Neuke — summit 

Coliumo Head — north extreme 

Boquitata Point— western extreme 

Bio Bio Paps — south-west summit 

Carranza Point- — south-west extreme 

Cape Humos — summit 

Maule Church — rock near entrance 

Maule River — south head entrance 

Point Huachupure — extreme 

Topocalmo Point — summit on extremity ... 

Navidad Bay — River Rapel mouth 

Rapel Shoal (wrongly called Topocalma) ... 

Maypo River — south entrance head 

White Rock Point— White Rock 

Curaumilla Point — rock off 

Valparaiso — Fort San Antonio .. 

Quillota — Bell — summit 

Quiritero Rocks — body 

Quintero Point — summit 

Horcon Rock — largest 

Aconcagua— mountain— summit 

Papudo — Gobernador Mount over Bay 

Papudo Bay— O.S. lanaing-place 

Pichidanque — south-east point of island — \ 

O.S / 

Conchali Bay — islet in middle 

Point Tablas — south-west extremity 

River Chuapa — south entrance point ' 

Maytencilio Cove — north head 

Talinay Mount — summit 

Limari River — south head 

Lengua de Vaca — extremity 

Huanaquero Hill — summit 

Sugar Loaf Hill— north-west summit 

HeiTadura Port— south-west comer 

Coquimbo Port — northern islet (rock) 



Lat. 
South. 


Long. 
West. 


Var. 
West. 


H.W. 


R. &S. 


o / // 


/ // 


/ 


h. m. 


Feet. 


38 23 00 


73 34 30 








38 21 15 


74 01 09 








38 19 35 


74 00 20 


17 20 






37 48 00 


73 36 00 








37 42 00 


73 43 00 








37 35 45 


73 42 00 


17 10 


10 30 


5 N. 


37 35 20 


73 43 10 








37 21 20 


73 44 00 








37 15 00 


73 23 00 








37 14 25 


73 27 30 








37 12 45 


73 42 00 








37 10 30 


73 14 00 








37 08 50 


73 38 20 








37 02 50 


73 14 00 








37 02 48 


73 34 00 


17 GO 


10 20 


6 N. 


37 01 45 


73 36 30 








36 57 00 


73 15 00 








36 49 30 


73 05 20 








36 48 45 


73 13 00 








36 42 00 


73 10 00 


16 48 


10 14 


5 N. 


36 37 15 


73 10 20 








36 34 55 


72 58 00 








36 31 30 


73 01 15 








36 16 30 


72 54 45 








36 06 20 


73 14 40 








35 37 20 


72 42 20 








35 22 50 


72 33 GO 








35 19 40 


72 29 20 


16 24 






35 19 15 


72 28 00 








34 57 30 


72 16 30 








34 00 50 


72 05 00 








33 54 00 


71 52 20 








33 51 00 


71 56 30 








33 39 20 


71 43 >5 








33 29 00 


71 46 50 








33 06 00 


71 48 00 








33 01 53 


71 41 15 


15 18 


9 32 


5 N. 


32 57 10 


71 10 20 








32 52 20 


70 37 00 








32 46 00 


70 35 30 








32 41 50 


70 35 30 








32 38 30 


70 00 30 








32 31 00 


71 31 30 








32 30 09 


71 30 45 


15 12 






32 07 55 


71 36 00 


15 24 


9 20 


5 N. 


31 53 10 


71 36 00 








3' 51 45 


71 37 30 








31 39 30 


71 38 00 








31 17 05 


71 42 05 








30 50 45 


71 41 45 








30 44 53 


71 46 25 








30 13 40 


71 41 30 








30 12 50 


71 30 45 








30 GO 10 


71 26 10 








29 58 40 


71 25 45 


14 30 


9 8 


5 N. 


29 55 10 


71 25 10 


14 24 


9 8 


5 N- 



8^ 



TABLE OF POSITION'S. 



COAST OF CHILE — continued. 
Coquimbo City (La Serena)— Mr. Edwards's "\ 

house J 

Arrayan Cove— south point 

Juan Soldado, Mountain — summit 

Pajaro Islet — southern summit 

Yevba Buena, village — chapel 

Pajaro Islet — northern summit 

Trigo Ishmd—soutli-west point 

Tortoralillo— south entrance point 

Chungunga Islet— summit 

Toro Rock 

Chores Islands— south-west point of largest 

Polillao Cove— south point extreme 

Chafieral Bay— south-west point ... 

Chaneral Island — south-west summit 

Sarco Cove — middle of beach 

Cape Vascufian — Islet oif (rock) 

Alcalde Point — summit upon 

Huasco — Captain of Port's house 

Lobo Point outer pitch 

Herradura de Carrisal- landing-place 

Carrisal — middle point— south side ... ... 

Mataraores Cove— outer point on south side 

Pajonal Cove— south-east comer 

Salado Bay— Cachos Point— summit 

Copiapo — landing-place 

Morro— summit (Morro of Copiapo) 

Morro, Point — norihern extremity 

Port Yngles— sandy beach in south-west cor-^ 

ner J 

Cabeza de Vaca — point — extreme 

Flamenco — south-east corner of bay 

Las Animas — summit over point (outer) ... 

Pan de Azucar — islet— summit 

Ballenita — islet — off Ballenita 

Lavata — cove near south-west point 

Point San Pedro— summit 

Point Taltal — northern extreme 

Hueso Parado — south point of cove 

Point Grande — outer summit 

Point Grande — summit, amile and a-half in-'l 

shore J 

Paposo — white head 

COAST OF PERU. 

Mount Trigo — summit 

Reyes Head — extreme pitch 

Point Jara — summit 

Jaron Mountain — summit 

Moreno Mountain — summit 

Constitucion Cove— shingle point on island... 
George Mount — Morro Jorge — summit 

Mexillones Hill — summit 

Cobija— flagstaff — landing-place 

Algodon Bay — extremity of point 

Chipana Bay — O.S 

San Francisco Head — west pitch 

River Loa— mouth of 

Point Lobo, or Blanca — outer pitch 



Lat. 
North. 



29 54 10 

29 42 20 
29 41 30 
29 35 00 
29 34 00 
29 32 50 
29 32 35 
29 29 15 
29 24 15 
29 21 10 

29 15 45 
29 10 00 
29 02 40 
29 01 15 
28 50 00 
28 50 00 
28 34 16 
28 27 15 
28 17 50 
28 05 45 
28 04 30 
27 64 10 
27 43 30 
27 39 20 
27 20 00 
27 09 30 
27 06 45 

27 05 20 

26 51 05 
26 34 30 
26 23 35 
26 09 15 
25 45 45 
25 39 30 
25 31 00 
25 24 45 
25 24 30 
25 07 00 

25 07 00 



Long. 
W(.st. 



West. 



R. &S. 



o / // o / h. m. ' Feet. 



71 18 45 

71 23 
71 20 



71 36 

71 21 

71 37 

71 24 

71 23 

71 25 



35 
37 
34 



71 33 
71 39 
71 32 

71 34 
71 23 

71 19 
71 17 

71 15 
71 14 

71 12 
71 07 
71 06 
71 01 
71 01 
71 01 



45 
25 
25 
50 
30 
20 

45 
15 
25 
30 
10 
40 

05 
10 

30 
40 
00 
10 
45 
30 
35 
00 

25 
45 
45 
40 



70 56 00 

70 55 00 
70 47 30 
70 47 00 
70 47 05 
70 50 40 
o 47 15 
44 30 



70 



70 38 
70 35 



25 02 


30 


24 40 


00 


24 34 


30 


23 53 


00 


23 52 


30 


23 28 


30 


23 26 


42 


23 15 


10 


23 06 


30 


22 34 


00 


22 06 


00 


21 23 


00 


21 55 


50 


21 28 


00 


21 05 


30 



15 

J 6 



70 
70 



14 10 



15 
15 
70 33 30 

7" 33 45 

70 33 05 

70 36 15 
70 39 45 
70 35 45 
70 32 
70 38 
70 40 30 

70 39 45 
70 35 00 
70 21 05 
70 17 05 
10 50 

14 45 
7o 06 15 

70 15 45 



13 40 



13 37 
13 23 

13 28 
13 36 

13 30 

13 46 

13 30 



13 00 



12 48 



12 30 
12 06 



8 30 



8 30 



9 10 



9 40 



10 00 

10 32 
9 54 



TABLE OF POSITIONS. 



88 



COAST OF PERU — continued. 

Mount Carrasco — highest summit 

Pica Pabellon— summit 

Point Patache— extreme 

Iqiiique — centre of island 

Pisagua — Point Pichalo — extreme 

Point Gorda — western low extreme 

Point Lobo — summit 

Arica— summit of Monte Gordo 

Arica — Mole 

Sama — Mountain— highest summit 

Mollendo... 

Point Coles — extremity 

Ylo Town — rivulet mouth 

Tambo Valley — Point Mexico — south-westl 
extreme .f 

Islay — Custom House 

Islay — Mountain — summit 

Quilca— Cove — west head 

Pescadores Point — south-west extreme 

Atico — east cove 

Point Chala— extreme 

Lomas — flagstaff on Point 

San Juan— Needle Hummock 

Point Beware — south-west extreme 

Point Nasca — summit 

Dona Maria — Table— central summit 

Yndependencia Bay — south point of Santa "^ 
Rosa Island J 

Mount Carreta — summit 

Mount Wilson — summit 

San Gallan — Island — northern summit 
I Paraca Bay— west point— north extreme ... 

I Pisco— Town — middle 

ti Point Frayles — extreme 

\ Asia Rock — summit 

jl Chilca Point — south-west pitch • ... 

|! Chilca Cove — Rock— summit 

I Chorillos Bay 

Morro Solar — summit 

Callao Bay— Arsenal Flagstaff 

San Lorenzo Island — north point 

Hormigas Islet — largest (southern) 

Pescador Islands— summit of largest 

I Chancay Head — summit 

Pelado Islet — summit 

Salinas Hill — summit 

Huacho Point— extreme pitch 

Supe — west end of village 

; Jaguay, or Gramadel, Head — west extremity 

Huarmey — west end of sandy beach 

Colina Redonda — summit 

Mount Mongon— western summit 

Casma Bay — inner south point 

Samanco Bay— Cross Point 

I Ferrol Bay — Blanco Island — summit 

! Santa — centre of projecting point 

Chao Islet — centre , 

' Guaiiape Islands — summit of higliest 

Mount Wickham — summit 



Lat. 
South. 



Long. 
West. 



20 
9 



20 58 30 
20 57 40 
20 51 05 
12 30 

36 30 
19 00 

8 45 40 
8 28 55 
8 28 05 

58 35 
00 00 
42 00 

37 00 



7 10 50 



00 00 
56 05 
42 20 
23 50 
13 30 
48 00 



33 
20 



08 35 
57 00 
41 00 

4 18 15 

4 09 50 
4 04 50 
3 50 00 
3 48 00 
3 43 00 
3 01 00 
2 48 00 
2 31 00 
2 29 20 

2 11 30 

2 04 00 

2 04 00 

1 58 00 

1 47 10 

1 35 55 
1 27 10 

1 15 30 
1 08 45 
o 49 45 
o 25 15 
o 06 15 
38 35 
38 15 
28 00 

15 30 
06 30 
9 00 00 
8 46 30 
8 34 50 
8 20 00 



70 09 45 



70 
70 
70 



14 00 
18 15 
«4 30 



70 19 00 
70 21 30 
70 25 30 
70 23 30 
70 23 45 

70 56 15 

71 00 00" 
71 26 15 
71 23 45 

71 52 00 

72 10 15 
72 08 30 

72 31 00 

73 20 25 

73 45 '5 

74 31 00 

74 54 45 

75 13 20 
75 25 45 
75 34 30 

75 53 40 

76 13 30 

76 20 20 
76 20 15 

76 31 15 
76 22 15 
76 16 30 
7^ 34 50 
76 41 55 
76 52 40 

76 52 30 



77 06 
77 13 
77 19 
77 50 
77 19 
77 20 

77 53 
77 39 
77 40 

77 47 

78 03 

78 13 
78 24 
78 21 
78 25 
78 32 

78 39 
78 41 

78 49 
78 59 
78 49 



15 
30 
00 
00 
50 
35 
00 

55 

15 
00 

30 
00 
20 
15 
35 
45 
25 

30 
00 

15 
00 



Var. 

Eaot. 



12 l3 
11 30 

11 10 
11 00 

11 05 

11 00 
11 00 

10 45 

11 12 

10 48 
10 30 



9 30 



II 00 



H.W. 



10 00 
10 36 



10 12 



9 48 
9 42 

9 36 



9 30 
9 20 

9 32 



h. m. 
8 45 

8 00 
8 00 
8 20 

8 53 
8 00 

8 53 

8 19 
5 10 

4 50 
4 50 



3 37 
5 47 



R.&S. 



Feet. 



4 56 
4 44 3 



4 50 
6 10 

6 30 



84 



TABLE OF POSITIONS. 



COAST OF PERU — cor.tmued. 


Lat. 
South. 


Long. 
West. 


Var. 

East. 


H. W. 


R.&S. 


o / // 


/ // 





/ 


h. m. 


Feet. 


Truxillo — cliiirch 


8 07 30 


79 04 00 










Huaiichaco Point— south-west extremity ... 


8 05 40 


79 09 00 


9 


30 






Macabi Islet — summit 


7 49 15 


79 30 55 










San Nicholas Bay 










5 04 


3 


Malabrigo Bay — rocks 


7 42 40 


79 28 00 


9 


28 


5 00 


2 


Pacasmayo Point — north-west extreme 


7 25 15 


79 37 25 


9 


30 






Sana Point — extreme 


7 10 35 


79 43 30 










Lobos de Afuera Island— Fishing Cove onl 
east side J 


6 56 45 


Bo 43 55 


9 


20 






Eten Head— summit over 


6 56 40 


79 53 50 










Lambayeque— beach opposite 


6 46 00 


79 59 30 


9 


10 


4 00 


3 


Lobos de Tierra — central summit 


6 26 45 


80 52 50 










Point Ahuja — western cliff summit 


5 55 30 


81 10 00 










Sechura Town— church 


5 35 00 


80 49 45 










Lobos Island— near Payta— south extreme... 


5 13 35 


81 13 10 










Payta — Silla (or Saddle) — south summit ... 


5 12 00 


81 09 20 










Payta— new end of town 


5 05 30 


81 08 15 


9 


00 


3 20 


3 


Pariiia Point— extreme 


4 40 50 


81 20 45 










Cape Blanco— under middle high cliff 


4 16 40 


81 15 45 










Picos Point — extreme cliff 


3 45 10 


80 47 30 










Point Malpelo— mouth of Tumbes River ... 


3 30 40 


80 30 30 


8 


50 


4 00 


10 


Pun4 Island— Consulate on Point Espanola 


2 47 30 


79 57 45 


9 


00 


6 00 


11 


Guayaquil— south end of city 


2 13 00 


79 53 30 


8 


30 


7 00 


II 


GALAPAGOS ISLANDS. 














Hood Island — eastern summit 


1 25 00 


89 43 55 










Charles Island— summit 


1 19 00 


90 32 00 










Charles Island — Post Office Bay — south-"! 
east corner J 


I 15 25 


90 31 30 


9 


40 


2 10 


6 N. w. 


MacGower Rocks — middle 


1 08 30 


89 59 30 










Albemarle Island — Iguana Cove — south-'l 
west extreme J 


59 00 


91 32 15 


9 


30 


2 00 


6 N. 


Chatham Island— Watering Cove beach 


56 25 


89 33 25 










Barrington Island — summit at west end 


50 30 


90 10 00 










Chatliam Island — south-west point of Ste- 1 
phens Bay J 


50 00 


89 36 45 


9 


35 


2 23 


6i N.W. 


Chatham Island — eastern summit 


44 15 


89 20 45 










Indefatigable Island— summit of Islet in\ 
N.W. Bay— Eden Islet / 


33 25 


90 37 45 


9 


30 


1 56 


6 N.W. 


Narborough Island — north-west extremity ... 


20 00 


91 44 45 










Albemarle Island — Tagus Cove 


15 55 


91 26 45 










James Island — Sugar Loaf near west end ... 


15 20 


90 56 40 


9 


36 


3 10 


5 N. 


James Island — cove on N. E. side 


10 00 


90 50 00 


9 


30 


2 34 


5 


James Island — Adam Cove 


10 00 

NORTH. 


90 50 00 


9 


40 


•^ .4 


5 


Bindloes Island— southernmost summit 


18 50 


90 33 55 








-1 


Towers Island — westernmost cliff' 


20 00 


90 02 30 










Abingdon Island — summit 


34 25 


90 48 lO 


9 


35 


2 10 


^ N. W. 


Culpepper Islet— summit 


1 22 55 


91 53 30 










Wenman Islet — north-western summit 


1 39 30 


92 04 30 








-* 



From Callao to Guayaquil the longitudes depend upon Mr. Usboriie's survey, in the Consti- 
tucion. He had three chronometers fixed on board the vessel, and one which was used for . 
observations ; all four were good watches. If his whole meridian distance between Guayaquil 1 1 
and Callao is incorrect, the error, whatever it may be, must be distributed equally along that { 
j)ortion of coast, but I do not think there is an error of two miles ; probably, indeed, there is not ' 
near so great a deviation from truth, as Mr. Usborne landed for observations continually, and 
can"ied a connected triangulation from Callao to Pun^. 



85 



OTHER POSITIONS 

ASCERTAINED ANIJ USED TO CONTINUE THE CHAIN OF MERIDIAN DISTANCES. 



Not included in the Survey. 


Lat. 
South. 


Long. 


Var. 

East. 


H.W. 


R. iiS. 




/ 


// 


; // 


/ 


h. m. 


Feet. 


Otaheite — Point Venus* — extremity 


17 29 


15 


149 30 00 


7 54 


Noon- 


1 


* By continuing the chain of meridian dis-' 










every 




tances westward from Bahia (in Brazil), 










day. 




Otaheite (Point Venus extremity) would [ 

be in J 

And by taking the measures eastward fromi 
Bahia / 






149 34 30 












149 26 14 








The mean of the two is .. 






149 30 22 








The longitudes in the following list, from New 














Zealand to Ascension, are obtained by adding 














the meridian distances eastivard from Bahia. 






EAST, 








New Zealand — Bay of Islands — Paihia Islet 


36 16 


30 


174 09 45 


14 00 


9 «6 


6 N.W. 


Sydney — Fort Macquarrie — flag-staff 


33 51 


30 


151 17 00 


10 24 


7 36 


6 


Paramatta — Observatory 






151 04 00 








Hobart Town— Fort Mulgrave 


42 53 


30 


147 24 15 


11 06 


8 00 


5 w. 


King George Sound — Princess Royal Har-"!^ 
bour — New Government Buildings ... J 


35 02 


10 


117 56 30 


WEST. 

5 36 


8 00 


4 E. 


Keeling Islands — Direction Island— west! 














point J 


12 05 


22 


96 54 45 


1 12 


5 27 


5 N. w. 


Mauritius— Port Louis — Observatory 


20 09 


25 


57 31 30 


11 18 


1 02 


2 N.W. 


Cape of Good Hope — Simons Bay^east end"\ 
of Dock Yard / 


34 11 


24 


18 25 45 


28 30 


2 30 


5 


Royal Observatory 






18 28 30 








St. Helena — high water mark, in the meri-1 






WEST. 








dian of Observatory J 


15 55 


15 


5 42 45 


18 00 


4 50 


3w. N. w 


Ascension — Barrack Square 


7 55 


33 


14 24 15 


«3 30 


5 30 


2 w. 


By the Beagle's Chronometers, the meridian' 














distances between Falmouth, Plymouth, 1 














Portsmouth, aiid Greenwich, are as fol- ( 














lows : — J 














Portsmouth Observatory — R.N. College — "1 
from Greenwich Observatory J 






1 0607-5 










■ 




Devonport (Government House) — from^ 












Portsmouth Observatory / 






3 03 49 '5 


N. 


B. — These are 


Pendennis Castle — Falmouth — from Devon-\ 
port (Government House) J 

And Falmouth — Pendennis Castle— west ofl 








ident 

\ 


ical with the 






52 46-5 


/ meas 
Tiarc 


ures ot Dr. 
'ks. 




Greenwich J 






5 02 43-5 


- 






■ 




1 



In the foregoing Table, every position, variation, and notice of tide, is the result of observations 
' made by officers of the Adventure or the Beagle, therefore they are, strictly .speaking, original, 
and have no reference whatever to observations made by other persons. 

An explanation of the methods and instruments used, and of the basis on which the longitudes, 
especially, are founded, is given, in an abridged form, at the end of the Appendix. 

The positions of those points only are given which are considered to be, generally speaking, 
satisfactorily ascertained by actual observation on shore, or well connected by triangulation to those 
stations at which the artificial horizon was used. 

Where tidal notices are given opposite to summits of mountains, or other places at some dis- 
tance from the sea, it is to be understood that they refer to a point at which the sea approaches 
nearest to that specified. 



86 



TABLE OF THE VARIATION OF THE COMPASS ; 

OBSERVED ON BOARD (aFLOAt). 



Date. 


Lat. 
North. 


Long. 
West. 


Var. 
West. 


Date. 


Lat. 

South. 


Long. 

West. 


Var. 

West. 


1831. 










1 


1832. 








Dec. 


30 


43 20 


12 


00 


23 


50 Mi 


irch 30 


18 07 


38 38 


2 37 


, ^ 




43 37 


12 


30 


23 


34 








E\ST. 


,. 




42 31 


12 


40 


24 


18 Ai 


)ril 3 


23 22 


42 07 


2 19 


.. 


3» 


41 00 


13 


30 


24 


49 




At Rio de Janeiro. 


1 55 


.. 




40 15 


13 


50 


24 


25 








WEST. 


1832. 










M< 


ly 13 


18 14 


38 52 


1 04 


Jan. 


1 


38 41 


15 


00 


23 


35 


.. 14 


17 12 


38 47 


1 00 




2 


37 20 


15 


30 


23 


54 


.. 


17 14 


38 48 


1 15 




4 


33 00 


16 


10 


23 


00 




16 35 


38 48 


1 52 




5 


29 32 


16 


20 


20 


41 


. 15 


15 01 


38 4' 


1 30 




• > 


29 30 


16 


22 


20 


48 


■ 23 


13 25 


38 37 


2 08 




7 


28 20 


16 


15 


20 


24 


• 25 


14 42 


38 22 


2 20 






28 12 


16 


20 


20 


20 


. 


15 29 


38 24 


2 54 




*8 


26 59 


16 


48 


20 


04 


. 


15 25 


38 24 


2 42 




9 


25 26 


18 


02 


19 


59 


. 26 


16 20 


38 24 


1 59 






24 40 


18 


42 


19 


63 


. 


17 31 


38 23 


2 12 




10 


23 09 


19 


47 


18 


47 


. 


17 35 


38 23 


2 20 




• 9 


22 39 


20 


14 


18 


45 


. 27 


18 59 


38 44 


1 14 




11 


22 02 


20 


2tf 


i8 


10 Ju 


ne 1 


22 42 


40 21 


03 




, , 


21 44 


20 


39 


18 


22 








EAST. 




, , 


21 38 


20 


42 


18 


37 


2 


22 58 


41 15 


33 




12 


20 42 


21 


21 


18 


24 


. 


22 58 


41 14 


15 




, , 


20 18 


21 


23 


18 


20 Ju 


y 5 


23 03 


43 06 


1 39 




13 


19 31 


21 


57 


18 


06 


8 


24 06 


42 53 


1 57 






19 06 


22 


'7 


17 


39 


12 


26 33 


43 48 


3 39 




14 


17 50 


23 


10 


17 


06 


■ 13 


27 13 


45 48 


4 35 




15 


15 29 


23 


52 


15 


52 


• 


27 14 


45 50 


4 34 




16 


15 17 


23 


35 


15 


22 


• 14 


27 it) 


46 16 


5 10 


Feb. 


7 


14 54 


23 


30 


15 


55 


■ 17 


29 53 


43 13 


6 52 




9 


13 20 


25 


20 


14 


49 


. 


29 52 


43 12 


6 02 




10 


12 17 


2fi 


25 


13 


43 


. 18 


31 09 


48 57 


7 50 




11 


8 50 


27 


02 


12 


44 


21 


34 09 


52 03 


10 27 




14 


2 10 


27 


50 


11 


08 All 


g. 20 


35 20 


56 47 


12 30 




15 


1 20 


29 


05 


10 


39 


21 


35 49 


56 49 


11 21 




16 


1 00 


29 


23 


09 


23 


. 


35 54 


56 47 


11 36 




• • 


51 

SOUTH. 


29 


25 


07 


20 


22 


36 53 
36 55 


56 34 
56 35 


12 17 
12 23 




17 


01 


29 


59 


8 


58 '. 


• 23 


37 02 


56 36 


13 07 






28 


30 


18 


8 


18 Oc 


t. 27 


At Mont 


e Video. 


12 42 




• , 


28 


30 


18 


8 


03 


■ 31 


34 5" 


57 »3 


12 09 




19 


3 29 


31 


57 


8 


00 No 


V. 1 


34 42 


57 28 


12 24 




20 


Fernando d 


e Noroiiha. 


7 


53 


2 


34 35 


57 55 


11 06 




21 


3 09 


32 


02 


7 


54 


• 14 


34 55 


56 19 


12 00 




23 


5 04 


32 


01 


7 


45 


. 26 


34 58 


56 10 


12 56 


March 1 8 


13 12 


38 


34 


2 


07 


• 27 


34 48 


56 42 


12 26 




19 


13 29 


38 


30 


1 


47 


• 29 


35 07 


56 0.5 


12 29 




20 


13 11 


38 


29 


2 


11 De 


c. 3 


40 46 


62 06 


15 26 






13 38 


38 


20 


1 


21 


5 


42 16 


Cl 32 


16 12 




22 


15 03 


37 


25 


3 


22 


6 


43 14 


61 17 


16 20 




.. 


15 38 


37 


20 


2 


44 


7 


43 56 


61 25 


16 40 




23 


16 29 


36 


57 


3 


44 


8 


45 12 


62 23 


17 25 




25 


18 10 


35 


55 


3 


13 


. 11 


51 18 


65 14 


20 26 






18 09 


35 


58 


2 


50 


• 13 


50 42 


65 45 


. 20 41 




27 


17 54 


37 


31 


2 


20 


• 14 


52 06 


66 58 


21 35 




28 


18 04 


38 


30 


1 


55 


• 15 


52 39 


67 14 


21 3' 




30 


17 59 


38 


46 


2 


24 1 











TABLE OF THE VARIATIONS OF THE COMPASS. 



87 



Y\~ 




Lat. 


Long, 


Var. 


Date. 


Lat. 


Long. 


Var. 


jjaic. 


South. 


West. 


East. 


South. 


West. 


East. 


1833. 














1834. 










Marcl 


12 


51 


30 


57 


54 


18 


42 


Dec. 2 


44 26 


75 15 


20 


05 




14 


51 


30 


57 


54 


18 


45 


. . 


44 29 


75 44 


20 


15 


April 


16 


41 


58 


64 


35 


17 


00 


3 


44 48 


75 02 


20 


30 




17 


42 


18 


64 


19 


16 


47 


.. 18 


44 52 


76 18 


21 


24 


'Aug. 


2 


41 


17 


61 


13 


14 


23 


.. 19 


45 09 


77 48 


21 


09 


. , 


3 


40 


50 


61 


30 


i5 


55 


. . 


45 10 


77 51 


21 


53 




4 


40 


53 


61 


50 


16 


27 


.. 20 


46 31 


75 43 


22 


35 


• • 


5 


40 


53 


61 


30 


16 


44 


.. 29 


45 48 


75 06 


21 


33 


• • 


6 


40 


27 


62 


00 


16 


16 


.. 30 


45 48 


75 06 


21 


39 


.« 


22 


39 


10 


60 


41 


15 


07 


1835. 










• • 


26 


38 


57 


61 


58 


15 


11 


Jan. 6 


44 30 


74 20 


20 


18 


.. 


30 


38 


57 


61 


58 


14 


56 


7 


43 58 


74 20 


20 


36 


; Sept. 


1 


38 


57 


61 


58 


15 


25 


Feb. 28 


38 18 


72 30 


17 


22 


iNov. 


25 


34 


53 


56 


13 


11 


45 


March 1 


38 18 


72 30 


17 


54 


1 • • 


29 


34 


53 


56 


13 


11 


21 


.. 25 


35 11 


71 45 


16 


34 


iDec. 


7 


34 


45 


56 


48 


12 


11 












! 


15 


42 


34 


58 


54 


16 


01 


Note. — I: 


ence to the 


Galapagos Islands the 1 




19 


43 


27 


59 


59 


15 


46 


variations were all observed on 


shore 




• • 


20 


44 


30 


(ji 


18 


18 


14 














23 


47 


1 1 


65 


04 


19 


50 


Sept. 12 


4 42 


84 48 


9 


27 


1834. 














.• 13 


2 58 


85 16 


9 


23 


i Jan. 


1 


47 


45 


66 


00 


20 


30 




NORTH. 


WEST. 






i •■ 


7 


48 


10 


67 


30 


20 


50 


Oct, 22 


10 


97 27 


8 


43 


.. 


, . 


48 


46 


64 


24 


19 


18 




FOUTH. 








1 .. 


8 


48 


47 


67 


15 


21 


23 


.. 24 


1 12 


99 59 


8 


37 


.. 




48 


45 


66 


00 


18 


22 


.. 25 


4 32 


103 56 


6 


10 


" 


9 


49 


10 


67 


15 


19 


47 


. . 


3 39 


102 54 


8 


20 


1 * * 


23 


48 


20 


66 


12 


19 


56 


.. 26 


5 31 


105 02 


7 


47 


1 « • 




48 


26 


66 


09 


19 


31 


.. 27 


6 09 


106 26 


7 


20 


1 * * 


26 


52 


07 


68 


05 


21 


40 


.. 28 


7 07 


109 09 


6 


33 




30 


52 


45 


70 


08 


23 


38 


• . 


7 47 


100 24 


6 


03 


iFeb. 


11 


53 


18 


67 


15 


22 


00 


.. 29 


7 40 


112 40 


6 


00 


1 


13 


52 


45 


70 


08 


23 


45 


.. 30 


8 21 


113 51 


6 


00 


. . 


14 


53 


23 


69 


08 


24 


40 




8 47 


115 18 


6 


19 


1 


17 


53 


15 


67 


61 


24 


12 


.. 31 


9 38 


)i8 20 


6 


08 


i •• 


19 


54 


00 


67 


15 


23 


05 


Nov. 1 


10 04 


119 48 


5 


04 


1 


24 


55 


48 


66 


23 


23 


31 


• . 


10 27 


121 16 


4 


35 


■ April 


1 1 


50 


15 


64 


15 


19 


52 


2 


11 14 


123 59 


4 


54 




12 


49 


47 


65 


16 


22 


50 


■• 3 


11 33 


125 10 


6 


06 


.. 


13 


49 


39 


67 


55 


20 


18 




11 42 


126 06 


4 


43 


1 


14 


50 


08 


68 


27 


20 


21 


.. 4 


11 52 


127 21 


5 


38 


1 .. 


20 


50 


08 


68 


27 


21 


28 


4 


12 07 


128 43 


5 


31 


May 


22 


52 


16 


67 


30 


22 


22 


.. 6 


13 11 


132 11 


6 


20 


June 


13 


52 


51 


11 ■ 


28 


25 


47 


.. 27 


17 16 


150 02 


7 


57 


Nov. 


10 


33 


04 


72 


09 


17 


16 


.. 28 


17 22 


151 52 


7 


59 


.. 


18 


38 


08 


77 


12 


17 


27 


> • 


17 22 


152 02 


7 


56 




19 


40 


12 


77 


15 


18 


30 


. . 


17 19 


152 24 


6 


45 


• • 




40 


12 


76 


56 


17 


30 


-• 29 


17 26 


152 50 


8 


52 


•• 


• • 


39 


06 


77 


09 


17 


36 


• • 


17 26 


152 51 


7 


46 


•• 


20 


40 


30 


76 


45 


18 


58 


• • • • 


17 32 


152 30 


7 


03 


• • 




40 


30 


76 


46 


18 


65 


... 30 


18 20 


156 31 


8 


11 


•• 


27 


41 


42 


74 


00 


19 


09 


Dec. 1 


18 21 


157 16 


7 


14 


1 .. 


30 


43 


46 


77 


05 


19 


42 


2 


18 32 


158 01 


8 


23 


1 


• . 


43 


46 


11 


05 


20 


11 


• • • • 


18 33 


158 13 


8 


33 


I Dec. 


I 


44 


22 


76 


42 


18 


54 


.. 3 


18 42 


159 24 


10 


14 


: •• 




44 


26 


75 


39 


19 


13 


.. 


18 44 


159 27 


9 


25 


.. 




44 


26 


75 


15 


19 


43 


4 


19 47 


161 47 


9 


20 


i 
1 


.. 


44 


22 


76 


42 


19 


01 


. . 


20 17 


163 05 


8 


38 


•• 




44 


27 


76 


33 


19 


57 


•• 5 


21 17 


165 24 


9 


28 


1 

1 



























88 



TABLE OF THE VARIATIONS OF THE COMPASS. 



Date. 


Lat. 
South. 


Long. 
West. 


Var. '• 
East. 


Date. 


Lat. 
South. 


Long. 
East. 


Var. 
West. 


1835. 








1836. 










Dec. 6 


21 51 


166 37 


10 27 


May 15 


27 33 


40 52 


21 


10 


7 


22 41 


169 01 


10 56 


.. 16 


27 21 


40 13 


21 


36 




22 41 


169 1 


1 1 00 


.. 17 


27 45 


33 18 


21 


43 


10 


25 42 


177 6 


11 15 


.. 18 


28 12 


36 08 


20 


48 


• > • • 


26 30 


178 26 


11 15 


•• 23 


34 45 


23 11 


26 


22 


11 


27 26 


179 20 


1 1 22 


. . 


34 53 


22 33 


28 


59 


• • 


28 45 


179 27 


11 54 


June 29 


22 56 


5 06 


24 


09 






EAST. 




.. 30 


22 17 


4 36 


24 


12 


.. 12 


29 41 


179 08 


13 24 






WEST. 






. • 


29 41 


179 08 


13 16 


July 8 


15 57 


5 34 


19 


43 


• • 14 


31 25 


175 59 


14 15 


.. 16 


13 02 


9 07 


19 


56 


.. 15 


32 36 


175 05 


14 14 


,. 18 


9 52 


12 34 


17 


43 


21 


35 00 


174 00 


14 05 


. . 21 


7 57 


14 24 


17 


36 


1836. 








.. 24 


9 30 


17 32 


15 


56 


Jan. 1 


34 04 


172 56 


13 05 


.. 25 


10 07 


18 58 


15 


57 


4 


34 40 


165 37 


13 26 


.. 26 


11 25 


23 23 


13 


06 


• • 7 


34 29 


1 63 26 


13 28 


.. 28 


12 04 


28 31 


8 


26 


Feb. 21 


42 53 


141 45 


8 21 


• • ■ • 


12 12 


29 39 


9 


00 


.. 22 


42 48 


140 40 


7 37 


.. 31 


12 48 


35 55 


4 


29 








WEST. 


. . 


12 49 


36 52 


4 


07 


March 2 


39 46 


123 42 


3 35 


Aug. 6 


13 09 


38 30 


2 


•44 


•• 3 


38 20 


123 36 


2 50 


7 


12 44 


37 54 


3 


18 


• • 


37 52 


123 13 


3 48 


8 


12 32 


37 39 


3 


11 


• • 


37 54 


123 11 


3 02 


•• 9 


12 44 


37 29 


2 


46 


5 


36 27 


119 50 


5 24 


. . 


12 40 


37 00 


4 


16 


.. 15 


35 33 


117 30 


6 06 


.. 13 


8 03 


34 49 


5 


11 


.. 16 


35 38 


117 09 


8 15 


•• 15 


8 03 


34 50 


6 


09 


.. 


35 34 


116 16 


6 31 




NORTH. 








.. 17 


34 48 


114 00 


7 20 


22 


2 32 


29 07 


10 


23 


.. 21 


27 28 


108 50 


4 59 


.. 23 


3 39 


29 11 


10 


27 


. . 


27 27 


108 47 


5 19 


.. 24 


5 45 


27 11 


14 


26 


•■ 23 


23 44 


106 17 


3 58 


Sept. 4 


14 43 


23 39 


17 


02 


•• 25 


20 24 


104 09 


3 22 


.- 9 


23 43 


33 50 


15 


26 


April 1 3 


12 21 


94 04 


04 


. . 


23 39 


33 47 


15 


13 


•• 16 


13 17 


88 13 


18 


.. 10 


25 00 


34 19 


16 


05 


• • • > 


12 59 


90 33 


57 


11 


28 07 


36 00 


17 


06 


.. 21 


16 56 


73 02 


3 55 


.. 12 


28 29 


36 18 


16 


25 


. • 


16 56 


73 01 


3 38 


.. 13 


29 59 


36 23 


17 


54 


.. 22 


16 58 


72 59 


3 28 


.. 14 


31 04 


35 57 


18 


28 


. . 


17 13 


71 48 


4 04 


.. 15 


32 03 


35 05 


18 


22 


i . 


17 24 


71 51 


4 10 


.. 16 


35 38 


31 32 


21 


34 


•• 23 


17 36 


70 27 


5 07 


.. 17 


37 15 


28 5+ 


22 


09 


.. 24 


17 52 


68 30 


5 39 


.. 18 


37 49 


28 00 


24 


00 


.. 26 


18 35 


63 34 


7 36 


.. 19 


38 35 


27 o3 


25 


21 


.. 27 


18 43 


62 20 


8 06 


.. 25 


38 54 


25 03 


23 


21 


~. 


18 43 


62 14 


8 11 


.. 26 


40 35 


22 45 


25 


00 


.. 28 


19 20 


60 12 


8 59 


• • 


41 28 


21 31 


25 


38 


May 13 


25 42 


46 42 


16 16 


.. 27 


42 06 


20 06 


26 


00 


.. 15 


27 30 


41 08 


20 37 


•• 27 


42 20 


19 50 


26 


03 


All the ( 


jbservations 


for variatic 


)n, afloat, were taken w 


ith a very \ 


jood Gilber 


t's compass, 


placed oil a 


itanchionab 


Dvethe poop 


where it was found, by t 


rials in varic 


us latitudes 


to be 


nearly 


free from an 


f effect of lo 


cal attractior 


1. 












Err 


ATUM in pag 


e 65, line 4<, 


of figures, /o> 


•015 read 2 


15. 







APPENDIX. 



No. 1. 

Sir: March 19, 1831. 

Accompanying this letter, I have the honour to transmit to you, 
for their Lordships' information, six charts and sixteen plans of 
harbours and portions of the coast of Tierra del Fuego, the results of 
Commander Fitz-Roy's surveys in H.M.'s sloop Beagle, between 
April 1829 and June 1830. 

Their Lordships wiU, I trust, permit me, as the senior officer 
of that expedition, to state the pecuhar nature and extent of this 
service, as well as the complete manner in which it has been 
effected. 

On the melancholy occasion of Commander Stokes's death, I was 
fortunate, through the Commander-in-chief Sir Robert Otway's just 
discrimination of Commander Fitz-Roy's qualifications, on account of 
which alone he was selected, to receive him as my colleague, in the 
command of the Beagle. 

In April I detached the Beagle, and Adventmre's tender, to complete 
portions of the Strait of Magalhaens that were then imperfect ; and by 
him, and under his superintendence and able direction, the Mag- 
dalen and Barbara Channels through the Tierra del Fuego were 
surveyed ; a considerable portion of the interior sounds on the 
western coast was examined ; and the discovery of the Otway and 
Skyring Waters was made, by Commander Fitz-Roy himself, in the 
depth of the severe winter of that climate, and on which he was 
absent from the ship thirty-three days in an open whale-boat. 

In August the Beagle joined me at Chiloe, and sailed again early 
in November following, with a view to examine the outward or sea- 

n 



'^ 



90 ' APPENDIX. 

coast of Tierra del Fuego, from its westernmost extremity to the 
Strait Le Maire, including Cape Horn and the islands in the 
vicinity. 

The difficulties under which this service was performed, from the 
tempestuous and exposed nature of the coast, the fatigues and priva- 
tions endured by the officers and crew, as well as the meritorious and 
cheerful conduct of every individual, which is mainly attributable to 
the excellent example and unflinching activity of the commander, can 
only be mentioned by me in terms of the highest approbation. 

For the results of the voyage, and the services of Commander 
Fitz-Roy, I beg to refer their Lordships to their Hydrographer and the 
charts herewith transmitted, which I hope vdll be satisfactory. 

I trust their Lordships will permit me once again to express how 
much I feel that Commander Fitz-Roy, not only from the important 
service he has rendered, but from the zealous and perfect manner in 
which he has effected it, merits their distinction and patronage ; and 
I beg leave, as his late senior officer, to recommend him in the 
strongest manner to their favourable consideration. 

I have, &c. 

Phillip P. King, Captain. 

To the Hon. George Elliot, 
Secretary of the Admiralty, &c. &c. &c. 



No. 2. 



Sir, London, May 23, 1831. 

Enclosed is a copy of the letter sent to Captain P. P. King (then 
commanding H. M.'s sloop Adventure), by the Secretary of the 
Admiralty, relative to the natives of Tierra del Fuego, who were 
brought to England in the Beagle ; and I have to request that you 
will honour me by submitting the enclosed copy, and the purport of 
this letter, to my Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty. 

The proper season for the return of these Fuegians is now 
drawing near. They have been with me fourteen months, and at 
least five months more must elapse before they can reach their own 
shores. 



APPENDIX. 91 

They have always expected to return during the ensuing winter 
(summer of their country), and should they be disappointed, I fear 
that discontent and disease may be the consequence. 

Having been led to suppose that a vessel would be sent to South 
America to continue the survey of its shores, and to explore parts 
yet unknown, I hoped to have seen these people become useful 
as interpreters, and be the means of establishing a friendly dispo- 
sition towards Englishmen on the part of their countrymen, if not 
a regular intercourse with them. 

By supplying these natives with some animals, seeds, tools, &c., 
and placing them, vdth some of their own tribe, on the fertile 
country lying at the east side of Tierra del Fuego, I thought that, 
in a few years, ships might have been enabled to obtain fresh pro- 
visions, as weU as wood and water, during their passage from the 
Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean, on a part of the coast which can 
always be approached with ease and safety. 

If their Lordships should so far approve of these ideas as to grant 
me any assistance in carrymg them into execution, I shall feel deeply 
gratified, and shall exert every means in my power ; but should they 
not be thought worthy of attention and support, I humbly request 
that their Lordships will grant me twelve months' leave of absence 
from England, in order to enable me to keep my faith vidth the natives 
of Tierra del Fuego, by restoring their countrymen, and by doing 
them as much good as can be effected by my own very limited means. 

I have, &c., 

Robert Fitz-Rot, Commander. 

To the Hon. George Elliot, 
Secretary to the Admiralty, &c. &c. &c. 

In June I received twelve months' leave of absence from England, 
and made the following agreement with Mr. Mawman, a ship- 
owner, of London. 



No. 3. 



Memorandum of Agreement made the eighth day of June, in 
the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and thirty-one, 
between John Mawman, of Stepney Causeway, London, merchant. 



92 APPENDIX. 

o-\vner of the brig or vessel called The John, of two hundred 

tons register burthen, now lying in the London Dock, whereof 

John Davey is Master, on the one part, and Robert Fitz-Roy, a 

Commander in His Majesty's Royal Navy, of the other part. 

The said John Mawman agrees with the said Robert Fitz-Roy, 
in manner following : — 

Tliat the said master, or such other master as the said John 
MsLwraan shall appoint, shall receive the said Robert Fitz-Roy and 
his friends and servants, not exceeding in the whole six persons, on 
board the said brig or vessel, and proceed v/Ith them forthwith to 
South America, to such one or two port or ports, or place or places, 
as the said Robert Fitz-Roy shall order and direct, such port or ports, 
or place or places, not to be north of Valparaiso ; and at the first port 
or place, or so near thereto as the said vessel may safely get, to be 
named by the said Robert Fitz-Roy, to land the said Robert Fitz- 
Roy and his said friends and servants, or such of them as the said 
Robert FItz-Roy shall require, and receive them, or such of them as 
the said Robert Fitz-Roy shall require, on board again ; and thence 
forthwith to proceed to the second port or place, or so near thereto as 
the said vessel may safely get, to be named by the said Robert Fitz- 
Roy, there to land such of them, the said Robert FItz-Roy and his 
friends and servants, as shall not have been already landed at the 
said first-named port or place, and receive the said Robert FItz-Roy, 
and such other or others of the last-mentioned persons, as he shall 
require again on board the said vessel, and forthwith proceed to and 
land him or them at Valparaiso. 

That the said Robert FItz-Roy shall be at liberty to put on board 
stock and provender, at such places as may be agreed upon, port 
charges and pilotage being paid by the said Robert FItz-Roy. 

That John Mawman wIU find and provide the said Robert FItz- 
Roy, and the said other persons, vnth aU suitable and proper cus- 
tomary provisions, stores, wines, beer, and spirits. 

And the said Robert Fitz-Roy agrees with the said John Mawman, 
his executors and administrators, as foUows : — 

That he will not detain the said brig or vessel at either of the 
ports or places to be named by him, as hereinbefore mentioned, any 
longer than shall be reasonably necessary to enable him and the said 
other persons safely to land, re-embark, and finally land at the said 
ports respectively. 



APPENDIX. 93 

That he will pay to the said John Mawman, his executors or 
administrators, as the compensation for the agreement liereinbefore 
contained on the part of the said John Mawman, the sum of one 
thousand pounds sterling, to be paid down prior to embarkation. 
As witness the hands of the said parties. 
Witness, Robert Fitz-Roy. 

W. H. WooLLETT. John Mawman. 

W. Wackerbarth. 



No. 4. 



Salisbury Square, 
My dear Sir, November 10, 1831. 

Matthews left town this morning to join the Beagle at Plymouth, 
being detained tiU to-day for the steamer. 

We have provided Matthews vdth all such articles as appeared 
to be necessary for him, and which could be most advantageously sup- 
plied in this country. These had aU been completed before I learned 
from Mr. Wilson that you are short of stowage. I hope, however, 
they vdll not be found to amount to a quantity to occasion you 
inconvenience ; and I think you will be of opinion that no part of 
his outfit could, with propriety, be dispensed with, in case Matthews 
becomes a permanent resident in Tierra del Fuego. 

Mr. Wilson and myself concurred in opinion that a letter should 
be addressed by us to Matthews, in reference to the undertaking on 
which he is about to enter. This I have drawn up at Mr. W.'s 
request, and hoped to have procured the addition of his signature 
to it ; but a pressure of other engagements has compelled me to 
drive it off tUl it is too late to send it to him for that purpose. I 
have no doubt, however, that it expresses his general views on the 
subject. If you should think I have dwelt too much on the religious 
bearing of Matthews's future labours, you must kindly call to your 
recollection that I am a Missionary Secretary, and could not 
altogether divest myself of that character on the present occasion. 
The letter is enclosed, and we shall feel obhged by your giving it 
to Matthews, when he comes on board. You will, of course, take a 
copy of it, if you wish to do so. 



94 APPENDIX. 

I much regret that we could not meet with a suitable companion 
for Matthews. I trust, however, you will find him to possess many- 
valuable qualifications for the undertaking. 

With very cordial wishes for your safety and welfare, 

I remain,, &c. 

D. Coaxes. 
To Capt. FiTz-RoY, R.N. 
&c. &c. &c. 



No. 5. 



Salisbury Square, London, 
Dear Mr. Matthews, Nov. 10, 1831. 

The friends by whose means you are enabled to proceed to Tierra 
del Fuego cannot suffer you to depart without offering to you some 
suggestions and counsel with regard to your future course. 

The undertaking in which you are about to be engaged springs 
from the benevolent interest taken by Captain Fitz-Roy in the natives 
of the island of Tierra del Fuego, with whom he became acquainted 
during his survey of that part of the coast of South America, in 
which he was employed by His Majesty's Government. Some of 
them were brought hither by Capt. F. on his return home, about 
twelve months ago. These individuals, through Capt. F.'s kind 
exertions, were, during their stay in England, placed under circum- 
stances to receive instruction in the English language, in the prin- 
ciples of Christianity, and in some of the most simple arts of civilized 
life. 

These natives will be your companions on board the " Beagle," 
a passage to Tierra del Fuego having, at the instance of Capt. F., 
been granted to them and to you on board that ship, by the hberality 
of the Lords of the Admiralty. 

Some Christian friends having become acquainted with these 
foreigners, and with Capt. Fitz-Roy's soHcitude to promote their 
welfare and that of the tribes with which they are connected, have 
Bupplied the means of providing the outfit, which was requisite to 



APPENDIX. 95 

enable you, advantageously, to enter on the work before you. Among 
these friends you are especially indebted to the kindness and 
liberaUty of the Rev. W. Wilson. His solicitude to forward Capt. 
Fitz-Roy's views has been manifested toward these Fuegians, as well 
as yourself, by his having had them under his immediate care at 
Walthamstow for many months, in order to impart to them such 
knowledge and information as seemed calculated to promote their 
present and eternal welfare, and by contributing largely to the fund 
raised for your use. 

From what has been just stated, you wUl perceive the peculiar 
obhgations under which you lie to Capt. Fitz-Roy and to Mr. 
Wilson, and the interest which they both take in your undertaking. 
You will especially consider yourself as bound to act under the 
superintendence and direction of Capt. Fitz-Roy. We earnestly 
recommend you to consult Capt. F. on all your plans and pro- 
ceedings, and ever to act toward him with entire openness and un- 
reserve. He is cordially desirous to promote the welfare of the 
Fuegians, and is possessed of information and experience, authority 
and influence, calculated, under the Divine blessing, powerfully to 
advance the object you have in view. To him, therefore, you will 
do well to refer on all occasions, and cheerfully conform to his 
wishes. 

We trust that, in entering on this undertaking, you have been 
influenced by a sincere desire to promote the glory of God and the 
good of your fellow- creatures. These are the ends which those 
friends have in view who have assisted you, and these they trust 
that you, by the grace of God, will ever steadily keep in view 
yourself. The means to be employed for the attainment of these 
ends may be summed up in very few words : it is to make it 
your study and endeavour to do these poor creatures all the good in 
your power in every practicable way. By evidencing this to them 
in the whole of your spirit and conduct, you wHl gain their con- 
fidence and obtain influence over them, without which you cannot 
expect to succeed. But it is not easy, steadily and consistently, 
to maintain a line of conduct like this. To enable you to do it, you 
must be "strong in the grace which is in Christ Jesus," and this gi-ace 
must be sought by diUgent prayer and a constant reading and 
meditating on the word of God. Here lies your strength, and 
hence, under God, must your success be derived. " Draw nigh to 



96 APPENDIX. 

God, and He vnll draw nigh to you." Walk closely -with Him, and 
his name will be glorified in you. Pursuing this course, you will 
be sure of enjoying His blessing, and may cheerfully leave all events 
in His hands. 

Your first object must be to acquire the language of the Fuegians. 
To this you must apply with the utmost dihgence, fuUy availing 
yourself for this purpose of your intercourse with the natives on the 
voyage ; as, till this point is gained, you can hold no free communi- 
cation with the tribes on the island. In prosecution of this object, 
we recommend you carefully to note down in writing every new 
word which you bear. These vocabularies you will, at your leisure, 
classify and reduce to order, to form the basis of a grammar and 
dictionary, and iiltimately of translations into the language. In 
prosecution of this design, it will be requisite that you should 
ascertain, if practicable, which dialect is most extensively used in 
the island, if it should be found that there are more than one ; as it 
is obviously desirable that you should fix that which is most ex- 
tensively used. 

In imparting religious instruction to the natives, you will make 
the Bible the basis of all your teaching. You must never lose sight 
of that great theological principle laid down in the sixth article of 
the Church of England : — " That Holy Scripture containeth all 
things necessary to salvation ; so that whatsoever is not read therein, 
nor may be proved thereby, is not to be required of any man that it 
should be beUeved as an article of the faith, or be thought requisite 
or necessary to salvation." By this sound and salutary principle, 
let the whole of the religious instruction which you impart to the 
natives be governed. And we earnestly pray that God may give 
you a mouth to speak, and them ears to hear, that they may so 
" know the Holy Scriptures that they may be made wise unto salva- 
tion through faith in Christ Jesus." 

In your intercourse vsdth the Fuegians, you will bear in mind that 
it is the temporal advantages which you may be capable of commu- 
nicating to them that they will be most easily and immediately 
sensible of. Among these may be reckoned the acquisition of better 
dwellings, and better and more plentiful food and clothing. Conse- 
quently, you will consider it a primary duty to instruct them in cul- 
tivating the potato, cabbage, and other vegetables ; to rear pigs, 
poultry, &c., and to construct a commodious habitation, &c. You 



APPENDIX. 97 

will probably find in this, as well as in more important things, that 
example is the most influential instructor. You must therefore take 
care to have a comfortable habitation yourself, furnished with all 
necessary articles for use, and kept clean and orderly. You will 
also fence in a piece of ground for a garden, and get it well stocked 
with the most useful vegetables ; and also surround yourself as 
quiclvly as possible with a plentiful supply of pigs> poultry, goats, 
&c. lliis, indeed, you will find absolutely necessary for your own 
future subsistence, as weU as with a view to the civilization and 
comfort of the natives. 

Captain Fitz-Roy will, we doubt not, afford you assistance in 
selecting a proper spot for your residence, and raising a dweUing 
upon it ; and also in procuring the requisite seeds and animals for 
your subsistence, and for the successful prosecution of your work. 
A very Hberal supply of European clothing, implements and tools, 
ironmongery, earthenware, &c., is included in your outfit. 

We trust that these general hints, with the information and assist- 
ance which you may acquire from Captain Fitz-Roy and the books 
■with which you are supplied, will suffice to enable you to carry on 
your work with comfort and efficiency. 

You W'Ul have the kindness to vmte to Mr. Wilson, with full par- 
ticulars of your proceedings and prospects, by every practicable 
opportunity, sending your letters to Buenos Ayres, or any other 
point where they may be lilcely to get into a channel to reach 
England. 

In conclusion, I have only to add that Captain Fitz-Roy has very 
kindly and considerately offered to bring you back with him to this 
country, should circumstances, contrary to our anticipations, turn 
out to be such that you should deem it unadvisable to remain at 
Tierra del Fuego. 

Earnestly praying that the blessing of God may rest on you and 
your important and interesting labours, 

I remain, truly yours, 

D. COATES. 



No. 6. 



Memorandum of Agreement made this eleventh day of September, 
one thousand eight hundred and thirty-two, between Mr. James 



98 APPENDIX. 

Harris, resident at the River Negro, and Robert Fitz-Roy, Com- 
mander of His Britannic Majesty's surveying sloop Beagle. 

Mr. James Harris will provide and furnish two decked schooner- 
rigged vessels, with their rigging, sails, masts, and all other things 
necessary for their use and safety, both at sea and in harbour ; also, 
sufficient crews and two pUots, together with provisions for the said 
pilots, their crews, and eight other persons. 

The said Mr. James Harris hereby agrees that the said schooner- 
rigged vessels, and all on board of them, shall be under, and obey 
the directions of, the said Robert Fitz-Roy, or those whom the said 
Robert Fitz-Roy may appoint ; and that the said vessels shall con- 
tinue to perform this expressed service during eight lunar months 
from the date of this agreement, unless the said Robert Fitz-Roy 
shall end this agreement at an earlier period ; and the said Robert 
Fitz-Roy shall be at liberty to put an end to this agreement at th 
end of any month after December of this year. 

In consideration of the above useful service to be thus rendered to 
His Britannic Majesty and the pubhc, the said Robert Fitz-Roy 
hereby agrees and promises to pay to the said Mr. James Harris, his 
executors or administrators, the sum of one hundred and forty 
pounds sterUng per lunar month, during the whole time that the 
said schooners are employed as herein agreed. 

As witness the hands of the said parties, 

James Harris, Resident at the Rio Negro. 
Robert Fitz-Roy, Commander. 

Witnesses to the signatures and agreement. 

J. C. WicKHAM, Senior Lieutenant. 
B. J. SuLivAN, Second Lieutenant. 



No. 7. 



Robert Fitz-Roy, Esq., Commander of H.M.S. Beagle, Dr. to Mr. 
James Harris, for the hire of two schooner-rigged vessels, &c., as 
per annexed agreement, £1,680 sterUng. — 11th August, 1833. 



Received from Robert Fitz-Roy, Commander of H.M.S. Beagle, 
the sum of £1,680 sterling, in full payment for the hire of two 



APPENDIX. 99 

schooner-rigged vessels, &c., as per annexed agreement, dated 11th 
July, 1832. 

John Harris. 
H.M.S. Beagle, at Sea, 
15th Sept., 1833. 



No. 8. 



By Robert Fitz-Roy, Commander of His Britannic Majesty's 
surveying ship Beagle. 

You are hereby required and directed to take command and charge 
of the two vessels, " La Paz" and " La Liebre," and of all on board 
of them. 

They are engaged by me upon the terms specified in the accom. 
panying agreement. 

With these vessels you will execute as much of the survey, 
herein pointed out, as your means and other circumstances will 
allow. 

Between Blanco Bay and New Bay the sea-coast should be 
accurately examined and charted. 

Particular plans should be made of the entrances to False Bay, 
Brightman Inlet, Union Bay, the Bay of San Bias, and the River 
Negro. 

The plans already made of Port San Josef and Port San Antonio 
should be verified. 

The sea-coast ought to be completed before you undertake any 
examination of the interior waters ; and I have to request that you 
will be cautious of information which maybe coloured or exaggerated 
by individual interest. 

As you are well acquainted with the excellent Memoir, drawn up 
by the Hydrographer for our guidance, I need only recall your 
attention to the accompanjdng extracts. 

I wish you to be at the Bay of San Bias on the 10th of November, 
and there to await my arrival. 

Robert Fitz-Roy, Commander. 
Blanco Bay, 19th Sept., 1832. 
To Lieut. J. C. Wickham, 

Senior Lieutenant of H. M. S. Beagle. 



100 APPENDIX. 

No. 9. 

(Memorandum.) 

H. M. S. Beagle, Blanco Bay, 
19tli September, 1832. 
It is my direction that you take command and charge of the hired 
vessel " La Paz," and of all on board of her. 

You will be extremely careful to keep company -ndth Lieutenant 
Wickham, unless otherwise directed ; and you will obey his orders, 
and assist him in carrying my orders into execution. 

Robert Fitz-Roy, Commander. 
To Mr. J. L. Stokes, 
Assistant- Surveyor, H.M.S. Beagle. 



No. 10. 

H.M.S. Beagle, off San Bias Bay, Coast of Patagonia, 
Sir, 4th December, 1832. 

As you have already executed a considerable part of the service 
pointed out to you in my order, dated September 1832, and are 
ready for a more arduous task than I had supposed your limited 
means could undertake, you are hereby required and directed to 
examine and survey as much of the sea-coast between Port Desire 
and Blanco Bay as time and your means will allow. 

In the first instance, you wiU hasten to Blanco Bay, and dehver 
the accompanying despatches to the Commandant of the Buenos 
Ayrean settlement. 

Afterwards, your route will be that which appears to you the most 
proper for the verification of the charts with which you are fur- 
nished, and for the execution of the above-mentioned service. 

You vdli endeavour to pass the month of March in the River Negro, 
and, if we do not meet sooner, you will look for the Beagle in Blanco 
Bay at the beginning of July. 

Should she not arrive there in July, you wiU go vsdth both vessels 
to Monte Video. I have, &c., 

Lieut. J. C. Wickham, Robert Fitz-Roy. 

Commanding the hired Schooners 
"La Paz" and "La Liebre." 



APPENDIX. 101 

No. 11. 
Extract from Falkner, pp. 61, 62, 63. 

I shall here give an account of a strange amphibious animal, 
which is an inhabitant of the river Parana, a description of which 
has never reached Europe ; nor is there even any mention made of it 
by those who have described this country. What I here relate 
is from the concurrent asseverations of the Indians, and of many 
Spaniards, who have been in various employments on this river : 
besides, I myself, during my residence on the banks of it, which was 
near four years, had once a transient view of one ; so that there 
can be no doubt about the existence of such an animal. 

In my first voyage to cut timber, in the year 1752, up the Parana, 
being near the bank, the Indians shouted, "yaquaru!" and look- 
ing, I saw a great animal, at the time it plunged into the water from 
the bank ; but the time was too short to examine it with any degree 
of precision. 

It is called yaquaru, or yaquaruigh, which (in the language of that 
country) signifies the water tiger. It is described by the Indians 
to be as big as an ass, of the figure of a large overgrown river-wolf 
or otter, with sharp talons and strong tusks, thick and short legs, 
long shaggy hair, with a long tapering tail. 

The Spaniards describe it somewhat differently : — as having a 
long head, a sharp nose like that of a wolf, and stiff erect ears. 
This difference of description may arise from its being so seldom 
seen, and, when seen, so suddenly disappearing; or perhaps there 
may be two species of this animal. I look upon this last account as 
the most authentic, having received it from persons of credit, who 
assured me that they had seen this water-tiger several times. It is 
always found near the river, lying on a bank, from whence, on 
hearing the least noise, it immediately plunges into the water. 

It is very destructive to the cattle which pass the Parana, for 
great herds of them pass every year ; and it generally happens that 
this beast seizes some of them. When it has once laid hold of its 
prey, it is seen no more, and the lungs and entrails soon appear 
floating upon the water. 

It Hves in the greatest depths, especially in the whirlpools made 
by the concurrence of two streams, and sleeps in the deep caverns 
that are in the banks. 



J 02 APPENDIX, 



No. 12. 



Extract of a Letter from Thomas Pennant, Esq. to the Hon. 
Daines Barrington. (Written in 1771.) 

Dear Sir : 

I now execute the promise I made in town some time ago, of 
communicating to you the result of my \dsit to Mr. Falkner, an 
antient Jesuit, who had passed thirty-eight years of his life in the 
southern part of South America, between the river la Plata and the 
Straits of Magellan. Let me endeavour to prejudice you in favour 
of my new friend, by assuring you, that by his long intercourse with 
the inhabitants of Patagonia, he seems to have lost all European 
guile, and to have acquired all the simplicity and honest impetuosity, 
of the people he has been so long conversant with. I venture to 
give you only as much of his narrative as he could vouch for the 
authenticity of; which consists of such facts as he was eye-witness 
to, and such as will (I believe) estabUsh past contradiction the 
veracity of our late circumnavigators, and give new lights into the 
manners of this singular race of men. It will not, I flatter myself, 
be deemed impertinent to lay before you a chronological mention 
of the several evidences that will tend to prove the existence of a 
people of a supernatural height, inhabiting the southern tract. You 
will find that the majority of voyagers who have touched on that 
coast have seen them, and made reports of their size, that wiU very 
well keep in countenance the verbal account given by Mr. Byron, 
and the printed, by Mr. Clarke ; you wUl observe, that if the old 
voyagers did exaggerate, it was through the novelty and amaze- 
ment at so singular a sight ; but the latter, forewarned by the pre- 
ceding accounts, seem to have made their remarks with coolness, 
and confirmed them by the experiment of measurement. 

A.D. 1519. The first who saw these people was the great Ma- 
gellan ; — one of them just made his appearance on the banks of the 
river La Plata, and then made his retreat ; but, during Magellan's 
long stay at Port St. Julian, he was visited by numbers of this tall 
race. The first approached him singing, and flinging the dust over 
his head, and shewed all signs of a mild and peaceable disposition : 
his visage was painted ; his garment, the skin of some animal, neatly 



APPENDIX. 



103 



sewed ; his arms, a stout and thick bow, a quiver of long arrows 
feathered at one end, and armed at the other with flint. The height 
of these people was about seven feet (French) ; but they were not 
so tall as the person who approached them first, who is represented 
to have been of so gigantic a size that Magellan's men did not, with 
their heads, reach as high as the waist of this Patagonian. They 
had with them beasts of burden, on which they placed their wives. 
By Magellan's description of them, they appear to have been the 
animals now known by the name of Llama. These interviews ended 
with the captivating two of the people, who were carried away in two 
diiFerent ships ; but, as soon as they arrived in a hot climate, each 
of them died. I dwell the longer on this account, as it appears ex- 
tremely deserving of credit ; as the courage of Magellan made him 
incapable of giving an exaggerated account through the influence of 
fear ; nor could there be any mistake about the height, as he had not 
only a long intercourse with them, but the actual possession of two 
for a very considerable space of time.* It was Magellan who first 
gave them the name of Patagons, because they wore a sort of slipper 
made of the skin of animals. " Tellement," says M. de Brosse,t 
qu'ils paroissoient avoir des pattes de betes." In 1525 Garcia de 
Loaisa saw, within the Straits of Magellan, savages of a very 
great stature, but he does not particularize their height. After 
Loaisa, the same Straits were passed in 1535 by Simon de Alcazova, 
and attempted in 1540 by Alphonso de Camargo, but without being 
visited by our tall people. The same happened to our countryman. 
Sir Francis Drake ; but, because it was not the fortxme of that able 
and popular seaman to meet with these gigantic people, his contem- 
poraries considered the report as the invention of the Spaniards. 

In 1579, Pedro Sarmiento asserts that those he saw were three ells 
high. This is a writer I wordd never venture to quote singly, for 
he destroys his own credibility by saying the savage he made pri- 
soner was an errant Cyclops. I only cite him to prove that he 
fell in with a tall race, though he mixes fable with truth. In 1586 
our countryman. Sir Thomas Cavendish, in his voyage, had only 

* Vide Ramusio's Coll. Voyages, Venice, 1550; also the Letter of Maxi- 
milian Transylvanus, Sec. to Charles V. ; and in the first volume, p. 376, 
A. and B. 

t This account, as well as the others where I do not quote my autliority, 
are taken from that judicious writer, M. de Brosse. 



104 APPENDIX. 

opportunity of measuring one of their footsteps, which was eighteen 
inches long : he also found their graves, and mentions their customs 
of burying near the shore.* In 1591, Anthony Knevet, who sailed 
with Sir Thomas Cavendish in his second voyage, relates that he 
saw, at Port Desire, men fifteen or sixteen spans high, and that he 
measured the bodies of two that had been recently buried, which 
were fourteen spans long.f In 1599, Sebald de Veert, who sailed 
with Admiral de Cordes, was attacked in the Strait of Magellan by 
savages whom he thought to be ten or eleven feet high. He adds, 
that they were of reddish colour, and had long hair.t 

In the same year, Oliver Van Noort, a Dutch admiral, had a ren- 
contre with this gigantic race, whom he represents to be of a high 
stature, and of a terrible aspect. 

1614. — George SpHbergen, another Dutchman, in his passage 
through the same Strait, saw a man, of a gigantic stature, climb- 
ing a hni as if to take a view of the ship.§ 1615. — Le Maire and 
Schouten discovered some of the burying-places of the Patagonians 
beneath heaps of great stones, and found in them skeletons ten or 
eleven feet long.|| 

Mr. Falkner supposes that formerly there existed a race of Pata- 
gonians superior to these m size ; for skeletons are often found of 
far greater dimensions, particularly about the river Texeira. Per- 
haps he may have heard of the old tradition of the natives mentioned 
by Cieza,^ and repeated from liim by Garcilasso de la Vega,** of 
certain giants having come by sea, and landed near the cape of St. 
Helena, many ages before the arrival of the Europeans. 

1618. — Gracias de Nodal, a Spanish commander, in the course of 
his voyage, was informed by John Moore, one of his crew, who 
landed between Cape St. Esprit and Cape St. Arenas, on the south 
side of the Straits, that he trafficked with a race of men taller, by 
the head, than the Europeans. This and the next are the only 
instances I ever met with of the tall race being found on that side of 
the Strait. 

* Purclias, i. 58. t Purclias, i. 1232. 

J Col. Voy. by the Dutch East-India Company, &c. London, 1703, 
p. 319. 

§ Purchas, i, 80. || Purchas, i. 91. 

t SeventPen years travels of Peter de Cieza, 138. 
*» Translated by Ricaut, p. 263. 



APPENDIX. 105 

1642. — Henry Brewer, a Dutch admiral, observed, in the Strait 
Le Maire, the footsteps of men which measured eighteen inches. 
This is the last evidence, in the seventeenth century, of the existence 
of these tall people. But let it be observed, that out of the fifteen 
first voyagers who passed through the Magellanic Straits, not 
fewer than nine are undeniable witnesses of the fact we would 
estabhsh. 

In the present century, I can produce but two evidences of the 
existence of the tall Patagonians ; the one in 1704, when the crew 
of a ship belonging to St. Maloes, commanded by Captain Harring- 
ton, saw seven of these giants in Gregory Bay. Mention is also 
made of six more being seen by Captain Carman, a native of the 
same tovra, but whether in the same voyage, my authority is 
silent.* 

But as it was not the fortune of the four other voyagers f who 
sailed through the Straits in the seventeenth century, to fall in with 
any of this tall race, it became a fashion to treat as fabulous the 
account of the preceding nine, and to hold this lofty race as the 
mere creation of a warm imagination. In such a temper was the 
public, on the return of Mr. Byron from his circumnavigation, in 
the year 1766. I had not the honour of having personal confer- 
ence with that gentleman, therefore will not repeat the accounts 
I have been informed he had given to several of his friends ; I rather 
chuse to recapitulate that given by Mr. Clarke,^ in the Philosophical 
Transactions for 1767, p. 75. Mr. Clarke was officer in Mr. Byron's 
ship, landed with him in the Straits of Magellan, and had for two 
hours an opportunity of standing within a few yards of this race, 
and seeing them examined and measured by Mr. Byron. 

He represents them in general as stout and well-proportioned, and 
assures us that none of the men were lower than eight feet, and that 
some even exceeded nine, and that the women were from seven feet 
and a half to eight feet. He saw Mr. Byron measure one of the 
men, and, notwithstanding the Commodore was near six feet high, 
he could, when on tip-toe, but just reach with his hand the top of 

* Frezier's Voy. p. 84. 

t Sir John Narborough, in 1670; Bartholomew Sharp, in 1680 ; De Geimes, 
in 1696; and Beauchesne Goiiin, in 1699, 

\ This able officer commanded the Discovery, in Capt. Cook's last voj-age, 
and died off Kamtschatka, August 22d, 1779. 

o- 



106 APPEN'DTX. 

the Patagonian's head ; and Mr. Clarke is certain that there were 
several taller than him on whom the experiment was made, for there 
were about five hundred men, women, and children. They seemed 
very happy at the landing of our people, and expressed their joy by 
a rude sort of singing. They were of a copper colour, and had long 
lank hair, and faces hideously painted. Both sexes were covered 
with skins, and some appeared on horseback and others on foot. 

A few had on their legs a sort of boot, with a sharjD-pointed stick 
at the heel, instead of a spur, llieir bridles were made of thong, 
the bit wood ; the saddle as artless as possible, and without stir- 
rups. The introduction of horses into these parts by the Europeans 
introduced, likewise, the only species of manufacture they appear to 
be acquainted with. All their sldU seems to extend no farther than 
these rude essays at harness, and to equip themselves for cavaliers. 
In other respects they would be in the same state as our first 
parents, just turned out of paradise, clothed in coats of skins ; 
or, at best, in the same condition in which Caesar found the ancient 
Britons ; for their dress was similar, their hair long, and their bodies 
like those of our ancestors, made terrific by M'ild painting. Tliese 
people, by some means or other, had acquired a few beads and 
bracelets ; otherwise, not a single article of European fabric B.p- 
peared among them. These they must have gotten by the inter- 
course with the other Indian tribes ; for had they any intercourse 
with the Spaniards, they never would have neglected procuring 
knives, the stirrups, and other conveniences, which the people seen 
by Mr. Wallis had. 

I should have been glad to have closed, in this place, the relations 
of this stupendous race of mankind, because the two following 
accounts, given by gentlemen of character and abihties, seem to 
contradict great part of what had been before advanced, or at least 
ser\'e to give scoffers room to say, that the preceding navigators 
had seen these people through the medium of magnifying glasses, 
instead of the sober eye of observation. But before I make my 
remarks on what has been before related, I shall proceed with the 
other navigators, and then attempt to reconcile the different ac- 
counts. 

In 1767 Captain Wallis, of the Dolphin, and Captain Philip 
Carteret, of the Swallow slooj), saw and measured with a pole 
several of the Patagonians who happened to be in the Straits of 



AFfEXDIX. 107 

Magellan during his passage.* He represents them as a fine 
and friendly people, clothed in skins, and on their legs a sort of 
boots ; and many of them tied their hair, which was long and black, 
with a sort of woven stuff of the breadth of a garter, made of some 
kind of wool ; that their arms were slings, formed of tw^o round balls 
fastened one to each end of a cord, which they fling with great force 
and dexterity. He adds : " They hold one ball in their hand, and 
swing the other, at the full length of the cord, round their head, 
by which it acquires a prodigious velocity ; they will fling it to 
a great distance, and with such exactness, as to strike a very small 
object." These people were also mounted on horses ; their saddles, 
bridles, &c., were of their omti making ; some had iron, and others 
metal bits to their bridles, and one had a Spanish broad-sword ; but 
whether the last articles were taken by war, or procured by com- 
merce, is uncertain ; but the last is most probable. It seems 
evident that they had intercourse with Europeans, and had even 
adopted some of their fashions, for many had cut their dress into the 
form of Spanish ponchos, or a square piece of cloth with a hole cut 
for the head, the rest hanging loose as low as their knees ; they also 
wore drawers. — So these people had attained a few steps farther 
towards ci^^Hzation than their gigantic neighbours ; others, again, 
wiU appear to have made a far greater advance, for these still de- 
voured their meat raw, and drank nothing but water. 

M. Bougainville, in the same year, saw another party of the 
natives of Patagonia. He measured several of them, and declares 
that none were lower than five feet five inches French, or taller 
than five feet ten ; i. e. five feet ten, or six feet three, English 
measure. He concludes his account with saying, that he afterwards 
met with a taller people in the South Sea, but I do not recollect 
that he mentions the place. 

I am sorry to be obhged to remark, in these voyages, a very 
illiberal propensity to cavil at and invahdate the account given by 
Mr. Byron, but at the same time exult in having had an opportunity 
given me by that gentleman of vindicating his and the national 
honour. M. Bougainville, in order to prove that he fell in with the 
identical people that Mr. B)rron conversed with, asserts that he saw 
numbers of them possessed of knives of an Enghsh manufactory, 
certainly given them by Mr. Byron. But he should have considered 
« Phil. Trans. 1770, p. 21. Hawkesworth's Voy. vol. i. 374. 

o "i 



108 APPEKDIX. 

that there are more ways than one of coming at a thing — that the 
commerce between Sheffield and South America, through the port 
of Cadiz, is most uncommonly large — and that his Indians might 
have got their knives from the Spaniards, at the same time that 
they got their gilt nails and Spanish harness. But for farther 
satisfaction on this subject, I have liberty to say, from Mr. Byron's 
authority, that he never gave a single knife to the people he saw — • 
that he had not one at that time about him — that, excepting the 
presents given with liis ovra hands, and the tobacco brought by 
Lieutenant Cummins, not the least trifle was bestowed. I am" fur- 
nished with one other proof that these lesser Indians, whom Mr. 
WalKs saw, were not the same as those described by Mr. Byron, as 
has been insinuated ; for the first had with him some officers who 
had been wdth him on the preceding voyage, and who bear vntness 
not only to the difference of size, but declare that these people had 
not a single article among them given by Mr. Byron.* It is 
extremely probable that these were the Indians that Mr. Bougain- 
ville fell in with ; for they were furnished with bits, a Spanish 
scymeter, and brass stirrups, as before-mentioned. 

My last evidence of these gigantic Americans is that which I 
received from Mr. Falkner : he acquainted me that, about the j^ear 
1742, he was sent on a mission to the vast plains of Pampas, which, 
if I recollect right, he to the south-west of Buenos Ayres, and 
extend near a thousand miles towards the Andes. In these plains 
he first met with some tribes of these people, and was taken under 
the protection of one of the caciques. The remarks he made on 
their size were as follows : — that the tallest, which he measured 
in the same manner that Mr. Byron did, was seven feet eight inches 
high — that the common height, or middle size, was six feet — that 
there were numbers that were even shorter — and that the tallest 
woman did not exceed sue feet ; that they were scattered from the 
foot of the Andes over that vast tract which extends to the Atlantic 
Ocean, and are found as far as the Red River, at Bay Anegada, 
lat. 40°. 1' ; below that the land is too barren to be habitable, and 
none are found, except accidental migrants, till you arrive 9X the 
river Gallego, near the Straits of Magellan. 



" M. Frezier was assured by Don Pedro Molino, Governor of 
* See Mr. Byron's letter at the end. 



AITENDIX. 109 

Chiloe, that he once was visited by some of these people, who were 
four varas, or about nine or ten feet high ; they came in company 
with some Chiloe Indians,* with whom they were friends, and who 
probably found them in some of their excursions." 



" Those whose height is so extraordinary as to occasion a great 
disbeUef of the accounts of voyagers, are indisputably an existent 
people ; they have been seen by Magellan, and six others, in the 
sixteenth century, and by two, if not three, in the present." 

Thomas Pennant. 



Copy of a Paper transmitted from Admiral Byron to Mr. Pennant, 
through the hands of the Right Reverend John Egerton, late 
Bishop of Durham, after he had perused the manuscript of the 
foregoing account. 

" The people I saw upon the coast of Patagonia were not the 
same that were seen the second voyage. One or two of the officers 
that sailed with me, and afterwards with Captain Wallis, declared to 
me that they had not a single thing I had distributed amongst 
those I saw. 

" M. Bougainville remarks, that his officers landed amongst the 
Indians I had seen, as they had many English knives among them, 
which were, as he pretends, undoubtedly given by me. Now it 
happened that I never gave a single knife to any of those Indians, 
nor did I even carry one ashore with me. 

" I had often heard from the Spaniards that there were two or 
three different nations of very tall people, the largest of which in- 
habit those immense plains at the back of the Andes : the others, 
somewhere near the river Gallegos. I take it to be the former that 
I saw, and for this reason : — returning from Port Famine, where I 
had been to wood and water, I saw those people's fires a long way to 
the westward of where I had left them, and a great way inland, so, 
as the winter was approaching, they were certainly returning to a 
better climate. I remarked that they had not one single thing 
amongst them that shewed they ever had any commerce Avith Euro- 
peans. They were certainly of a most amazing size : so much were 

* Frezier's Voyage, p. 86. 



110 APPENDIX. 

their horses disproportioned, that all the people that were with me 
in the boats, when very near the shore, swore that they were all 
mounted upon deer ; and, to this instant, I believe there is not a 
man that landed with me, though they were at some distance from 
them, but would swear they took them to be nine feet high. I do 
suppose many of them were between seven and eight feet, and strong 
in proportion. 

" Mr. Byron is obUged to Mr, Pennant for the perusal of his 
manuscript, and thinks his remarks very judicious."* 



No. 13. 

Extracts from " Diario de Antonio de Viedma, 1783." 

Communicated by Don Pedro de Angelis to Sir Woodbine Parish, 
F.R.S., and by him to Capt. Fitz-Roy, in 1837. 

Los Indios todos son de una misma nacion en esta vecindad : su 
estatura es alta, de dos varas k nueve palmos por lo comun en los 
hombres, siendo muy raro el que pasa de esta talla. Las mugeres 
no son tan altas, pero lo bastante con proporcion & su sexo. Todos 
son de buenos semblantes, y entre las mugeres las hay muy bien 
parecidas y blancas, aunque curtidas del viento y del sol como ellos. 
No se encuentra hombre ni muger flaco, antes todos son gruesos con 
proporcion a su estatura : lo que y usar las ropas del cuello a los 
pies, habra contribuido a que algunos viageros los tengan por 
gigantes. 

Su idioma es gutural, y repiten en sus conversaciones una misma 
voz muchas veces. No interrumpen al que esta hablando, aunque 
su oracion dure todo el dia : comunmente habla uno de mas auto- 
ridad 6 el mas elocuente. Las mugeres no hablan entre los hombres 
sin ser preguntadas, y entonces solo contestando a la pregunta : los 
que hablan mucho sin ocasion ni asunto, no tienen partido entre 
ellos, ni se les oye. 

El vestido de los hombres es un cuero de guanaco, zorillo 6 liebre, 

* Extract from Pennant's Literary Life, p. 47 to 69. 



APPENDIX. Ill 

de dos varas en cuadro, el pelo para adentro, y la tez pintada de 
Colorado, verde 6 amarillo : este los cubre desde el cuello a, los pies 
con tal arte y manejo, que raramente se les ve parte alguna de su 
cuerpo, excepto los brazos, y estos, cuando usan de ellos para algo. 
Llevan ademas otro cuero muy sobado, atado a la cintura con una 
correa por debajo de aquel, con que tapan el vientre y hasta la mitad 
de los muslos, descendiendo desde aqui en punta hasta los tobillos. 
En los pies se atan con unas correillas unos cueros de buey, si le 
tienen 6 de caballo 6 del cuero de los guanacos grandes, formando a 
manera de sandalias. Para andar a caballo usan de botas que hacen 
de los garrones 6 piernas de los mismos caballos 6 guanacos grandes ; 
y las espuelas son se madera, que labran ellos con bastante primor. 
Se cinen la cabeza con una cinta de lana como de dos dedos de 
ancho, tegida por ellos de varios colores, con que se sugetan el pelo 
doblado por arriba, con las puntas al aire como plumage por el lado 
izquierdo, dandose con la cinta seis 6 ocho vueltas, y colgando las 
puntas de ella con unos cabetes de metal amariUo 6 laton. Para 
montar a caballo sujetan el cuero grande con una correa, que se 
rodean por encima de todo a la cintura, de la cual cuelgan las bolas 
y daga, que son las annas que generalmente traen : y cuando 
necesitan de los brazos para usarlas, dejan caer por las espaldas el 
cuero sobre las ancas del caballo, quedandose desnudos de medio 
cuerpo arriba, y hacen de este modo buena vista cuando van de 
huida 6 en seguimiento de la caza, jiorque el cuero cubre las ancas 
del cabaUo, y ofrece a los ojos el pelo que tiene por dentro de varios 
colores. El aparejo de montar es a manera de un albardon, sin 
pretal ni grupa, hecho tambien de cuero de guanaco grande, reenchi- 
dos los bastos de paja fuerte. Los estribos labrados por eUos de 
madera, y tan pequenos, que tasadamente cabe el dedo pulgar del 
pie. Se ponen mal a caballo, pero son muy firmes en el, y lo mismo 
corren cuesta abajo que cuesta arriba. El freno del cabaUo se com- 
pone de un pahto, 6 hueso de canilla de avestruz, labrado con dos 
perillas a los estremos, tan largo como ancha la boca del caballo, y 
en dichas perillas estan sujetas las riendas y dos correitas que atan 
en la barbada, con lo que queda seguro para que no se le saiga de la 
boca. Las riendas son cordones de ocho ramales, de correitas de 
cuero muy sobadas. 

Las mugeres tienen el vestido de la misma especie de cueros, 
puesto del mismo modo, con sola la diferencia de que sobre el pecho 



112 APPENDIX. 

lo sugetan, pasandole dos agujetas de a tercia de largo, heclias de 
madera 6 de fierro, quedando las puntas del cuero colgando como las 
faldillas de los capingotes, hasta lo bajo de la cintura. Las otras 
dos puntas les cuelgan, y arrastran atras como media vara, estando 
suelto, pero para andar se lo recogen y afianzan con la mano izqui- 
erda, de la que no hacen mas uso que este, y el de cubrirse con ella 
en alguna urgencia sus partes. Encima de estas llevan debajo de 
aquel cuero una especie de mandil cuadrado, que cuelga hasta mas 
de las rodillas ; de bayeta, pano li otro genero si le pueden haber, y 
sino, de cuero sobado muy bien, el cual atan con un cinto de lo 
mismo que las rodea el cuerpo, el que guarnece las de alguna auto- 
ridad entre ellas, con abalorios. No llevan sandalias en los pies 
como los horabres, pero cuando montan a caballo, calzan botas como 
ellos. Llevan descubierta la cabeza, dividido el pelo en dos partes, y 
de cada una hecha una coleta, que baja por las orejas y hombros 
hasta el pecho y cintura ; cuya cinta es de lana parda de dos dedos 
de ancho, guarnecida, si es muger rica, en dias de gala con abalorios, 
y lo mismo las mugeres de aiguna autoridad. 

Tambien se jjonen los abalorios en las agujetas con que sujetan 
el cuero en el pecho, y en las canas de las piernas como pulseras, 
y en el cuello por gargantillas de cualesquiera colores. En las 
orejas Uevan zarcillos de laton, y lo mismo los hombres. Los arreos 
de las caballerias en que las mugeres montan, que por lo comun son 
yeguas, se componen de unos sillones de vaqueta 6 de zuela, (si la 
pueden conseguir) muy bien hechos, claveteados con clavitos de 
laton amarillo, guamecidos sus extremes con abalorios de diferentes 
colores, (cuando los tienen) formando dibujos 6 labores a su modo 
y fantasia. La cincha tiene tres argoUas, la una en un extreme, 
y las otras dos en cada tercio una ; la evilla con que la abrochan 6 
cinen es muy grande. El freno se compone de cabezada, bocado y 
riendas : la cabezada es rica, guarnecida de abalorios, 6 de cuantas 
cosas tienen 6 pueden adquirir al proposito : las riendas y el bocado 
son del mismo modo que los que usan los hombres. Ponen a la 
yegua un collar al cuello que cae hasta las rodillas, con cuantos cas- 
cabeles y colgajos pueden conseguir. Estos arreos son para gala y 
fiestas, pero en sus marchas ordinarias no usan estos adomos, y en 
lugar de dicho collar ponen un cordon de lana azul o Colorado, de 
un dedo de grueso, con el cual dan tres vueltas al cuello de la cabal- 
leria, y les sirve tambien de estribo para montar en el sillon, donde 



APPENDIX. 113 

se asientan con la cara a la cabeza del caballo, recogiendo las piernas 
arriba sobre las faldillas del mismo sillon, en una postura muy vio- 
lenta y trabajosa, que solo la costumbre puede hacerles sufrir ; por 
lo que estan espuestas a muchas caidas. Parar andar a caballo y 
para montar guardan suma honestidad, no permitiendo que se les vea 
parte alguna de su cuerpo. Las mugeres de alguna autoridad Uevan 
en las marchas sombreros de paja, que vienen a ser un redondel con 
cabo, sin copa, que se lo atan por debajo de la barba con cualesquiera 
cosa ; y con esto se cubren del sol y agua cuando van a caballo. 

El egercicio 6 ocupacion ordinaria de los hombres es cazar, para 
mantener con las cames sus familias, y hacer del cuero los toldos 6 
chozas en que viven, y todos sus vestidos : cuidan tambien de los 
cabaUos que tienen, y trabajan todos sus arreos. Sus divertimientos 
se reducen a jugar a los dados y la perinola, y egercitarse en su mode 
de batallar y correr parejas a caballo. 

Las mugeres tienen obligacion de guisar la comida, traer el agua 
y la lena, armar y desarmar el toldo en las marcbas, y cargarlo y 
descargarlo : sin que para nada de esto le ayude el hombre, avuique 
este elle enferma, porque ha de sacar fuerzas de flaqueza. Ademas 
de esto ha de coser el toldo, que es siempre de cuero de guanaco 
grande, y tambien ha de coser todos los demas cueros de cama y 
vestidos, que regularmente se componen de cueros de hebre, zorriUo 
y guanacos nonatos, 6 recien nacidos, de los que hacen prevencion 
y cosecha en la primavera, para con los sobrantes comerciar con los 
indios del Rio Negro, por cabaUos, ropas, frenos abalorios y dagas, 
que aquellos adquiren del comercio, € invasiones que hacen en las 
fronteras de Buenos Aires : porque los indios, de que aqui se va 
hablando, jamas han tratado espanoles hasta ahora, ni ban visto 
ninguna de sus poblaciones, ni estas costas tienen fierro, metal, laton, 
herramientas ni armas ; todas estas piezas y generos las adquieren 
mediante dicho comercio. Para coser estas mugeres los expresados 
cueros, usan de alesnas, que forman del fierro que les dan los re- 
feridos indios del Rio Negro, y en lugar de hilo emplean nervios, que 
adelgazan, segun necesitan, delas piernas de losavestruces. 

El cacicazgo es hereditario, su jurisdiccion absoluta en cuanto a 
mudarse de un campo a otro en seguimiento de la caza, que es su 
subsistencia. Cuando al cacique le parece tiempo de mudar el campo, 
el dia antes al ponerse el sol hace su platica a grandes voces desde 
su toldo : todas le escuchan con suma atencion desde los suyos. Les 



11^ APPENDIX. 

dice se lia de marchar al otro dia : les senala hora para recoger los 
caballos, batir los toldos, y empezar a marchar : nadie le replica, 
y a la hora senalada todos estan prontos como se les ha mandado. 
Las mugeres van por veredas que hay hechas para todas las 
aguadas donde deben parar: son las conductoras de todo el equipage. 
Los hombres, luego que las mugeres empiezan la marcha, se van 
apostando en el campo para cercar los guanacos y bolearlos a la 
travesia : porque son tan violentos en la carrera, que ningun ca- 
baUo ni perro les puede alcanzar : cuando estan con las bolas 
enredados, les sirven los perros para acabarlos de rendir. El mismo 
cacique senala los puestos de la batida, por lo que, y en testi- 
monio de senorio, el tributan parte de la caza : asi nunca corre, ni 
hace otra cosa mas que andar de apostadero en apostadero : sus 
jornadas mas largas son de 4 leguas. En llegando al destino que 
esta asignado, arman las mugeres los toldos, recogen lena, y lo 
tienen todo pronto para cuando los hombres vengan : estos al ponerse 
el sol marchan a sus toldos, sin que jamas se verifique llegue a eUos 
ninguno, obscurecida la noche. Si se ha de continuar la marcha 
al otro dia, hace el cacique la misma arenga y prevenciones ; 
y si no dice nada, ya saben que por entonces han de permanecer 
alli, y esta mansion por lo comun es adonde saben que se ha retirado 
la caza. Aqui, cuando el cacique ve que estan escasos de came, al 
ponerse el sol, y en la misma forma que para las marchas, les dice 
recojan los caballos a la hora que senala para el dia siguiente, lo 
que egecutan sin falta : luego que tienen los caballos en los toldos, 
les hace otra platica, paseandose a caballo, y senalandoles los apos- 
taderos con lo que cada cuadrilla debe egecutar. Van con eUos 
algunas mugeres para cargar la caza, porque ni aun este trabajo 
quieren los hombres hacer : los toldos quedan armados, y en ellos las 
restantes mugeres, muchachos 6 impedidos. Al ponerse el sol se 
retlran otra vez a sus toldos, reduciendose a solas estas funciones 
todo el mando de este cacique, el cual por ningim delito castiga a sus 
indios, aunque en los puntos de obediencia que van expresados jamas 
se verifica le falten a ella. Cuando quiere hacer guerra a sus vecinos, 
6 a algunos otros de que hayan recibido agravio, ha de ser con apro- 
bacion de su indios principales, para lo cual se juntan en el toldo del 
cacique : este pondera y explica los agravios y modo de vengarlos ; 
fuerzas, facilidad 6 inconvenientes que hay en hacer la guerra. Los 
de la junta confieren sobre el asunto, y aprueban 6 reiirueban lo 



APPENDIX. 115 

propuesto por el cacique: este no fee agravia. La guerra, por lo 

regular, se aprueba, y solo ventilan el modo de hacerla, y cuando ; y 

suele tardar esta resolucion algunos dias. Luego que estan con- 

venidos en salir a campafia, el cacique tres noches seguidas desde su 

toldo a grandes voces leshace saber k todos los indios la declaracion de 

la guerra, el tiempo para cuando esta resuelta, la forma en que ha de 

hacerseenemigoscontra'quien, ysu motivo; avisan que estenprevenidos, 

Una de las principales causas que tienen para declarar guerra es, 

que como cada cacique tiene seSalado el terreno de su jurisdiccion, 

no puede ninguno de sus indios entrar en el terreno de otro sin pedirle 

licencia para ello. El indio que vk a pedirla ha de hacer tres huma- 

radas, y hasta que le correspondan con otras tres no puede llegar a 

los toldos : en ellos da razon a aquel cacique del motive que le trae, 

ya sea de paso, 6 ya porque pretenda permanecer alli. Si al 

cacique le parece, consiente en su pretension, y si no, le manda 

salir inmediatamente de sus terrenos y dominios. Si el indio 

va como embajador de su cacique 6 de otros indios, bien pidiendo 

paso por aquel terreno, 6 bien para comerciar con eUos 6 para visi- 

tarlos, se le senala por el cacique el tiempo, y por donde deben entrar, 

camino que han de tomar para seguir su viage, 6 terreno que han de 

ocupar donde hagan su comercio. Luego hacen sus tres humaradas, 

y en habiendoles correspondido los indios del terreno, entran todos 

en este, y a cosa de una legua de la tolderia, se detienen todos los 

hombres, y pasando adelante las mugeres y criaturas, arman sus 

toldos a donde se les senala, y en estandolo, todos llegan a ellos los 

hombres. Nadie sale a recibirlos, quedandose asi a la vista unos de 

otros, hasta que despues de mucho rato va el cacique, 6 cualquiera 

otro que haga cabeza entre los forasteros, k visitar y cumplimentar 

al del pais, que le recibe en su toldo acompanado de sus principales 

indios, que acuden alli luego para cortejar al forastero. Esta visita 

suele durar todo un dia, porque como cada uno habla sin que nadie 

le interrumpa, si el forastero trae muchas noticias y quiere enterarse 

de las del pais, suele durar la oracion de cada uno, dos 6 tres horas, 

y aun mas, porque tambien repiten muchas veces ciertas voces. El 

que oye, y los demas estan con grande atencion, diciendo con fre- 

cuencia, a, a, que quiere decir si, si ; y con ninguna otra voz inter- 

rumpen al que habla. En estas juntas se hacen las alianzas, se 

otorgan amistades ampUas, y otros contratos, acuerdos 6 convenios, 

para todo lo cual tienen los caciques facultades absolutas. Cuando 



116 A1>1>ENDIX. 

para entrar en terreno 6 tolderia agena, no se observan las expre- 
sadas formalidades, es senal de mala %, y en consecuencia se toca 
luego al arma. 

Tambien sedeclaran a menudo guerra por robarse algunos caballos, 
de cuyas resultas quedan los vencidos k pie, y cautivas del vencedor 
las mugeres mozas, y muchachos ; que k las viejas y los hombres no 
se les da cuartel, como no lo consigan en la fuga. 

El cacique tiene obligacion de amparar y socorrer a los indios de 
su dominio y territorio en sus necesidades, y por lo tal es mas 
estimado, tiene mas partido entre ellos, y mas preferencia para 
cacique el que es mas dispuesto a socorrerlos, mas galan, y mas 
inteligente en la caza ; porque si le faltan estas calidades, se van a 
buscar a otro que las tenga, dejandolo solo con sus parientes, y ex- 
puestos a continuas invasiones de sus vecinos : bien que no pierde 
aquella familia el derecho del terreno, y con el tiempo suele haber otro 
que restablece la tolderia que su padre, abuelo 6 hermano ha des- 
truido por su desgracia, 6 mala conducta. Cuando esta viejo el ca- 
cique, y en estado que por falta de fuerzas no puede cumplir con las 
obligaciones de su ministerio, deja el mando en el sucesor. 

Los casamientos se hacen por compra que el hombre hace de la 
muger al padre, 6 cualquiera otro a cuyo cargo esta ella, que segun 
su calidad, buen parecer, conducta, &c., es mas cara 6 mas barata, 
sin que pueda oponerse a la venta que celebre su padre 6 su tutor, 
quienes no cuentan con su voluntad para otorgarla. Puede cada 
hombre tener una, dos 6 mas mugeres propias, segun tengan haberes 
para comprarlas, pero raramente tienen mas de una, a menos de ser 
cacique 6 indio de grande autoridad. El que mas Uega a tener son 
tres mugeres, y todo marido tiene facultad de vender las suyas d 
otros, cuya segunda venta hace poco apreciable a la muger, y se da 
por lo mismo en muy poco precio, comprandolas solamente los 
pobres que se surten de este modo, porque carecen de medios con 
que adquirirlas de primera mano. No hay tampoco inconveniente 
en venderlas a cualquiera pariente, como no sea hijo 6 hermano de 
la vendida, porque todos los demas grados los tienen dispensados. 
Son muchos los casamientos que hacen de esta especie, por lo caro 
que cuestan las mugeres solteras, las cuales, interin son mozas, y 
tienen esperanza de casarse guardan la virginidad; pero en perdiendo 
aquella esperanza, se entregan a todos. Las casadas, cuyo marido que 
les trato su padre 6 tutor ha sido de su gusto, le guardan suma fide- 



APPENDIX. 117 

lidad, pero en las que no, hay muchos trabajos ; bien que el adulterio 
no es delito, como no sea a vista del marido, y en este caso culpan 
al adultero y no a ella : y tampoco asi se castiga, pues por medio de 
algun corto in teres perdona este agravio el marido. El cacique 
siempre tiene por muger una hija 6 hermana de otro cacique ; la 
cual es la principal entre las demas mugeres suyas, y estas la sirven 
en todo. Aunque se lialle cansado de ella no la puede vender, por- 
que seria agravio y motivo de romper una guerra con sus parientes. 
Todas estas cacicas manifiestan gravedad, hablan poco, se estan re- 
cogidas en su toldo, ocupadas en algun trabajo correspondiente a 
ellas, y no intervienen en las vulgares conversaciones de las demas 
indias. Los hombres por ningun motivo castigan de obra a las 
mugeres, excepto cuando estan borrachos ; y aun entonces el cacique a 
la cacica preferente jamas le pega, aunque las otras Ueven todas golpes. 
Las ceremonias del casamiento solo se reducen, una vez ajustada la 
muger, llevarsela su padre al novio a su toldo, a menos que ella no 
se adelante a irse con 61 sin que la lleve nadie, que en esto no hay 
inconveniente. Entonces el novio hace matar uno 6 dos yeguas, 
segun tenga de ellas, y convida a los parientes y parientas, amigos y 
amigas de la novia y suyos, y comiendo todos de aquella came, 
queda concluido el casamiento. Asi hombres como mugeres son 
muy celosos y amantes de sus hijos, ii quienes luego que nacen atan 
con muchas fajas de cuero que tienen preparadas, muy sobadas y 
suaves, contra una a manera de tabla, que forman, porque no las 
tienen, de palitos cruzados y atados, forrados con fajas de cuero, en 
donde los tienen sugetos mas de un mes, dandoles el pecho sin de- 
satarlos de alii. Asi dicen que se crian derechos, y efectivamente 
temto ellos como ellas son todos muy derechos, tienen buenos cuer- 
pos, y no se ve uno que sea cargado de espaldas. En quitandolos 
de estas ataduras, los traen regularmente siempre consigo las ma- 
dres, metidos en las espaldas entre su came y el cuero con que van 
vestidas, con la cabeza sacada por el cogote de la madre. Cuando 
van de marcha, hacen de cuero y unos palitos una especie de cuna, 
atumbada y cerrada por todas partes, menos por los pies y la cabeza, 
las cuales forran y adornan con bayeta, pano 6 lo que tienen, guar- 
neciendolas con abalorios, cascabeles, &c., segun pueden, y las ase- 
guran encima de las ancas del caballo, donde va la madre. Entre 
estas gentes se ve que los muchachos nunca lloran, sino Uevan golpes 
6 alguna caida. 



118 APPENDIX. 

Su religion viene a ser solamente una especie de creencia en dos 
potencias ; la una benigna que solo gobierna el cielo, independiente 
y sin poderio en la tierra y sus habitantes, de la cual hacen muy poco 
caso ; y la otra a un tiempo benigna y rigorosa, la cual gobierna la 
tierra, dirige, castiga y premia a sus habitadores, y a esta adoran bajo 
cualquiera figura que fabrican, 6 que se hayan hallado en las playas, 
procedidas de algunos navios naufragos ; como son mascarones de 
proa, 6 figuras de las aletas de popa, y estas son las que estiman y 
prefieren para sus cultos por suponerlas aparecidas. A esta deidad 
dan por nombre el Camalasque, que equivale a " poderoso y valiente." 
De estas figuras, cada uno que la tiene defiende y cree ser aqueUa la 
verdadera deidad, y que las de los otros son falsas, aunque no llega 
el caso de empefiar estas disputas, ni armar quimeras sobre ello, 
porque se persuaden que la misma deidad vengara sus agravios con 
las supersticiones que se figuran : creyendo que las enfermedades y 
las muertes son venganzas de estas deidades, a menos de suceder en 
los ya muy viejos, que solo entonces las tienen por naturales. Estas 
figuras las guardan en sus toldos, muy cubiertas y liadas con cuero, 
paSo, bayeta b lienzo, segun cada uno puede, y no se descubre a 
nadie sin dictamen del santon 6 hechicero, que puede ser muger li 
hombre. Tiene de continue dias en que debe egercer su oficio, can- 
tando a la deidad al son de dos calabazas con chinas dentro, — mii- 
sica tan desagradable como su misma voz. Tambien hace en esta 
forma rogaciones, por que la deidad enferme 6 mate a los que tienen 
por enemigos : pero esto suele salirles muy mal a los tales hechi- 
ceros, porque si acaso tienen sus enemigos algun contagio, 6 muere 
algun indio principal 6 cacique, procuran por todos los medios posibles 
haber a las manos a los referidos hechiceros, y los hacen m^rtires del 
diablo. Tambien deben cantar a la deidad estos hechiceros por los 
enfermos de sus tolderias, para contradecir a los otros hechiceros sus 
enemigos, y sino consigue el alivio el enfermo, suelen tambien los 
amigos de este darle su merecido a aquellos, k lo menos quitandoles el 
empleo, y tratandole en adelante como a infame : y si la muerte ha 
sido de muger o hijo del cacique, suele pagar con la vida el hechicero 
su mala cura, que solo se reduce al canto, porque no usan de otras 
medicinas en sus enfermedades. Y por tanto tienen muchos contra- 
tiempos estos medicos cantores, siendo pocos de eUos los que mueren 
de muerte natural : pero siempre sobran pretendientes para este 
empleo, porque tienen facultad de usar de las mugeres de los indios. 



APPENDIX. 119 

si ellas consienten, 6 de ellos, si el hechicero es muger. De estos 
hechiceros casi hay tantos como familias, 6 como idolos, porque 
regularmente cada cabeza de familia tiene su idolo en su toldo, y si 
la tolderia se compone de cuatro, cinco 6 mas familias, hay otros 
tantos idolos y otros tantos hechiceros 6 santones : en la inteligencia 
de que una familia entre ellos se compone no solo del marido, muger 
e hijos, sino tambien de todos los parientes del dicho marido, que es 
cabeza y gefe de esta familia, en la cual viene a ser como un cacique 
subaltemo, del que tiene el general gobiemo de todos, y derecho en 
propiedad de aquel terreno. 

Cuando enferma alguno en la famUia, acude el santon de ella 

k cantarle al oido, con voces tan fuertes y desentonadas, y tan 

desagradables, que eUas por si solas bastarian a matarle. Si se 

agrava, convida a los demas de su oficio, y a todas las viejas, para 

que le ayuden a cantar, a fin de que de noche y de dia no cese el 

canto : pero nadie queda responsable si el enfermo muere, porque este 

cargo es solo del hechicero. Cuando el enfermo esta ya enteramente 

postrado, si es doncella y joven, le forman un toldo de ponchos, 

separado de la tolderia, la ponen en 61, y alii es el canto mas fuerte ; 

porque todas cuantas viejas hay, van a cantarle, y una de ellas arma 

en un palo todos los cascabeles que puede juntar, y haciendo con 

ellos gran ruido, da una vuelta al rededor del toldo de cuando en 

cuando, a cuyo tiempo esfuerzan las de adentro su griteria. Durante 

la enfermedad se matan yeguas y caballos, en ofrenda 6 sacrificio 

al idolo para que mejore el enfermo ; pero esta ofrenda se la comen 

entre el mismo enfermo y los cantores. Si el enfermo muere, bien 

sea en el nuevo toldo de ponchos, siendo doncella, b en el suyo 

mismo, siendo hombre 6 muger casada, se trae al toldo el caballo 

mas estimado, lo aparejan, y poniendole encima todas las alhajas del 

difunto, montan en ^l un muchacho, y le hacen dar una vuelta 

al rededor del toldo, donde esta el cadaver : bajan al muchacho 

y ponen al cuello del caballo un lazo, de cuyos dos cabos tiran dos 

indios hasta que lo ahogan. Tienen ya prevenida una hog-uera, 

donde van arrojando a quemar el aparejo y alhajas que Ueva el 

caballo; y la persona que hace cabeza de duelo se va quitando el 

vestido y cuanto tiene puesto, y lo va arrojando tambien al fuego ; 

como tambien todos los parientes y amigos echan una prenda cada 

uno, que al efecto traen de sus toldos 6 se quitan de su vestidura, 

compitiendose en entregar al fuego las mejores, en que denotan mas 



120 APJ'ENDIX. 

obligaciones al muerto, 6 mas amistad, amor, &a. Luego desuellan 
el caballo ahogado, y se reparte su came entre todos los que echaron 
sus prendas al fuego. La doliente se esta en su toldo muy tapada 
y sin hablar una palabra. Todas las mugeres parientas y amigas 
las van a hacer compania, y para ello se cortan del pelo unos 
mechones, de modo que les caiga por la frente hasta las cejas, se 
aranan la cara, se sajan los carrillos, y lloran aunque no tengan 
gana, con unos gemidos y estilo tan lamentable y lastimoso, que 
parece se les arranca el alma. A la noche se entregan las viejas del 
cadaver, y eUas lo entierran donde les parece, sin que lo sepan 
dolientes ni otro alguno, porque ni se les pregimta, ni eUas pueden 
decLrlo a nadie. Sigue el duelo por qmnce dias, con los mismos 
gemidos, y se van matando cada dia caballos del difunto hasta no 
dejar ni uno, porque todos sus bienes han de quedar destruidos sin 
que puedan darse a nadie, ni menos habria quien los admitiese, 
sabiendo que eran del muerto, porque este es un sagrado para eUos 
inviolable. Todas las lunas se repite un dia el duelo y llanto, y se 
mata caballo 6 yegua si hay amigo o pariente que quiera darlo, 
porque al difunto ya no le ha quedado ninguno. Cumplido el afio, 
se repite el duelo por tres dias, con llantos, hoguera, arrojar en eUa 
prendas, y demas ceremonias, cuantas pueden hacer para que se 
renueve el funeral, como en el dia de la muerte. Despues de estos 
tres dias, ya no vuelven a acordarse mas del difunto para nada. 
Toda esta funebre pompa y ceremonias se hacen solo por j6venes 
6 personas de buena edad y robustas, pues a los que mueren viejos 
ni se les hace duelo ni se les Uora, ni se acuerdan mas de ellos, 
creyendo que su muerte era precisa, y se contentan con matar en 
eUa un caballo, el peor 6 mas desechado que tenga. 

Se matan caballos por casamientos y muertes, por la salida de los 
dientes a los muchachos, cuando comienza la menstruacion a las 
mugeres, por cualquiera leve mal, por aplacar al idolo enojado, que 
creen lo esta cuando tienen enfermedades, cuando les cuesta mucho 
trabajo el tomar la caza, cuando otros indios los hostigan y no 
tienen fuerzas suficientes para hacerles guerra, porque en este caso 
aguantan las injurias que les quieran hacer : y toda esta matanza de 
caballos 6 yeguas es la causa de no estar toda la costa poblada de 
este ganado ; pues aunque las yeguas paren todos los anos, con 
todo, como dejan pocas, no hay suficientes cabaUos para surtirlos, 
sino fuera por los que los indios Pampas de Buenos Aires les 



APPENDIX. 121 

cambian por los cucros que les llevan cuando bajan al Rio Negro, de 
que resulta tener los de San Julian menos ganado de este que 
los del golfo de San Jorge y Santa Elena, porque no pueden bajar 
al Rio Negro con la continuacion que estos. 

Creen en la transmigracion del alma, y que las de los que mueren 
pasan a los que nacen en la familia, en esta forma : el que muere 
viejo transmigra el alma sin detencion, y por eso no se le llora 
ni hacen sentimiento, porque dicen va aquella alma k mejorar de 
puesto : pero la del que muere joven 6 robusto, queda detenida 
debajo de tierra, sin destino hasta que se cumple el tiempo que 
le faltaba para ser viejo, que entonces pasa al primero que nace, 
y por esta detencion, en que juzgan esta comprimida y violenta, le 
hacen todos los sacrificios al idolo, para que le de algun desahogo, 
interin llega el tiempo decretado. Y son tan super sticiosos en esta 
materia, que unos se persuaden es conveniente poner en el sepulcro 
h. los difuntos alguna comida y aUiajas para que coman sus almas 
y se diviertan, y otros lo tienen esto por ocioso, creyendo que el 
idolo les dara todo lo necesario. Esta matena se gobierna en 
cada familia segun el modo de pensar del embustero santon, que 
se engana y los engana como quiere, sin que se repare en sus 
inconsecuencias, aun cuando sus pensamientos y sus disposiciones 
varien a cada paso. Estos embusteros les hacen creer que el idolo 
hace gestos y habla, haciendolos ellos conforme les dicen que les 
vieron hacer ; y aunque los mismos indios se hallen presentes al 
tiempo que el santon descubre el idolo, y con sus mismos ojos 
vean que es mentira, como el santon diga que hablo 6 hizo gestos, 
basta para que ellos lo crean asi ciegamente. 

Jiizganse incapaces de poder ofender con alguna de sus opera- 
ciones a la deidad que adoran, y asi creen que los contratiempos 
6 castigos que les envia, no es porque ellos los merezcan por sus 
delitos, sino porque le da gana al idolo de tratarlos mal. Asi 
la benignidad de esta potencia consiste en tener buenos caballos, 
salud y paz, haUar mucha y buena caza, y lograr fidelidad de parte 
de sus vecinos. 

El niimero de indios que se haUan aqui establecidos, ser^n hasta 
4,000 personas : ocupan el terreno de la costa que queda seSalado. 
No pueden salir de el, impidiendoselo por el E la mar, por el N el 
Rio Negro fe indios Pampas de Buenos Aires, y por el O y S la 
Cordillera, imposible de pasar aqui por su altura, y por hallarse 

P 



Igg APPENDIX. 

en todo tiempo cubierta de nieve, sin que se verifiqne la habitan 
en estos parages ni aun las aves. 

En sus batallas pelean a pie, dejando a las mugeres en custodia 
de los cabaUos, y se ponen unas como camisas de hombre con 
mangas cerradas. hechas de diez 6 doce cueros de venado, bien 
sobados, qne no los puede pasar el sable ni la daga. En la cabeza 
se ponen una especie de sombrero, 6 casco hecho tambien de cuero 
de buey d de caballo, con cuyos resguardos procuran tirarse las 
cuchilladas a las piemas por ser mas facil herir en ellas, cortando 
las botas. Son muy firmes y constantes en la batalla, y no la 
dejan, una vez que entran en eUa, hasta ser vencidos 6 muertos. 
Usan tambien de las bolas, y todo partido que es vencido, ordi- 
nariamente son muertos, porque se ensangrientan de manera que 
ninguno huye i y esta es la causa de no ser mucho mas poblados 
estos terrenos, porque las mugeres son muy fecundas, y padecen 
muy pocas enfermedades. 

Los toldos los ponen clavando en tierra, dos palos de dos 6 tres 
varas de alto, y una y media distantes uno de otro ; al lado de cada 
palo, y a igual distancia clavan otros dos mas cortos, y al O de los 
seis, clavan otros seis mas cortos a la misma distancia, y al O de 
estos con igual distancia otros seis de poco mas de media vara de 
largo. Sobre estos diez y ocho palos echan el cuero con el pelo para 
afuera, y lo asegiiran a las cabezas de todos los palos, de los cuales 
cuelgan como cortinas de cuero por dentro, que forman las divisiones 
segun las necesitan, atandolas de alto abajo £l los mismos palos a 
manera de mamparos firmes : por afuera llega el cuero hasta el suelo 
por el NO y S, dejandole siempre la puerta al E de toda la anchura 
del toldo, el cual queda como si fuese una cueva ovalada. A la 
puerta no se le pone cosa alguna eon que cerrarla, sino en el rigor 
de los yelos, que la tapan, colgando de eUa otro cuero. Las sepa- 
raciones interiores las acomodan desde el centre hasta el fondo para 
cada matrimonio, y los hijos y demas familia y parentela duermen 
todos revueltos en el resto, que queda franco hasta la puerta, 
uniendose aqui midos, viudas, solteros, solteras, parientes, criados y 
esclavos, y en fin, cuantos dependen 6 tienen relacion con la caheza 
principal 6 amo del toldo. Las donceUas aqui, sin embargo de esta 
ocasion, procuran, como queda dicho, guardar su virginidad, mientras 



APPENDIX. 123 

tienen esperanza de casarse : pero si llegan a perderla se dan a cual- 
quiera, y tanto ellas como las vtiidas pasan buena noche, acomo- 
dandose indistintamente con el que primero se les acerca a dormir 
con eUas. 

Las querellas de los hombres dentro de una misma tolderia se 
deciden entre ellos a moquetes, sin que puedan usar para ello de 
otras annas, ni que se atreva nadie a separarlos hasta que ellos se 
rinden 6 separan, y los demas estan mirando, celebrandolos 6 
riendose. Las mugeres cuando rinen se estan muy asentadas, di- 
ciendose palabras ofensivas, hasta que la una echa mano a deshacerse 
las ti'enzas del pelo con mucha flema, lo que igualmente hace la otra 
con la misma, continuando en los improperios : y en teniendo ambas 
el pelo todo suelto, se lo sacuden, se levantan y se arremeten furiosas, 
d^ndose buenos tirones de el, en que se quitan una a otra cuanto 
pueden sacar, enredado en las ufias, y las demas mugeres y hombres 
se las estan mirando, sin que se atreva nadie a separarlas ; hasta que 
eUas mismas se apartan en estando cansadas, y se quedan tan 
amigas de resultas de esto, como si nunca hubiesen renido, per- 
maneciendo todo aquel dia con el pelo suelto : y en la querella no 
pueden darse como los hombres moquetes, ni tirarse a romper el 
vestido, sine solamente el pelo, siendo de lo contrario corregidas de 
las circunstantes espectadoras. En tiempos de duelo, en marchas, 
en dias de mucho viento, muchos frios 6 heladas, se pintan el rostro 
de negro o morado, tanto hombres como mugeres, para que no se 
les corte el cutis. 

Generalmente tienen estos indios indole muy dulce 6 inocente, y 
me tomaron tanto afecto y trataron con tanta senciUez, principal- 
mente el cacique de San Julian, que si hubieramos tenido caballos 
bastantes, pienso no quedaria un palmo de aqueUos terrenos que no 
pudiese registrar en su compaiiia. 

Antonio De Viedma, 
Buenos Aires, 

10 de Diciembre de 178.3. 



p2 



124 APPENDIX. 

No. 14. 
Extract from Byron's Narrative of the Loss of the "Wager. 

" These people* were of a small stature, very swarthy, having long, 
black, coarse hair, hanging over their faces. It was evident, from 
their great surprise, and every part of their behaviour, as well as 
their not having one thing in their possession which could be derived 
from white people, that they had never seen such. Their clothing was 
nothing but a bit of some beast's skin about their waists, and some- 
thing woven from feathers over the shoulders ; and as they uttered 
no word of any language we had ever heard, nor had any method of 
making themselves understood, we presimied they could have had no 
intercourse vdth Europeans. These savages, who, upon their de- 
parture, left us a few muscles, returned in two days, and surprised 
us by bringing three sheep." . . . . "At this interview we 
bartered with them for a dog or two, which we roasted and eat." 

" In one of my walks, seeing a very large bird of prey upon an 
eminence, I endeavoured to come upon it unperceived with my gun, 
by means of the woods which lay at the back of that eminence ; but, 
when I had proceeded so far in the wood as to think I was in a line 
with it, I heard a growUng close by me, which made me think it 
advisable to retire as soon as possible : the woods were so gloomy I 
could see nothing ; but, as I retired, this noise followed me close till 
I had got out of them. Some of our men did assure me, that they 
had seen a very large beast in the woods ; but their description of it 
was too imperfect to be rehed upon."t 

" The first night we put into a good harbour, a few leagues to the 
southward of Wager Island ; where, finding a large bitch big with 
puppies, we regaled upon them. In this expedition we had our 
usual bad weather and breaking seas, which were grown to such a 
height the third day, that we were obUged, through distress, to push 
in at the first inlet we saw at hand. This we had no sooner entered 
than we were presented with a view of a fine bay, in which, having 
secured the barge, we went ashore, but the weather being very rainy, 
and finding nothing to subsist upon, we pitched a bell tent, which 
we had brought with us, in the wood opposite to where the barge 
lay. As this tent was not large enough to contain us aJl, I proposed 

• Natives of the Guaianeco Islands. 

t Showing; that the puma crosses arms of the sea R. F, 



APPENDIX. 125 

to four of the people to go to the end of the bay, about two miles 
distant from the bell tent, to occupy the skeleton of an old Indian 
wigwam, which I had discovered in a walk that way upon our first 
landing. This we covered to windward with sea-weed ; and, lighting 
a fire, laid ourselves down in hopes of finding a remedy for our 
hunger in sleep ; but we had not long composed ourselves before one 
of our company was disturbed by the blowing of some animal at his 
face ; and, upon opening his eyes, was not a little astonished to see 
by the glimmering of the fire, a large beast standing over him. He 
had presence of mind enough to snatch a brand from the fire, which 
was now very low, and thrust it at the nose of the animal, who 
thereupon made off." . . . . "In the morning, we were not 
a little anxious to know how our companions had fared ; and this 
anxiety was increased upon om: tracing the footsteps of the beast in 
the sand, in a direction towards the bell tent. The impression was 
deep and plain, of a large round foot well furnished vnth. claws. 
Upon acquainting the people in the tent with the circumstances of 
our story, we found that they too had been visited by the same un- 
welcome guest, which they had driven away by much the same ex- 
pedient. "We now returned from this cruise, with a strong gale, to 
Wager's Island ; here we soon discovered, by the quarters of dogs 
hanging up, that the Indians had brought a fresh supply to our 
market. Upon inquiry, we found that there had been six canoes of 
them, who, among other methods of taking fish, had taught their dogs 
to drive the fish into a comer of some pond, or lake, from whence they 
were easily taken out by the skill and address of these savages." 

" Upon returning up the Lagoon,* we were so fortunate as to kill 
some seal, which we boiled and laid in the boat for sea-stock. While 
we were ranging along-shore in detached parties, in quest of this 
and whatever other eatable might come in our way, oiu- surgeon, 
who was then by himself, discovered a pretty large hole, wliich 
seemed to lead to some den, or repository, within the rocks. It was 
not so rude, or natural, but that there were some signs of its having 
been cleared and made more accessible by industry. The surgeon 
for some time hesitated whether he should venture in, from his un- 
certainty as to the reception he might meet with from any inha- 
bitant ; but his curiosity getting the better of his fears, he deter- 
mined to go in ; which he did upon his hands and knees, as the 
* HoUoway Sound — near Port Otway. 



126 



APPENDIX. 



passage was too low for him to enter otherwise. After having pro- 
ceeded a considerable way thus, he arrived at a spacious chamber ; 
but whether hollowed out by hands, or natural, he could not be 
positive. The light into this chamber was conveyed through a hole 
at the top ; in the midst was a kind of bier, made of sticks laid 
crossways, supported by props about five feet in height. Upon this 
bier, five or six bodies were extended, which, in appearance, had been 
deposited there a long time ; but had suffered no decay or diminu- 
tion. They were without covering, and the flesh of these bodies was 
become perfectly dry and hard ; which, whether done by any art or 
secret the savages may be possessed of, or occasioned by any drying 
virtue in the air of the cave, could not be guessed. Indeed, the sur- 
geon finding nothing there to eat, which was the chief inducement 
for his creeping into the hole, did not amuse himself with long dis- 
quisitions, or make that accurate examination which he would have 
done at another time ; but, crawling out as he came in, he went and 
told the first he met of what he had seen. Some had the curiosity 
to go in lilcevidse. I had forgot to mention that there was another 
range of bodies, deposited in the same manner, upon another plat- 
form under the bier. Probably this was the biurial-place of their 
great men, called caciques ; but from whence they could be brought, 
we were utterly at a loss to conceive, there being no traces of any 
Indian settlement hereabout. We liad seen no savage since we left 
the island, or observed any marks in the coves or bays to the north- 
ward, where we had touched, such as lire-places, or old wigwams, 
which they never fail of leaving behind them ; and it is very pro- 
bable, from the violent seas that are always beating upon this coast, 
its deformed aspect, and the very swampy soil that every where 
borders upon it, that it is little frequented." 

" A few days after our return, the mystery of the nailing up of 
the hut, and what had been doing by the Indians upon the island in 
our absence was partly explained to us ; for about the fifteenth day 
after there came a party of Indians to the island in two canoes, 
who were not a httle surprised to find us here again. Among these 
was an Indian of the tribe of the Chonos, who live in the neighbour- 
hood of Chiloe. He talked the Spanish language, but with that 
savage accent which renders it almost unintelhgible to any but those 
who are adepts in that language. He was likewise a cacique, or 



APPENDIX. 1S7 

leading man of his tribe, •which authority was confirmed to him by 
the Spaniards ; for he carried the usual badge and mark of distinc- 
tion by which the Spaniards and their dependents hold their military 
and civil employments, which is a stick with a silver head." 

" This report of our shipwreck (as we supposed) having reached 
the Chonos by means of the intermediate tribes, v/hich handed it to 
■one another, from those Indians who visited us ; this cacique was 
•either sent to learn the truth of the rumour, or, having first got the 
intelligence, set out with a view of making some advantage of the 
wreck," 

" Having understood my necessities, they (the two women) talked 
together some httle time ; after which, getting up, they both went 
out, taking with them a couple of dogs, which they train to assist 
them in fishing. After an hour's absence, they came in trembling 
with cold, and their hair streaming %Yith water, and brought two 
iish, which, having broiled, they gave me the largest share; and 
then we all laid down, as before, to rest." 

" After rovnng some time, they (the women) gained such an 
offing as they required, where the water was about eight or ten 
fathoms deep, and there lay upon their oars. And now the youngest 
of the two women, talking a basket in her mouth, jumped overboard, 
and diving to the bottom, continued imder water an amazing time ; 
when she had filled the basket with sea-eggs, she came up to the boat- 
side, and delivering it so filled to the other women in the boat, they 
took out the contents, and returned it to her. The diver then, after 
having taken a short time to breathe, went dovra and up again, with 
the same success ; and so several times for the space of half an hour. 
It seems as if Providence had endued this people with a kind of 
amphibious nature, as the sea is the only source from whence almost 
all their subsistence is derived. This element, too, being here 
very boisterous, and falling with a most hea\y surf upon a rugged 
coast, very little, except some seal, is to be got any where but in the 
quiet bosom of the deep. What occasions this reflection is, the early 
propensity I had so frequently observed in the children of these 
savages to this occupation, who, even at the age of three years, 
might be seen crawling upon their hands and linees among the rocks 



128 APPENDIX. 

and breakers, from which they would tumble themselves into the 
sea, without regard to the cold, which is often intense, and showing 
no fear of the noise and roaring of the surf." 

" The water was at this time extremely cold, and when the divers 
got into the boats, they seemed greatly benumbed ; and it is usual 
with them, after this exercise, if they are near enough to their wig- 
wams, to run to the fire, to which presenting one side, they rub and 
chafe it for some time ; then turning the other, use it in the same 
manner, till the circulation of the blood is restored. This practice, 
if it has no worse effect, must occasion their being more susceptible 
of the impressions of cold than if they waited the gradual advances 
of their natural warmth in the open air. I leave it to the decision of 
the gentlemen of the faculty, whether this too hasty approach to the 
fire may not subject them to a disorder I observed among them, 
called the elephantiasis, or swelling of the legs. The divers having 
returned to their boats, we continued to row tiU towards the evening, 
when we landed upon a low point. As soon as the canoes were 
hauled up, they employed themselves in erecting their wigwams, 
.which they despatch with great address and quickness. I still en- 
joyed the protection of my tw'o good Indian women, who made me 
their guest here as before. They first regaled me with sea-eggs, and 
then went out upon another kind of fishery, by the means of dogs 
and nets. These dogs are a cur-Uke looking animal, but very 
sagacious, and easily trained to this business. ITiough, in appear- 
ance, an vincomfortable sort of sport, yet they engage in it readily, 
seem to enjoy it much, and express their eagerness by barking 
every time they raise their heads above the water to breathe. The 
net is held by two Indians, who get into the water ; then the dogs, 
talving a large compass, dive after the fish, and drive them into the 
net ; but it is only in particular places that the fish are taken in tliis 
manner." 

" I now understood that the two Indian women with whom I 
sojourned were wives to this chieftain, though one was young enough 
to be his daughter ; and as far as I could learn, did really stand in 
the different relations to him both- of daughter and vdfe. It was 
easy to be perceived that aU did not go well between them at this 
time ; either that he was not satisfied with the answers they returned 



APPENDIX. 129 

him to his questions, or that he suspected some misconduct on their 
side ; for, presently after, breaking out into savage fury, he took the 
young one up in his arms, and threw her with violence against the 
stones ; but his brutal resentment did not stop here, he beat her 
afterwards in a cruel manner. I could not see this treatment of my 
benefactress vnthout the highest concern for her, and rage against 
the author of it ; especially as the natural jealousy of these people 
gave occasion to think that it was on my account she suiFered. I 
could hardly suppress the first emotions of my resentment, which 
prompted me to return him his barbarity in his own kind ; but, besides 
that this might have drawn upon her fresh marks of his severity, it 
was neither poHtic, nor, indeed, in my power, to have done it to any 
good purpose at this time." 

" Our imtoward circumstances now found some relief in the 
arrival of the Indians we waited for ; who brought with them some 
seal, a small portion of which feU to our share. A night or two Eifter 
they sent out some of their young men, who procured us a quantity 
of a very dehcate kind of birds, called shags and cormorants. Their 
manner of taking these birds resembles something a sport called 
' Bat-fowling.' They find out their haunts among the rocks and 
cliffs in the night, when, taking with them torches made of the bark 
of the birch tree, which is common here, and grows to a very large 
size (this bark has a very unctuous quality, and emits a bright and 
clear hght, and in the northern parts of America is used frequently 
instead of candle), they bring the boat's side as near as possible to 
the rocks, under the roosting places of these birds ; then, waving 
their Hghts backwards and forwards, the birds are dazzled and con- 
founded so as to fall into the canoe, where they are instantly Imocked 
on the head with a short stick the Indians take with them for that 
purpose. Seals are taken in some less frequented parts of these 
coasts with great ease ; but when their haunts have been two or 
three times disturbed, they soon learn to provide for their safety, by 
repairing to the water upon the first alarm. This is the case with 
them hereabouts ; but as they frequently raise their heads above 
water, either to breathe or look about them, I have seen an Indian at 
this interval throw his lance with such dexterity as to strike the 
animal through both its eyes at a great distance ; and it is very 
seldom that they miss their aim." 



130 APPENDIX. 

" These Indians are of middling stature, well set, and very active; 
and make their way among the rocks with an amazing agility. Their 
feet, by this kind of exercise, contract a callosity which renders the 
use of shoes quite unnecessary to them. But before I conclude the 
few observations I have to make on a people so confined in all their 
notions and practices, it may be expected I should say something of 
their religion ; but as their gross ignorance is in nothing more con- 
spicuous, and as we foimd it advisable to keep out of their way when 
the fits of devotion came upon them, which are rather frantic than 
rehgious, the reader can expect very httle satisfaction on this head. 
Accident has sometimes made me unavoidably a spectator of scenes 
I should have chosen to have withdrawn myself from ; and so far I 
am instructed. As there are no fixed seasons for their religious 
exercises, the younger people wait till the elders find themselves 
devoutly disposed, who begin the ceremony by several deep and 
dismal groans, which rise gradually to a hideous kind of singing, from 
which they proceed to enthusiasm, and work themselves into a dis- 
position that borders on madness; for suddenly jumping up, they 
snatch fire brands from the fire, put them in their mouths, and run 
about burning every body they come near : at other times, it is a 
custom with them to wound one another with sharp muscle-shells 
till they are besmeared with blood. These orgies continue till those 
who preside in them foam at the mouth, grow faint, are exhausted 
with fatigue, and dissolve in a profusion of sweat. When the men 
drop their part in this frenzy, the women take it up, acting over 
again much the same kind of wild scene, except that they rather 
outdo the men in shrieks and noise. Our cacique, who had been 
reclaimed from these abominations by the Spaniards, and just knew 
the exterior form of crossing himself, pretended to be much offended 
at these profane ceremonies, and that he would have died sooner 
than have partaken of them. Among other expressions of his dis- 
approbation, he declared, that whilst the savages solemnized these 
horrid rites, he never failed to hear strange and uncommon noises in 
the woods, and to see frightful visions ; and assured us, that the 
devil was the chief actor among them on these occasions." 

" Here I must relate an anecdote of ovu: nominally Christian ca- 
cique. He and his wife had gone off, at some distance from the shore, 
in their canoe, when she dived for sea-eggs ; but not meeting with 



APPENDIX. 



131 



great success, they returned a good deal out of humour. A little 
boy of theirs, about three years old, whom they appeared to be 
doatingly fond of, watching for his father and mother's return, ran 
into the surf to meet them : the father handed a basket of eggs to 
the child, which being too heavy for him to carry, he let it fall, upon 
which the father jumped out of the canoe, and catching the boy up 
in his arms, dashed him with the utmost violence against the stones. 
The poor httle creature lay motionless and bleeding, and in that 
condition was taken up by the mother ; but died soon after. She 
appeared inconsolable for some time; but the brute, his father, 
shewed little concern about it." 

" The first thing that the Indians did in the mommg, was to take 
their canoes to pieces : and here, for the information of the reader, 
itwiU be necessary to describe the structure of these boats, which are 
extremely well calculated for the use of these Indians, as they are 
frequently obliged to carry them over-land a long way together, 
through thick woods, to avoid doubling capes and head-lands, in seas 
where no open boat could hve. They generally consist of five pieces, 
or planks ; one for the bottom and two for each side ; and as these 
people have no iron tools, the labour must be great in hacking a 
single plank out of a large tree with shells and flints, though with 
the help of fire. Along the edges of the plank they made small holes, 
at about an inch from one to the other, and sew them together with 
the supple-jack, or woodbine ; but as these holes are not filled up by 
the substance of the woodbine, their boats would be immediately full 
of water if they had not a method of preventing it. They do this 
very effectually by the bark of a tree, which they first steep in 
water for some time, and then beat it between two stones till it 
answers the use of oakum, and then chinse each hole so well, that 
they do not admit of the least water coming through, and are easily 
taken asunder and put together again. When they have occasion 
to go over-land, as at this time, each man or woman caixies a plank, 
whereas it would be impossible for them to drag a hea%y boat 
entire." 

" Quite worn out ^\dth fatigue, I soon feU asleep, and awaking 
before day, I thought I heard some voices at no great distance from 
me. As the day appeared, looking further into the wood, I per- 



132 APPENDIX. 

ceived a wigwam, and immediately made towards it ; but the re- 
ception I met with was not at all agreeable ; for stooping to get into 
it, I presently received two or three lacks in my face, and at the 
same time heard the sound of voices seemingly in anger, which made 
me retire and wait at the foot of a tree, where I remained till an old 
woman peeped out, and made signs to me to draw near. I obeyed 
very readUy, and went into the wigwam : in it w^ere three men and 
two women ; one young man seemed to have great respect shewn 
to him by the rest, though he was the most miserable object I ever 
saw. He was a perfect skeleton, and covered with sores from head 
to foot. I was happy to sit a moment by their fire, as I was quite 
benumbed with cold. Tlie old woman took out a piece of seal, 
holding one part of it between her feet, and the other end in her 
teeth, and then cut off some thin slices with a sharp shell, and 
distributed them about to the other Indians. She then put a bit 
on the fire, taking a piece of fat in her mouth, which she kept 
chevnng, every now and then spirting some of it on the piece that 
was warming upon the fire ; for they never do more vnth. it than 
warm it through. When it was ready, she gave me a little bit, 
which I swallowed whole, being almost starved. As these Indians 
were all strangers to me, I did not know which way they were going ; 
and, indeed, it was now become quite indifferent to me which way I 
went, whether to the northward or southward, so that they would 
but take me with them, and give me something to eat. However, 
to make them comprehend me, I pointed first southward, and 
after to the lake, and I soon imderstood they were going to the 
northward. They all went out together, excepting the sick Indian, 
and took up the planks of the canoe, which lay near the wigwam, 
and carried them upon the beach, and presently put it together ; 
and, getting everything into it, they put me to the oar. We rowed 
across the lake to the mouth of a very rapid river, whei'e we put 
ashore for that night, not daring to get any way down in the dark, 
as it required the greatest skill, even in the day, to avoid running 
foul of the stumps and roots of trees, of which this river was fuU.* I 
passed a melancholy night, as they would not suffer me to come near 
the wigwam they had made ; nor did they give me the least bit of 
any one thing to eat since we embarked. In the morning we set off 
again. The weather proved extremely bad the whole day. We 

• In March — April : beginning of autumn. — Caflo de Perdon ?— R, F. 



APPENDIX. ISS 

went down the river at an amazing rate ; and, just before night, 
they put ashore upon a stony beach. They hauled the canoe up, 
and all disappeared in a moment, and I was left quite alone : it 
rained violently, and was very dark. I thought it was as well to Ue 
down upon the beach, half- side in water, as to get into a swamp 
under a dropping tree. In this dismal situation I fell asleep, and 
awaked three or four hours after in such agonies with the cramp, 
that I thought I must die upon the spot. I attempted several times 
to raise myself upon my legs, but could not. At last, I made 
shift to get upon my knees, and, looking towards the wood, I 
saw a great fire at some distance from me. I was a long time 
crawling to it ; and when I reached it, I threw myself almost into it, 
in hopes of finding some relief from the pain I suffered. This in- 
trusion gave great offence to the Indians, who immediately got up, 
kicking and beating me till they drove me to some distance from it ; 
however, I contrived, a httle after, to place myself so as to receive 
some warmth from it ; by which I got rid of the cramp. In the morn- 
ing, we left this place, and were soon after out of the river. Being 
now at sea again, the Indians intended putting ashore at the first 
convenient place to look for sheU-fish, their stock of provisions 
having been quite exhausted for some time. At low water we 
landed upon a spot that seemed to promise well ; and here we found 
plenty of limpets. Though at this time starving, I did not attempt 
to eat one, lest I should lose a moment in gathering them ; not 
knowing how soon the Indians might be going again. I had almost 
filled my hat, when I saw them returning to the canoe. I made 
what haste I coidd to her ; for I believe they would have made no 
conscience of leaving me behind. I sat down to my oar again, 
placing my hat close to me, every now and then eating a Hmpet. 
The IndiEins were employed the same way, when one of them seeing 
me throw the shells overboard, spoke to the rest in a violent passion ; 
and, getting up, fell upon me, and seizing me by an old ragged hand- 
kerchief I had about my neck, almost throttled me ; whilst another 
took me by the legs, and was going to throw me overboard, if the 
old woman had not prevented them. I was aU this time entirely 
ignorant by what means I had given offence, till I obser\'ed that the 
Indians, after eating the limpets, carefully put the shells in a heap at 
the bottom of the canoe. I then concluded there was some super- 
stition about throwing these shells into the sea, my ignorance of 



134 APPENDIX. 

which had very nearly cost me my life. I was resolved to eat no 
more limpets till we landed, which we did some time after, upon an 
island. I then took notice that the Indians brought aU their sheUs 
ashore, and laid them above high-water mark. Here, as I was going 
to eat a large bunch of berries I had gathered from a tree, for they 
looked very tempting, one of the Indians snatched them out of my 
hand and threw them away, making me to understand that they 
were poisonous. Thus, in all probability, did these people now save 
my life, who, a few hours before, were going to take it from me for 
throwing away a shell." 

" One day, we fell in with about forty Indians, who came down 
to the beach we landed on, curiously painted.* Our cacique seemed 
to understand but little of their language, and it sounded to us very 
different from what we had heard before. However, they made us 
comprehend that a ship had been upon the coast not far from where 
we then were, and that she had a red flag : this, we understood 
some time after, to have been the Anna Pink, whose adventures are . , 
particularly related in Lord Anson's voyage ; and we passed through 
the very harbour she had lain in."t 

• Probably in the neighbourhood of the ' Estero de Aysen.' in lat. 
45° S — R. F. ' 

t No — not through the harbour, but within^ twenty miles of it, I shonld 
suppose. — R. F. V 



APPENDIX. 



135 



No. 15. 

In the foUowing^ fragment of a Vocabulary the vowels should be 
sounded as in the English syllables, bah, bat, eel, bet, I, bit, no, top, 
rule, but, hay ; and the consonants as in English, but giving to kh a 
very guttural sound. One Fuegian expression, something lilie the 
cluck of a hen, can scarcely be represented by our letters ; its mean- 
ing is " no." 

FRAGMENT OF A VOCABULARY OF THE ALIKHOOLIP AND THE 

TEKEENICA LANGUAGES. 

Also some Words of those spoken by the PATACoKLiN (Tehuel-het) and 

Chonos Indiaks. 



ENGLISH. 


ALIKHOOLIP. 


TEKEENICA. 


York Minster's nanae 


el'leparu 




Jemmy Button's name 




o'rfindemco. 


Fuegia Basket's name 


yok'cushla 




Ankle 


aciil'labe 


tuppalla. 


Arm 


to'quim'be 


ear'mine. 


Arm (fore) 


yiic'caba 


dow'ela. 


Arrow 


an'naqua 


te'acu. 


Beads (necklace) 




acon'ash. 


Back 


tuccaler'khitS 


am'miickti. 


Bark (as a dog) 


stuek'sta 


wo'ona. 


Basket 


ka'ekhu(or)klia'K 


ka'ekhem (or) kiish. 


Beads 


ca'ecol 


ah'kliJnna. 


Belly 


kuppudde 


Birch apple 




a'fish-kha. 


Bard (little) 


tow'qua 


be'ghe. 


Bite 


eck'hanTsh 


e'taum. 


Black 


fcal 




Blood 


shiib'ba 


shiib'ba. 


Baby 


cos* he- 


yariimate'a. 


Boat 


ath'le 


watch. 


Bone 


osh'kia, 


ah'tush 


Bow 


kerec-cana 


why-an'na. 


Boy 


a/il-walkh 


yar' annua. 



136 



APPENDIX. 



ENGLISH. 


ALIKHOOLIP. 


TEKEENICA. 


Break 


ficca'n 


iittergu'shu. 


Brother 


ar're 


mar'cos. 


Butterfly- 


ktkee6w'l 


yumerte'le. 


Children 


patete 


yar'ham. 


Catch 


ca 


tit'ta. 


Chain 


paru 




Chest 


j^a'bfshaciin'ne 


cup'piinea. 


Child 


patete 


yar'ham. 


Chin 


uf'ca 


won'ne. 


Cloud 


tul'lu 




Cold 


ktshash' 


iic'cowe. 


Cheek 


clit'khopca 


ches'La. 


Come here 


yamaschun'a 




Come 


hab'relua 


ah'e. 


Cry 


yelk'esta 


iirra. 


Cut 


ciip'pa 


at'kliekiim. 


Cough 


yilkea 


utta. 


Day 


an'6qual 




Dead 


wtllacar'wona 




Death 




apal'na. 


Die 


vvillacar'wona 


Sppan'na, or Spat'nJl. . 


Dive 


sko 




Dog 


sliil'oke 


shi'lake, or eashiil'la. 


Drink 


afkhel'la 


iiria, or alle. 


Duck 


ye'ketp 


mah'e. 


Duckling 


wen. 




Ear 


tel'dil 


uf'khea. 


Earth 


bar'be 


tann. 


East 


yul^ba 


yah'ciif. 


Egg 


ITth'le 


herch. 


Eight 




yul'carame. 


Elhow 


yoc'ke 


dowtlla. 


Eat 


luf'ftsh 


at'tema, or et'tiima. 


Eye 


telkh 


della. 


Eyebrow 


teth'liu 


utkhel'la. 


Firestone 


catli'ow 




Fall (to) 


ah'lash 


liip'ae. 


Fat 


Qf'ki 


tiit'fla. 


Father 


cha'iil 


ay'mo. 


Feather 


i-ish 


ol'tuku. 


Fright (to) 


uth'lethal 


che'ne. 


Fist 


iif'sheba 


iik-ke. 


Finger- 


skiil'la 





APPENDIX. 



137 



ENGLISH. 


ALIKHOOLIP. 


TEKEENICA. 


Fire 


tet'tal 


piishah'ke, or posh'aky. 


Five 




cup'aspa. 


Fish 


ap'piiWn, or appuff in 


ap'pur'ma (small fish). 


Fish (to) 


ker'riksta 


ap'piirma. 


Fly (to) 


ah-lash 


miir'ra. 


Flower 


yik'sta 


a'neaca. 


Fly (a) 


tomat'tola 




Foot 


ciit'lTculcul 


eoeea. 


Forehead 


tel'che 


oshcar'she. 


Four 


Tn'adaba 


carga. 


Fresh water 




shea'ma, or shaa'mS. 


Girl 


an'na 


yariimatea. 


Guanaco 


harmaiir 


armaua. 


Go away 


lis'hae 


khat'drTsh. 


Good 


ly'Tp 




Gown 


uckwul 


archi. 


Grass 


kitta're 


hianam'ba. 


Grey 




owkush. 


Grease 


kTn' 


kune. 


Grandmother 


caushilKsh 


ghuluonna. 


Grandfather 


cow'ish, or cafiwTsh 


ghu'luvvan. 


Grand daughter 


yarriikepa 




Grass 


khall 




Hair 


ay'u 


osh'ta. 


Hand 


yuc'caba 


mar'po. 


Head 


of'chocka 


luk'abe. 


Hear (to) 


tel'lTsh 


miir'ra 


Heavy 


pah'ciil 


hah'shu 


Humming-bird 


amowa'ra, 


iit'tush. 


Hip 


col'khistal 


wash'niie. 


Hog 


tethl 




Hot 


ket'khtk 


lick'hula. 


House 


hut 


ukh'ral. 


Hut 


aht 


iick'a. 


Husband' 


ar'rtk 


dugu. 


Ice 


atkhur'ska 


ye atea. 


Jump 


ah'culu 




Kelp 




ut'cha. 


Kill 


ttf'tucla 


iit'tul. 


Knee 


tiil'dul 


tid'lapua. 


Knife 


afta're, or aftai'Ia 


tet'lowal, or teciew'el. 


Knuckles 


ah'telis'habe 


yash. 


Land 


champth 


o'she 



138 


APPENDIX. 




ENGLISH. 


ALIKHOOLIP. 


TEKEENICA. 


Large 


ovv'quel 


o'olu. 


Laugh (to) 


feay'l 


tush'ca. 


Leaf (fall of) 




ooshS. 


Lean (of seal) 


tildum 


iindiippa. 


Leg 


cut 


hie'ta. 


Little 


ylco'-at 


yuc'ca. 


Look 




iirruks-i. 


Man (Vir.) 


acktntsh 


oha. 


Many men 


ackliTnesh 


owey. 


Man (old) 


ker'owKsh 


ciit'tSas. 


Moon 


con'ak'ho 


anSco. 


Moon 


cuunequa 


han'niika. 


Moon (full) 


ow'quel 


hul'ush. 


Moon (new) 


yeco^t 


tu'qutlle. 


Moon (set) 


iko 


cay'-e a. 


Moon (rise) 


iarsh 


carsh. 


Morning 


ush'qual, or ilqualef 


mawla. 


Mother 


chahp 


dah'be. 


Mouth 


rif'feare 


ye'ak. 


Nail (finger) 


esh'ciil 


giil'mf. 


Neck 


chah'fikha 


yarek'. 


Night 


yul'lupre, or j'ow'leba. 


uc'ciish. 


Nine 




yiir'toba. 


No 


quit'tuk 


bar'be. 


North 


ya'ow 


uffa'hu. 


Nose 


nohl 


ciis'hush. 


Oar (man's) 


wy'ic 


ciin'na. 


Oar (woman's) 


wor'rTc 


ap'pe. 


One 


tow'quMow 


o'coale. 


Owl 


tilkibbol 


luf'quea. 


Otter 


hiap'po 


hiap'po. 


Owl (horned) 


shlptshi 


yaputella. 


Pain 


ahf 


iim'maya. 


Porpoise 


showan'nike 


shSwan'nTke. 


Rain 


cap'pocabsh, or 
ab'quabsh 


jiib'basha, or wert. 


Rope 


shu'c&me 


cufYennS. 


Run 


cak'ash 


dahdu. 


Rush 


ahl 


mumpe. 


Sail 


ahnayr (made of seal 
skin) 




Salt water 


chaiiVash 


shem'a, or shea'ma. 


Sand 




piintel. 



APPENDIX. 



139 



EKGLISH. 


ALIKHOOLIP. 


TEKEENICA. 


Sea 


chah'biicl 


hay'-eca. 


Seal 


af'feilo, or af'afIS 


diip'pa. 


Sea shore 


wan n lie 


winnygata. 


Sea-weed 




utcha. 


Seven 




liow'casta. 


SheU 


car'ntsh 


ters'hoTn. 


Shore 


wan'niic 


wm'negayta. 


Shoulder 


cho'&ks 


ah'keka. 


Sickness 


yau'hol 


om'a, or om'ey. 


Side 


uesharfiqiia 


iicshan'siqua. 


Sit 


shucka 


mu'tu. 


Sister 


cholTcI 


way kip'pa. 


Six 




cura'ua. 


Skin 


uc'colayk 


appiilla. 


Sky 


ac'cuba 


how'ucca. 


Sleep 


kay'keol, or khak'hon 


licka, or asha. 


Sling 


shen'nekay 


wat'towa. 


Small 


shoks 




Smell 


iic'she 


ar've. 


Smoke 


tel'licks, or telk'hasli 


ush'c6, or ochat. 


Snow 


as'ho 


Sppii'naca. 


Son 


paral 


marrm. 


South 


uc'cSay 


ah'ne. 


Spear 


ihlca, or f ishca 


uway' ea, or 6\vay ea. 


Spear handle 


aire 


- 


Speak 


yac'afta 


auru'oshe. 


Spunge 




allufshe. 


Stand (to) 


arco 


cummart. 


Stars 


quo'unasli, or conash' 


appernts'h, or ap- 
pan'na. 


Straw 




goshe. 


Stone 


kehtla'6, or cath'ow 


ow'ey. 


Sun 


lum 


lum. 


Sunrise 


ahlacur'rtc 


card"(c 


Sunset 


arshe 


coshu 


Sunshine 


lum alka 


lum pushe. 


Swimming 


Itm'pi 


cal'g. 


Teeth 


caiiwash, or car'lTsh 


tu'un. 


Thigh 


cut'laba 


liick'ha. 


Three 


cup'eb 


mut'ta. 


Thumb 


ushciic'cun 


iishciig'gen. 


Thunder 


cayru' 


kekTka. 


Tired 


ftch'la 


gusha. 



q2 



140 



APPENDIX. 



ENGLISH. 


ALIKHOOLIP. 


TEKEENICA. 


Tongue 


luc'kin 


lun. 


Tree 


e'ariicka, or kafs'ha 


wu'uriish. 


Two 


tel'keow 


com'babe. 


Vessel 


a'un 


al'la. 


Vulture 


ahcflr'rtga 




Walk (to) 


ahsh 


car'dlk. 


Water 


chau'ash 


sha'mea. 


West 


uthqualdal' 


iippah-ush. 


Whistle 


ufshexca 


liifkey. 


White 


akTf'ca 




Wife 


ashwa'lliik 


to'ucu. 


Wind 


hiir'ruquash 


wur'iip. 


Woman 


atlarabTsh,orack'l)anash 


kepa, or shepush. 


Wood 


iif'sha 


ah'-schtf, orospatash. 


Wrist 


accal'laba 


tiippul'la. 


Yes 


&o 


das. 



A few Fuegian Words which have some similarity to corresponding 

Huilliche terms. 



ENGLISH. 


FUEGIAN. 


HUILLICHE. 


Belly 


kiip'pude 


puay. • 


Bones 


osh'kia 


voso, or voro. 


Cold 


uc'cowe 


chosay. 


Day 


an'oqual 


antu, or antuigh. 


Fire 


tet'tal 


k'tal, or cutal. 


Hand 


yiic'caba 


cuugh, or cuu. 


Moon 


cuunequa 


cuyen. 


Moon (new) 


tu'qutlle 


chum cuyen. 


Salt-water 


chau'ash, or shea'ma 


chasi- CO, or chadi-co. 


Sea 


chahljuel, or hay'eea 


lavquem. 


Sun, (or bright light) 


lum, or 16m 


antu pelon, or luv. 


Shine, to 




lumulmen. 



* The words in this column are taken from Molina, but compared with 
Falkner and Febres. 



APPENDIX. 



141 



ENGLISH. 


PATAGONIAN. 


Another 


Sark. 


Axe 


pTkel, or ptckel. 


Band, worn round hair 


cochin. 


Barberry (the) 


calga. 


Boat 


ta lina car'ro. 


Balls (two) 


somSy, or somSt. 


Balls (three) 


achtcS. 


Boots 


choca. 


Bridle 


sum6. 


Clothes 


terona. 


Comb made of a coarse dry 




grass 


par 'chin. 


Dog 


warchin, or wauchtn, or wachtn 


Fire 


se ak, or ze ak. 


Give it to me 


ey' nt ots. 


Giianaco 


CO. 


Go away 


ailros, or ords, and cha'n6s. 


Horse 


cal'go. 


Knife 


pa'tka. 


Knife (small) 


pepa. 


Mantle 


chortllTo. 


Me 


catTam. 


Meat 


sey'pra, or zeypra. 


No 


comps. 


Ostrich 


mas'hiors. 


Pole 


ask. 


Put 


cae. 


Ship 


carro. 


Sinews of the Ostrich, used for 




sewing mantles, &c. 


illoyu. 


Skunk 


siirrena. 


Slave 


zapallo. 


Spurs 


ta. 


Sword 


cuchillo. 


Tent 


cow, or cau, or toldo. 


Water 


la. 


Wood 


cark. 


Yes 


ohai. 


A particular root which is eaten 




for food 


tiis. 


Another similar root 


chalas. 



142 



APPENDIX. 



ENGLISH. 


PATAGONIAN. 


The Arbutus 

The Cranberry 

Barberry, drinkmade with the 


amacoro, 

pileco. 

licone. 


ENGLISH. 


CHONOS. 


Good Deity 

Bad Spirit 

White Men of the Moon 


yerrt yiipon. 

yaccy-ma. 

cubba. 



No. 16. 



Remarks on the Structure of the Fuegians. 

The general form of the Fuegians is peculiar ; the head and body 
being particularly large, and the extremities unusually small : but the 
feet are broad though short. This peculiarity, no doubt, is owing to 
their mode of life : being a people who take httle exercise, but sit con- 
stantly huddled together in their canoes or wigwams ; the blood, the 
source of nourishment, can only circulate freely, and must in greater 
quantity, in the head and trunk, from the obstruction to its passage into 
the hmbs, owing to their bent position. From the same cause, the 
want of exercise, this is the form of the Esquimaux and Laplanders. 

A man whom I examined was of the middle size, five feet seven 
inches, and his muscular power about a medium ; the circumference 
of the— 



Ft. in. 

Thorax 3 1 

Abdomen ... ... ... 2 7 

Pelvis 2 5 

Thigh 1 10 

Calf of the leg 1 

Arm 1 

Fore-arm ... ... ... 11 

Length of the head from the 

chin upwards 9 

Length of body, from the 

symphisis pubis to the top 

of the sternum ... ... 2 

Length of thigh 17 



Length of leg 

of arm 

of fore-arm and hand 

from spine to ster- 
num, externally ... 

same internally 

Breadtii of thorax 

of hypochondriac re- 
gions 

of pelvis between 

superior and spinous pro- 
cesses ... ... ... 



Ft. 

1 









In. 
17 



17 

13 
10 
13 



II 



Al'PENDIX. 343 

I consider that this man was about the average stature of the 
Fuegians : they are generally short and broad. 

The Fuegian, like a Cetaceous animal which circulates red blood 
in a cold medium, has in his covering an admirable non-conductor of 
heat ; the corpus adiposum envelopes the body to preserve that tem- 
perature necessary to continue the vital functions and circulation of the 
fluids. In this individual it was particularly tliick over the abdomen 
and dorsum ; on the hips it formed a perfect cushion, and fiUed 
up the interstices between the muscles in general. Unlike the limbs 
of porters, smiths, and other athletae in Europe, where the form and 
size of each muscle may be traced while in action, the limbs of these 
people are round and smooth, like the female sex, or the child 
in infancy. The quantity of fat is to be imputed to their diet ; their 
food is shell-fish and birds, but the greatest dainty is fat of all kinds, 
that of the seal and penguin in particular ; as for vegetable aUment 
they have none,* nor any taste for it. The muscles were soft, and 
the viscera (in particular the heart, Uver, and lungs,) in good order, 
— a circumstance which but rarely occurs : the bones were well- 
formed, with their processes, foramina, and sutures complete. 

The complexion of this man was dark ; his skin of a copper colour, 
the native hue of the Fuegian tribes ; the eyes and hair black (this 
is imiversal, as far as I have seen, and predominates throughout all 
the aborigines of America, from the Fuegians to the Esquimaux) ; 
the epidermis is thicker than in white men ; but in the rete mucosum 
I saw no difference, the copper hue arising from the vessels of the 
cutis, shining through a thickened scarf-skin, and from its incorpo- 
rating the particles of smoke and ochre with which their bodies are 
continually covered. 

The hair on this man's head was jet-black, straight, long, and 
luxuriant, but scanty on other parts of the body. The Fuegians 
have httle beard and no whiskers. 

The features of this individual were rounder than they generally 
are among those of his nation ; the form of whose countenance 
resembles that of the Laplanders and Esquimaux ; they have broad 
faces with projecting cheek-bones ; the eyes of an oval form, and 
drawn towards the temples ; the tunica sclerotica of a yeUow-white, 
and the iris deep black ; the cartilage of the nose broad and de- 

* Mr. Wilson \vas not aware that thuy eat birch excrescences, and 
berries. — R. F. 



144 Al'PKNDIX. 

pressed; the orifice of the mouth large, when shut forming a 
straight Kne, when open an ellipsis. The head is bulky, and the 
hair straight. 

The phrenological marks in the skull (said by some persons to 
include corresponding organs in the brain,) taken on the spot, were 
as follows : — 

The Propensities. 

Amativeness— full. Destructiveness— very large. 

Philoprogenitiveness— moderately full. Constructiveness— small. 

Concentrativeiiess— ditto. Acquisitiveness— small. 

Adhesiveness— fii41. Secretiveness— large. 
C ombativeness— large. 

The Sentimexts. 

Self-esteem— moderately small. " Veneration— small. 
Love of approbation — large. Hope — ditto 

Cautiousness— very large. Ideality — ditto 

Benevolence— small. Conscientiousness— ditto 

Firmness — moderately full. 

The Intellectual Organs. 

Individuality — small. Form— small. 

Time— ditto Number — very small. 

Tune— ditto Language— full. 

Comparison — small. Causality — small. 

Wit — ditto Imitation — ditto 

The facial angle, according to Camper, 74°, the occipital, 80°. 

The warhke propensities in this man were large, agreeing with 
the httle which I know of his history. Taking a general view 
of the head, the Propensities (the organs most exercised by a bar- 
barian) are large and fuU ; the Sentiments small, few of which are 
ever called into action, except cautiousness and firmness, which are 
large ; finally, the Intellectual organs, which are chiefly used by 
man In a civolized state, are small. 

The teeth are perfect, and of the usual number ; the incisores flat 
and apparently worn downi ; other instances of which I have seen. 
From this it is probable they are sometimes used as grinders.* The 
reverse of this has been frequently noticed among savages ; some, it 
is said, file their teeth to render them more terrible in battle, while 
others puU out the two centre incisores, or the cuspidati, by way 

* This man could not have been more than forty : probably he was 
many years younger. — R. F. 



APPENDIX. ' 145 

of ornament. Their teeth are generally good, regular, and healthy, 
arising in all probability from the sj'stem being free from any con- 
stitutional taint. 

The viscera of the thorax were healthy, the heart particularly so, 
with its valves and columna carnosa in good order ; the lower part 
of the thorax and the whole parietes of the abdomen were unusually 
expanded ; the liver very large though healthy, occupying the right 
hj'pochondriac and lumbar, the epigastric, and left hypochondriac 
regions; the spleen remarkably small; the stomach of a moderate 
size, and containing some muscles and limpets in a half-digested 
state ; the intestines were filled with flatus, which probably took 
place after death. The large size of the abdomen is to be referred 
to the squatting position these people assume, the knees and thighs 
being brought up against the lower part of the belly, force the 
viscera and intestines upward and forw'ard, thereby distending the 
lower part of the thorax and front of the abdomen. Here is a 
peculiarity from habit becoming inherent in the constitution, and 
descendmg to posterity, as the children, male and female, are bom 
with large bellies. In like manner Chinese children, from their 
parents' custom of compressing the feet, are born ^^-ith them remark- 
ably small. 

Besides distending the abdomen mechanically — to this bent posi- 
tion is to be traced the enlarged state of the abdominal viscera, the 
passage of blood to the extremities being obstructed ; an unusual 
quantity is thereby determined to, and circulated in, the coehac and 
mesenteric arteries ; the want of support from dress is also to be 
taken into account. From this stretched and distended state of the 
abdomen, separating the fibres of the obhque and transverse muscles, 
and the open state of the inguinal rings, these people must be 
peculiarly liable on any exertion to ventral hernia : these passages I 
found open in this individual ; and they appeared to be in the same 
state in other men whom I examined. Cardiac affections mostly 
prevail among those who are subject to ^'iolent exercise, as porters, 
carriers, and artillerymen. The healthy state of this heart, which 
it is probable wiU be generally the case among the Fuegians, is to be 
imputed to their moderate exertions. In their canoes they are 
employed fishing or paddling ; in their wigwams, which are seldom 
many yards from the beach, cooking or maldng small wares of the 
bones or skins of beasts. The cremaster muscle was strong and 



146 APPENDIX. 

fleshy ; the lower extremities were short and ill-proportioned ; the 
thigh of a moderate size, but from the smallness of the muscles 
of the leg in general, and gestatorii in particular, it looked 
large ; the calf of the leg was very small. The diminutive size 
of these muscles must be referred to the cause already mentioned — 
the want of a due circulation in these parts, produced by a cramped 
position and want of exercise. Having the feet broad and short 
is common to all who do not M^ear shoes, the bones being somewhat 
separated, the hgaments stretched, and the muscles flattened from 
constantly sustaining the weight of the body unsupported by any 
covering to the feet. The kidneys were healthy, but unusually 
destitute of fat. There was no tunica adiposa ; the adeps, in this 
instance, was chiefly collected on the surface, but little in the in- 
ternal parts. If this is universally the case, it is a wonderful 
provision of nature to protect their bodies from the inclemency ■ of 
this inhospitable region. This is the method adopted by nature 
during the first years of infancy, to habituate the constitution to 
the vicissitudes and variations of the atmosphere, which otherwise 
would be incompatible with existence. The arms were better pro- 
portioned than the lower extremities ; and this is general throughout 
the Fuegian tribes ; the muscles being firmer, and better formed, 
from the more constant use of these parts, paddling in their 
canoes, climbing, and making their wig^vams. The muscles in 
general, throughout the body, were healthy, but soft and flabby, 
unlike the firm sinewy muscle of hardy mountaineers : and the bones 
less indented than is usual in those who have been accustomed 
to vigorous exertion. 

In another Fuegian, whom I examined, the marks of the Phre- 
nological organs, as taken from the skull, were as follows : — 

The Propensities. 

Amativeness— small. Destructiveiiess— full. 

Philoprogenitiveness — very large. Constructiveness — snial!. 

Coiicentrativeness— full. Acquisitiveness- full. 

Combativeness— very large. Secretiveness— large. 

The Sentiments. 
Self-esteem— very large. Veneration— full. 

Love of approbation— full. Hope— small. 

Cautiousness-large. Ideality— small. 

Benevolence— small. Firmness— large. 



appendix. 147 

The Intellectual Organs. 

Form— small. Colouring— small. 

Size— large. Locality— ditto. 

Weight— small. Order— ditto. 

Time— very small. Number— ditto. 

Tune— ditto Language— ditto 

Comparison— small. Wit— ditto 

Causality— ditto Imitation— ditto 

The facial angle, 76°, the occipital, 82°. 

In this skull also, the propensities were large ; the moral sentiments 
larger than in the former, but the intellectual organs equally small. 
Destructiveness, secretiveness, and cautiousness, large — faculties, 
as I have remarked, necessary to a savage vi'arrior : the more refined 
sentiments, as benevolence, ideality, and conscientiousness were 
small, with nearly all the intellectual organs. 

In this man, also, the teeth were complete ; but the incisores not 
worn down, as in the former : their general regularity and good 
arrangement were greatly owing to the expanded state of the jaws, 
giving good space for their grovrth and shedding. In those persons 
who have sharp features, where the sides of the face meet at an acute 
angle, the teeth are often small ; or, if large, from want of room, 
they overlap each other, or push one another out of the natural 
positions. The broadness of the face and features is owing to the 
breadth of the base of the cranium, which gives shape and form to 
the bones of the face. With respect to the arms and legs of this 
man, I have only to remark, that they agreed exactly with those of 
the other, in the largeness of the thigh compared to the leg, breadth 
of the feet, and better proportion of the upper extremities. 

John Wilson, (d) Surgeon. 



148 APPENDIX. 

No. 17. 
Phrenological Remarks on three Fuegians.* 

YoKCusHLu, a female, ten years of age. 

Strong in attachment. 

If offended, her passions strong. 

A little disposed to cunning, but not duplicity. 

She will manifest some ingenuity. 

She is not at aU disposed to be covetous. 

Self- win at times very active. 

Fond of notice and approbation. 

She vnll show a benevolent feeUng when able to do so. 

Strong feelings for a Supreme Being. 

Disposed to be honest. 

Rather incHned to mimicry and imitation. 

Her memory good of visible objects and localities, with a strong 
attachment to places in which she has lived. 

It would not be difficult to make her a useful member of Society 
in a short time, as she would readily receive instruction. 

Orundellico, a Fuegian, aged fifteen. 

He will have to struggle against anger, self-viill, animal inclina- 
tions, and a disposition to combat and destroy. 

Rather inclined to cunning. 

Not covetous ; not very ingenious. 

Fond of directing and leading. 

Very cautious in his actions : but fond of distinction and appro- 
bation. 

He will manifest strong feelings for a Sujireme Being. 

Strongly inclined to benevolence. 

May be safely intrusted vidth the care of property. 

Memory, in general, good ; particularly for persons, objects of 
sense, and localities. 

To accustomed places he would have a strong attachment. 

Like the female, receiving instruction readily, he might be made a 
useful member of society ; but it would require great care, as self-vidll 
would interfere much. 

* Made in London, in 1830. 



APPENDIX. ' 149 

El'lepahu, about twenty-eight. 

Passions very strong, particularly those of an animal nature ; self- 
willed, positive and determined. 

He will have strong attachment to children, persons, and places. 

Disposed to cunning and caution. 

He will show ready comprehension of things, and some ingenuity. 

Self will not be overlooked, and he will be attentive to the value 
of property. 

Very fond of praise and approbation, and of notice being taken of 
his conduct. 

Kind to those who render him a service. 

He vdll be reserved and suspicious. 

He will not have such strong feelings for the Deity as his two 
companions. 

He will be grateful for kindness, but reserved in showing it. 

His memory, in general, good : he would not find natural history, 
or other branches of science, difficult, if they can be imparted to 
him ; but, from possessing strong self-will, he will be difficult to 
instruct, and will require a great deal of humouring and indulgence 
to lead him to do what is required. 



No. 17 (a). 

Instrument executed by Mons. Louis de Bougainville for the 
deUvering up of the Malvinas. 

" I, Monsieur Louis de Bougainville, colonel of his most Christian 
Majesty's army, have received six hundred and eighteen thousand 
one hundred and eight livres, thirteen sols, and eleven deniers, being 
the amount of an estimate that I have given in, of the expenses incur- 
red by the St. Malo Company in equipments for founding their intru- 
sive establishments in the Malvina Islands, belonging to his Catholic 
Majesty, in the following manner : — 

" Forty thousand livres delivered on account to me in Paris, by his 
Excellency the Count de Fuentes, ambassador of his CathoUc Majesty 
to that court, for which I gave the proper receipt. 

" Two hundred thousand livres, which are to be deUvered to me 
at the same court of Paris, according to bills drawn in my favour by 



150 APPENDIX. 

the Marquess of Zambrano, treasurer-general of his Catholic Majesty, 
upon Don Francisco Ventura Llorena, treasurer-extraordinary of the 
same; and sixty-five thousand six hundred and twenty-five hard 
dollars, and three-fourth parts of another, vi'hich are equivalent to the 
three hundred and seventy-eight thousand one hundred and eight 
livres three sous and eleven deniers, at the rate of five livres per dol- 
lar, which I have to receive in Buenos Ayres, on account of bills 
which have been deHvered to me, dravvTj by his excellency the BayHo 
Fray, Don Julian Arriaga, secretary of state for the general depart- 
ment of the Indies and navy of his CathoUc Majesty. 

" In consideration of these payments, as well as in obedience to 
his Most Christian Majesty's orders, I am bound to dehver up, in 
due formahty, to the coiirt of Spain, those establishments, along with 
the families, houses, works, timber, and shipping built there, and 
employed in the expedition ; and, finally, every thing therein belong- 
ing to the St. Malo Company, as included in the accounts which are 
so settled, and to his Most Christian Majesty, by this voluntary cession, 
making void for ever all claims that the company, or any person 
interested therein may have, or might produce, upon the treasury of 
his Most CathoUc Majesty ; nor can they henceforth demand more 
pecuniary, or any other compensation whatsoever. In testimony 
whereof, I set my name to this present instrument and voucher, as 
one princijDally interested, as well as authorized to receive the whole 
of this sum, agreeably to a registry in the department of state in St. 
Ildefonso, 4th October, 1766. 

(Signed) " Louis de Bougainville." 



Viscount Palmerston to M. de Moreno. 

Foreign Office, January 8, 1824. 

The undersigned, &c. has the honour to acknowledge the receipt 
of the note of M. Moreno, &c. dated the 17th of June last, in which 
he formally protests, in the name of his government, " against the 
sovereignty lately assumed in the Malvina (or Falkland) Islands, by 
the crovni of Great Britain." 

Before the undersigned proceeds to reply to the allegations advanced 
in M. Moreno's note, upon which his protest against this act on the 
part of his Majesty is founded, the undersigned deems it proper to 
draw M. Moreno's attention to the contents of the protest which Mr. 



APPENDIX. ' 151 

Parish, the British Charg^ d' Affaires, at Buenos Ayres, addressed, in 
the name of his court, to the Minister for Foreign Affairs of the 
Republic, on the 19th of November 1829, in consequence of the British 
Government having been informed that the president of the United 
Provinces of the Rio de la Plata had issued decrees, and had made 
grants of land, in the nature of acts of sovereignty over the islands 
in question. 

That protest made known to the government of the United Pro- 
vinces of the Rio de la Plata : — 

1st. That the authority which that government had thus assumed^ 
was considered by the British Government as incompatible with the 
sovereign rights of Great Britain over the Falkland Islands. 

2dly. That those sovereign rights, which were founded upon the 
original discovery and subsequent occupation of those islands, had 
acquired an additional sanction from the fact, that his Catholic Majesty 
had restored the British settlement, which had been forcibly taken 
possession of by a Spanish force, in the year 1771. 

3dly. That the withdrawal of his Majesty's forces from the Falk- 
land Islands, in 1774, could not invalidate the just rights of Great 
Britain, because that withdrawal took place only in pursuance of the 
system of retrenchment adopted at that time by his Majesty's Govern- 
ment. 

4thly. That the marks and signals of possession and of property, 
left upon the islands, the British flag still fl}dng, and all the other 
formalities observed upon the occasion of the departure of the gover- 
nor, were calculated not only to assert the rights of ownership, but to 
indicate the intention of resuming the occupation of the territory at 
some future period. 

Upon these grounds Mr. Parish protested against the pretensions 
set up on the part of the Argentine Republic, and against all acts 
done to the prejudice of the just rights of sovereignty heretofore 
exercised by the crown of Great Britain. 

The Minister for Foreign Affairs of the Republic acknowledged the 
receipt of the British protest ; and acquainted Mr. Parish that his 
government would give it their particular consideration, and that he 
would communicate to him their decision upon the subject, so soon 
as he should receive directions to that effect. 

No answer was, however, at any time returned, nor was any objec- 
tion raised, on the part of the government of the United Provinces of 



152 APPKNBIX. 

the Rio de la Plata, to the rights of Great Britain, as asserted in that 
protest ; but the Buenos Ayrean government persisted, notwithstand- 
ing the receipt of that protest, in exercising those acts of sovereignty 
against which the protest was specially directed. 

Tlie government of the United Provinces of the Rio de la Plata 
could not have expected, after the explicit declaration which had been 
so formally made of the right of the cro%vn of Great Britain to the 
islands in question, that his Majesty would sUently submit to such a 
course of proceeding ; nor could that government have been surprised 
at the step which his Majesty thought proper to take, in order to the 
resumption of rights which had never been abandoned, and which 
had only been permitted to he dormant, under circumstances which 
had been explained to the Buenos- Ayrean government. 

The claim of Great Britain to the sovereignty of the Falkland 
Islands having been unequivocally asserted and maintained, during 
those discussions with Spain, in 1770 and 1771, which nearly led to 
a war between the two countries, and Spain having deemed it pro- 
per to put an end to those discussions, by restoring to his Majesty the 
places from which British subjects had been expelled, the government 
of the United Provinces could not reasonably have anticipated that 
the British Government would permit any other state to exercise aright, 
as derived from Spain, which Great Britain had denied to Spain 
herself ; and this consideration alone would fuUy justify his Majesty's 
Government Lq declining to enter into any further explanation upon 
a question which, upwards of half a century ago, was so notoriously 
and decisively adjusted with another government more immediately 
concerned. 

But M. Moreno, in the note which he has addressed to the imder- 
signed, has endeavoured to shew that, at the termination of the 
memorable discussions referred to between Great Britain and Spain, 
a secret understanding existed between the two courts, in virtue of 
which Great Britain was pledged to restore the islands to Spain at a 
subsequent period, and that the evacuation of them, in 1774, by his 
Majesty, was the fulfilment of that pledge. 

The existence of such a secret understanding is alleged to be 
proved ; first, by the reservation, as to the former right of sovereignty 
over the islands, which was contained in the Spanish declaration, 
delivered at the time of the restoration of Port Egmont and its depen- 
dencies to his Majesty ; and, secondly, by the concurrent description 



APPENDIX. 153 

of the transaction, as it took place beween the parties, given in certain 
documents and historical works. 

Although the reservation referred to cannot be deemed to possess 
any substantial weight, inasmuch as no notice whatever is taken of it 
in the British counter-declaration, which was exchanged against it ; 
and although the evidence adduced fi-om unauthentic historical pubU- 
cations cannot be regarded as entitled to any weight whatever with a 
view to a just decision upon a point of international rights ; yet as 
the allegations above-mentioned involve an imputation against the 
good faith of Great Britain, to which his Majesty's Government cannot 
but feel sensibly alive, the undersigned has been honoured with the 
King's commands to cause the official correspondence with the court 
of Madrid, at the period alluded to, to be carefully inspected, in order 
that the circumstances which really took place upon the occasion 
might be accurately ascertained. 

That inspection has accordingly been made, and the undersigned 
has the honour to communicate to M. Moreno the following extracts, 
which contain all the material information that can be gathered from 
that correspondence relative to the transaction in question : — 

The Earl of Rochfokd to James Harris, Esq. 

" St. James's, 25th January 1771. 
" I enclose to you a copy of the declaration signed on Tuesday 
last by Prince Masserano, with that of my acceptance of it in his 
Majesty's name." 

Spanish Declaration. 

" Sa Majeste Britannique s'etant plainte de la violence qui avoit 
ete commise le 10 Juin de I'annee 1770, al'Ile communement appe- 
lee la Grande Maloiiine, et par les Anglais dite Falkland, en obhgeant 
par la force le Commandant, et les sujets de sa Majeste Britannique, 
a evacuer le port par eux appele Egmont, demarche oifensante a 
I'honneur de saCouronne, le Prince de Masseran, Ambassadeur Extra- 
ordinaire de sa Majeste Catholique, a recu ordre de declarer, et 
declare, que sa Majeste Catholique, considerant I'amour dont elle est 
animee pour la paix, et pour le maintien de la bonne harmonie avec 
sa Majeste Britannique, et reflechissant que cet evenement pourroil 
I'interrompre, a vu avec deplaisir cette expedition capable de la trou- 
bler ; et dans la persuasion ou elle est de la reciprocite de ses senti- 

r 



154 APPENDIX 

mens, et de son eloignement pour autorlser tout ce qui pouiToit 
troubler la bonne intelligence entre les deux Cours, sa Majeste Catho- 
lique desavoue la susdite entreprise violente, et, en consequence, le 
Prince de Masseran declare, que sa Majeste Catholique s'engage a 
donner des ordres immediats pour qu'on reraette les choses dans la 
Grande Maloiiine, au port dit Egmont, precisement dans I'etat ou 
elles etoient avant le 10 Juin 1770, auquel effet sa Majeste Catho- 
lique donnera ordre a un de ses officiers, de remettre a I'officier 
autorise par sa Majeste Britannique, le fort et le port Egmont, avec 
toute I'artillerie, les munitions, et eiFets de sa Majeste Britannique et 
de ses sujets, qui s'y sont trouves le jour ci-dessus nomme, conforme- 
ment a I'inventaire qui en a ete dresse. 

" Le Prince de Masseran declare en meme tems, au nom du Roi 
son Maitre, que I'engagement de sa dite Majeste Catholique, de resti- 
tuer a sa Majeste Britannique la possession du port et fort dit 
Egmont, ne pent ni ne doit nullement affecter la question du droit 
anterieur de souverainete des lies Maloiiines, autrement dites Falk- 
land. 

" En foi de quoi, moi, le susdit Ambassadeur Extraordinaire, ai 
signe la presente Declaration de ma signature ordinaire, et a icelle 
fait apposer le cachet de nos armes. A Londres, le 22 Janvier 1771. 
(L.S.) (Signe) " Le Prince de Masseran." 

British Counter Declaration. 

" Sa Majeste Catholique ayant autorise son Excellence le Prince de 
Masserano, son Ambassadeur Extraordinaire, a ofFrir, en son nom 
royal, au Roi de la Grande Bretagne, une satisfaction pour I'injure 
faite a sa Majeste Britannique, en la depossedant du port et fort du 
port Egmont ; et le cUt ambassadeur ayant aujourd'hui signe une 
Declaration, qu'il vient de me remettre, y exprimant, que sa Majeste 
Catholique, ayant le desir de retablir la bonne harmonie et amitie 
que subsistoient ci-devant entre les deux couronnes, desavoue I'expe- 
dition contre le port Egmont, dans laquelle la force a ete employee, 
contre les possessions, commandant, et sujets de sa Majeste Britan- 
nique, et s'engage aussi que toutes choses seront immediatement 
remises dans la situation precise dans laquelle elles etoient avant le 
10 Juin 1770 ; et que sa Majeste Catholique donnera des ordres en 
consequence a un de ses officiers de remettre a I'officier, autorise par 



APPE^'r)Ix. 155 

sa Majeste Britannique, le port et fort du Port Egmont, commc aussi 
toute I'artillerle, les munitions, et efFets de sa Majeste Britannique, 
et de ses sujets, scion I'inventaire qui en a ete dresse ; et le dit ambas- 
sadeur s'etant de plus engage, au nom de sa Majeste Catholique, que 
le contenu de la dite declaration sera efFectue par sa Majeste Catho- 
lique, et que des duplicatas des ordres de sa dite Majeste Catholique 
a ses ofRciers seront remis entre les mains d'un des Principaux Secre- 
taires d'Etat de sa Majeste Britannique, dans I'espace de six semaines ; 
sa dite Majeste Britannique, afin de faire voir les memes dispositions 
amicales de sa part, m'a autorise a declarer, qu'eUe regardera la dite 
declaration du Prince de Masserano, avec I'accomplissement entier du 
dit engagement de la part de sa Majeste Catholique, comme une 
satisfaction de I'injure faite a la Couronne de la Grande Bretagne. 
En foi de quoi, moi, soussigne, un des Principaux Secretaires d'Etat 
de sa Majeste Britannique, ai signe la presente de ma signature 
ordinaire, et k icelle fait apposer le cachet de nps armes. A Londres, 
ce 22 Janvier 1771. 

(L.S.) (Signe) " Rochford." 

James Harris, Esq. to the Earl of Rochford. 

" Madrid, 14th February 1771. 
" They keep the declaration here as secret as possible. I do not 
find any to whom they have sho'rni it, except those to whom they 
are obhged to communicate it. They also report that we have given 
a verbal assiu-ance to evacuate Falkland's Island in the space of two 
months." 

The Earl of Rochford to James Harris, Esq. 

" St. James's, 8th March 1771. 
" His Majesty has been pleased to order the Juno frigate of thirty- 
two guns, the Hound sloop, and Florida store-ship, to be prepared to 
go to Port Egmont, in order to receive the possession from the Spa- 
nish commander there ; and as I have spoken so fuUy to Prince Mas- 
serano on the manner of its being executed, it is needless for me to 
say any more to you upon it. 

" I think it right to acquaint you, that the Spanish ambassador 
pressed me to have some hopes given him of our agreeing to a mutual 
abandoning of Falldand's Islands, to which I repHed, that it was 
impossible for me to enter on that subject with him, as the restitution 
must precede every discourse relating to those islands. 

r 2 



156 APPENDIX. 

" You will endeavour, on all occasions, to inculcate the absurdity 
of Spain having any apprehensions, from the state in wliich Port 
Egmont was before its capture, or the force now sent out, of his 
Majesty's intending to make use of it for the annoyance of their set- 
tlements in the South Sea, than which nothing can be farther from 
the King's inclination, who sincerely desires to preserve peace between 
the two nations." 

The Earl of Rochford to the Lords of the Admiralty. 

" St. James's, 15th March 1771. 

" Your lordships having acquainted me that, in consequence of 
his Majesty's pleasure, signified in my letter of 22d last, you had 
ordered the Juno frigate, the Hound sloop, and Florida store-ship, 
to be prepared to proceed to Falkland's Islands, I am commanded to 
signify to your lordships his Majesty's pleasure, that you order the 
commander of the said frigate, as soon as those ships are ready for 
sea, to repair directly with them to Port Egmont, and presenting to 
Don FeHpe Ruiz Puente, or any other Spanish officer he finds there, 
the duplicates of his Catholic Majesty's orders sent herewith, to 
receive, in proper fonn, the restitution of possession, and of the 
artillery, stores, and effects, agreeably to the said orders, and to the 
inventories signed by the Captains Farmer and Maltby (copies of 
which are annexed), and that you direct him to take an exact account 
of any deficiency which there may be of the things mentioned in the 
said inventories, in order that the same may be made good by his 
CathoUc Majesty ; giving a copy of the said account, signed by him- 
self, to the Spanish officer, and desiring an acknowledgment under 
his hand of the same .being a true account. 

" After the said restitution shall have been completed, it is the 
King's pleasure that Captain Stott should return immediately to 
England with the Juno frigate and the Florida store-ship, unless he 
find it necessary to leave the latter behind ; and that the Hound 
sloop should remain stationed in the harbour till his Majesty's further 
orders. 

" Your lordships will cUrect Captain Stott to behave with the 
greatest prudence and civility towards the Spanish commander and 
the subjects of his Cathohc Majesty, carefully avoiding any thing 
that might give occasion to disputes or animosity, and strictly 



APPENDIX. 157 

restraining the crews of the ships under his command in this respect ; 
but if, at or after the restitution to be made, the Spanish commander 
should make any protest against his Majesty's right to Port Egmont, 
or Falkland's Islands, it is his Majesty's pleasure that the commander 
of his ships should answer the same by a counter-protest, in proper 
terms, of his Majesty's right to the whole of the said islands, and 
against the right of his Catholic Majesty to any part of the same. 

" In case, from any accident or otherwise. Captain Stott should 
not, on his arrival at Port Egmont, find any officer there on the part 
of the King of Spain, your lordships will direct him (supposing he 
should find it necessary to put any of his men on shore) to avoid 
setting up any marks of possession, or letting his Majesty's colours 
fly on shore, as it is for the King's honour that the possession should 
be formally restored by an officer of his CathoHc Majesty ; and for 
that reason it will be proper that the King's commanding officer 
should keep a good look-out, and, upon perceiving the approach of 
any vessel of his Catholic Majesty, should re-embark any of his men 
who may at that time be on shore, that the possession may be indis- 
putably vacant. ' 

" If it should happen that after the King's ships shall have 
remained as late as all October, no Spanish officer should yet appear, 
your lordships will direct Captain Stott, in such case, either to pro- 
ceed himself, or send an officer to Soledad, to deliver his Catholic 
Majesty's orders to the Spanish commander there, taking care not to 
salute the fort as a Spanish garrison, and making a protest, in civil 
terms, against that settlement of his Catholic Majesty's subjects in an 
island belonging to his Majesty. 

" If, within a reasonable time after the delivery of the said order 
to the Spanish commander, at Soledad, there stiU shall not an-ive at 
Port Egmont any officer of his Catholic Majesty to make the restitu- 
tion, it is the King's pleasure that the commanding officer of his 
ships should then draw up a protest of the inexecution of his Catholic 
Majesty's late declaration, and should take formal possession, in his 
Majesty's name ; hoisting his Majesty's colours on shore ; and that, 
leaving there the Hound sloop, and Florida store-ship (if the latter is 
necessary), and sending a duplicate of his protest to the Spanish 
officer at Soledad, he should proceed to England to lay before youf 
lordships, for his Majesty's information, his report of the manner in 
which he has executed his commissioii. 



158 APPKNDIX. 

" Your lordships will take care that a sufficient quantity of provi- 
sions and necessaries of all kinds may be sent out in the said three 
vessels ; and will, at a convenient distance of time, despatch another 
store-ship for a further supply. 

" P.S. I also enclose to your Lordships the copy of his Catholic 
Majesty's order to Don Felipe Ruiz Puente, with its translation." 

Order of the King of Spain. 

(Translation.) 

" It being agreed between the King and his Britannic Majesty, by 
a Convention signed in London on the 22d of January last past, by 
the Prince of Masserano and the Earl of Rochford, that the Great Ma- 
louine, called by the EngHsh Falkland, should be immediately replaced 
in the precise situation in which it was before it was evacuated by 
them on the 10th June last year ; I signify to you, by the King's order, 
that, as soon as the person commissioned by the Court of London, 
shall present himself to you with this, you order the delivery of the 
Port de la Cruzada or Egmont, and its fort and dependencies, to be 
effected, as also of all the artillery, ammunition and effects, that were 
found there, belonging to his Britannic Majesty and his subjects, 
according to the inventories signed by George Farmer and "William 
Maltby, Esqs., on the 11th July of the said year, at the time of their 
quitting the same, of which I send you the enclosed copies, authen- 
ticated under my hand ; and that, as soon as the one and the other 
shall be effected with the due formalities, you cause to retire imme- 
diately the officer and other subjects of the King which may be there. 
God preserve you many years. Pardo, 7th February 1771. 

" The Balio Fray, Don Julian de Arriaga. 

" To Don FeUpe Ruiz Puente." 

Captain Stott to the Admiralty. 

" Juno, Plymouth, 9th December 1771. 
" I must beg leave to refer their lordships to the letter I had the 
honour of writing you from Rio de Janeiro, the 30th of July last, 
for the occurrences of my voyage to that time ; from whence I sailed, 
with his Majesty's ships under my command, the next day, and 
arrived at Port Egmont the evening of the 13th of September fol- 
lowing. The next morning, seeing Spanish colours flying, and 



APPENDIX. 159 

troops on shore, at the settlement formerly held by the English, I 
sent a lieutenant to know if any officer was there on behalf of his 
Catholic Majesty, empowered to make restitution of possession to 
me, agreeably to the orders of his Court for that pvirpose, dupli- 
cates of which I had to deliver him : I was answered, that the com- 
manding officer, Don Francisco de Orduna, a lieutenant of the royal 
artillery of Spaim, was furnished with full powers, and ready to effect 
the restitution. He soon after came on board the Juno to me, when 
I dehvered him liis CathoHc Majesty's orders. We then examined 
into the situation of the settlement and stores, adjusted the form of 
the restitution and reception of the possession — instruments for 
which were settled, executed, and reciprocally delivered (that wliich 
I received from the Spanish officer, and a copy of what I gave him, 
are here enclosed). On Monday, the 16th of Sejitember, I landed, 
followed by a party of marines, and was received by the Spanish offi- 
cer, who formally restored me the possession ; on which I caused his 
Majesty's colours to be hoisted and the marines to fire three volleys, 
and the Juno five guns, and was congratulated, as were the officers 
with me, by the Spanish officer, with great cordiality on the occa- 
sion. The next day Don Francisco, with all the troops and subjects 
of the King of Spain, departed in a schooner which they had with 
them. I have only to add, that this transaction was effected with the 
greatest appearance of good faith, without the least claim or reserve 
being made by the Spanish officer iji behalf of his Court." 

Lord Grantham to the Earl of Rochford. 

" Madrid, 2d January 1772. 
" I have received the honour of your lordship's despatch, contain- 
ing the agreeable intelligence of the restitution of Port Egmont and 
its dependencies, with the due formalities. On receiving this notice I 
waited on the Marquis de Grimaldi, to assure him of his Majesty's 
satisfaction at the good faith and punctuality observed in this trans- 
action. M. de Grimaldi seemed aware of the intention of my visit, 
and was almost beforehand with me in communicating notice of this 
event's being known in England. He seemed well pleased at the 
conclusion of this affair, but entered no further into conversation 
upon it." 



160 APPENDIX. 

The Lords of the Admiralty to the Earl of Rochford. 

" Admiralty Office, I5th February 1772. 
" Having received by the Florida store-ship, lately arrived at Spit- 
head, a letter from Captain Burr, of his Majesty's sloop the Hound, 
dated at Port Egmont, in Falkland's Islands, the 10th of November 
last, giving an account that, in the preceding month, tvi^o Spanish 
vessels had arrived there with the artillery, provisions, and stores, 
which had been taken frpm thence by the Spaniards, and that he had 
received the same from a commissary appointed by Don Philip Ruiz 
Puente, to deliver them up to him ; we send your lordship herewith 
a copy of Captain Burr's said letter, together with a copy of the 
inventory of the artillerjs provisions, and stores, w^hich he had 
received as aforesaid, for his Majesty's information." 

The Earl of Rochford to Lord Grantham. 

" St. James's, 6th March 1772. 
" It may be of use to inform your Excellency, that his Majesty 
has determined to reduce the force employed at Falkland's Island to 
a small sloop with about fifty men, and twenty-five marines on shore, 
which will answer the end of keeping the possession : and, at the 
same time, ought to make the court of Spain very easy as to our 
having any intention of making it a settlement of annoyance to 
them." 

The Earl of Rochford to Lord Grantham. 

" St. James's, February 11th, 1774. 
" I think it proper to acquaint your Excellency that Lord North, 
in a speech some days ago in the House of Commons, on the sub- 
ject of the Naval EstabUshment for this year, mentioned the inten- 
tion of reducing the naval forces in the East Indies, as a material 
object of diminishing the number of seamen ; and at the same time 
hinted, as a matter of small consequence, that, in order to avoid 
the expense of keeping any seamen or marines at Falkland's Island, 
they would be brought away, after leaving there the proper marks or 
signals of possession, and of its belonging to the Crown of Great 
Britain. As this measure was publicly declared in Parliament, it 
wiR naturally be reported to the Court of Spain ; and though there 
is no necessity of your Excellency's communicating this notice offi- 



APPENDIX. 161 

cially to the Spanish ministers, since it is only a private regulation 
with regard to our owti convenience ; yet, as I am inclined to think, 
from what passed formerly upon this subject, that they will rather 
be pleased at this event, your Excellency may, if they mention it to 
you, freely avow it, without entering into any other reasonings 
thereon. It must strike your Excellency that this is Ukely to dis- 
courage them from suspecting designs, which they must now plainly 
see never entered into our minds. I hope they will not suspect, or 
suffer themselves to be made believe, that this was done at the re- 
quest, or to gratify the most distant wish, of the French court ; for 
the truth is, that it is neither more nor less than a small part of an 
economical naval regulation." 



M. Moreno will perceive that the above authentic papers, which 
have been faithfully extracted from the Volumes of Correspondence 
with Spain, deposited in the State Paper Office, contain no allusion 
whatever to any secret understanding between the two Governments, 
at the period of the restoration of Port Egmont and its dependencies 
to Great Britain, in 1771, nor to the evacuation of Falkland's 
Islands, in 1774, as having taken place for the purpose of fulfilling 
any such understanding. On the contrary, it will be evident to 
M. Moreno, that their contents afford conclusive inference that no 
such secret understanding could have existed. 

The undersigned need scarcely assure M. Moreno, that the cor- 
respondence which has been referred to, does not contain the least 
particle of evidence in support of the contrary supposition, enter- 
tEiined by the Government of the United Provinces of the Rio de la 
Plata, nor any confirmation of the several particulars related in 
M. Moreno's note. 

The imdersigned trusts, that a perusal of these details will satisfy 
M. Moreno, that the protest which he has been directed to deliver 
to the undersigned, against the re-assumption of the sovereignty of 
the Falkland Islands by his Majesty, has been dravra up under an 
erroneous impression, as well of the understanding under which the 
declaration and counter-declaration relative to the restoration of Port 
Egmont and its dependencies were signed and exchanged between 
the two courts, as of the motives which led to the temporary i-ehn- 
quishment of those islands by the British Government; and the 



162 APPENDIX. 

undersigned cannot entertain a doubt but that, when the true cir- 
cumstances of the case shall have been communicated to the know- 
ledge of the government of the united provinces of the Rio de la 
Plata, that government will no longer call in question the right of 
sovereignty which has been exercised by his Majesty, as undoubtedly 
belonging to the CrovvTi of Great Britain. 

The undersigned requests, &c. 

(Signed) Palmerston. 

Foreign Office, January 8th, 1834. 



No. 18. 



By Robert Fitz-Roy, Commander of H. M. slooji " Beagle," off 
Watchman Cape, on the coast of Patagonia, 22d January 1 834. 

You are hereby required and directed to proceed in his Majesty's 
schooner. Adventure, under your command, to survey the Falldand 
Islands. 

New Island appears to me an eligible place for beginning your 
operations. 

Proceeding round the southern coasts, you will endeavour to meet 
me, in Berkeley Sound, early in March. 

After meeting me, or after the twenty-fifth of March, you wUl 
proceed to the northern shores of the Falkland Islands, and into Falk- 
land Sound. 

If, after going round the islands, you have time enough to make 
particular plans of any of the best harbours, you will do better than 
I now anticipate. 

All that I think time and weather will allow you to accomplish is 
a coast survey on a scale of one quarter of an inch to a mile of 
latitude. 

You wiU time your departure from the Falklands, so as to meet 
me at the west end of EUzabeth Island, in the Strait of Magalhaens, 
on or before the first day of next June. 

R. F. 
To Lieut. J. C. Wickham, 
commanding H. B. M. schooner " Adventure." 



APPENDIX, 163 



No. 19. 



Winds, "Weather, and Currents off Chiloe and the Chonos 

Archipelago. 

So much has been stated by Captain King (vol. i.) respecting the 
weather at Chiloe ; and also with regard to that of the Gulf of Pefias, 
and neighbouring coast, that I need make but few remarks. 

There is much less difference between the climate ; the prevailing 
winds, and the order in which they follow ; the tides ; and the cur- 
rents on the outer coast of Chiloe, and at the west entrance of Magal- 
haens Strait, including the intermediate coasts, than persons would 
suppose who judge only by their geographical positions. North- 
westerly winds prevail, bringing clouds and rain in abundance. 
South-westers succeed them, and partially clear the sky with their 
fury ; then the wind moderates, and hauls into the south-east 
quarter, where, after a short inter\'al of fine weather, it dies away. 
Light airs spring up from the north-east, freshening as they veer 
round to north, and augment the store of moisture which they always 
bring ; from the north they soon shift to the usual quarter, north- 
west, and between that point and south-west they shift and back 
sometimes for weeks before they take another round turn. When 
the wind backs (from south-west to west-north-west, &c.), bad 
weather and strong winds are sure to follow. On that coast wind 
never backs suddenly, but it shifts with the sim (with respect to that 
hemisphere) very suddenly, sometimes flying from north-west to 
south-west or south in a most violent squall. Before a shift of this 
kind there is almost always an opening, or hght appearance, in the 
clouds towards the south-west, which the Spaniards call an eye (ojo), 
and for that signal the seaman ought to watch carefully. As the 
sudden shifts are alw^ays with the sun, no man ought to be taken 
aback unexpectedly ; for so long as a north-wester is blowing with 
any strength, accompanied by rain, so long must he recollect that 
the wind may fly round to the south-west quarter at any minute. It 
never blows hard from east ; rarely with any strength from north- 
east ; but an occasional severe gale from south-east may be expected, 
especially about the middle of winter (June, July, August). In the 
summer southerly winds last longer and blow more frequently than 
they do in winter, and the reverse. The winds never go completely 



164 ATPENDIX. 

round the circle ; tliey die away as they approach east ; and after an 
interval of calm, more or less in duration, spring up gi-adually be- 
tween north-east by east and north. Heavy tempests sometimes 
blow, from west-north-west to south-west ; and those winds blowing 
directly on shore are most to be guarded against. As to the tides, 
they are simple and uniform in the extreme. High water, at fuU and 
change, takes place within half an hour of noon, from Valdivia to 
Landfall Island ; and the rise of tide is every where, on the outer 
coasts Avithin those hmits, nearly the same, namely, from four to 
eight feet. In the offing no stream of tide is any where discernible, 
and even close to the land it does not exceed one knot, or at most 
two knots an hour. On this extent of coast what Httle current is 
felt, sets southward, except during or before strong or lasting sou- 
therly winds : its influence is, however, but trifling, upon a ship out 
of soundings.* A heavy swell, from the westward, drives in upon all 
the coast. A barometer is invaluable. 



No. 20. 

El Presidente de la Republica de Chile, &c. 

El Senor Roberto Fitz-Roy, comandante del buque de su Mages- 
tad Britiinica Beagle ha recibido de su Gobierno el encargo de reco- 
nocer estas Costas y levantar mapas de eUas ; y el Gobierno de Chile 
desea franquear a una operacion de tan conocida utihdad para la 
navegacion y comercio, y para el adelantamiento de las ciencias, 
todas las facihdades y auxihos que de el dependan. En su conse- 
cuencia, ordeno a todos los Intendentes de Provincia, Gobemadores 
Departamentales, Jueces de Districto y demas empleados y Ciuda- 
danos per cuyos territories transitare el Comandante Fitz-Roy que 
no solo se le ponga embarazo para que entre con su buque en 
todos los puertos, bahias y radas de la Republica que le pareciere 
conveniente a su empresa, saltando a tierra y ejecutando en ella 
los reconocimientos y operaciones que crea necesarias, sino que se 
le proporcione todo el favor de que pueda menester ; haciendo y 
procurando se le haga la mas amistosa acojida por todos los funci- 

* By the term out of soundings, I mean in deeper water than three 
hundred fathoms. 



APPENDIX. 16*5 

onarios y Ciudadanos con quienes entable relaciones ; cual conviene 
a la importancia de los objetos cientificos de que esta encargado, y 
a la amistad y buena harmonia que cultivamos con la Gran Bretana. 
Sala de Gobierno, en Santiago, k cuatro de Agosto de mil ocho- 
cientos treinta y cuatro. 

Joaquin Prieto. 



No. 21. 



By Robert Fitz-Roy, Commander of his Majesty's surveying Sloop 

" Beagle." 

You are hereby required and directed to proceed, with the boats 
and party placed under your orders, to examine and sur\'ey the 
eastern coast of the island of Chiloe, and the islands, channels, &c. 
near that coast. 

You will endeavour to meet, or wait for the " Beagle," near the 
island of San Pedro, at the south-east end of Chiloe, on the 10th of 
December. 

Given on board the "Beagle" at San Carlos de 
Chiloe, this 24th day of November 1834. 

To Lieut. B. J. Sulivan, R. F. 

H. M. S. " Beagle." 

By Robert Fitz-Roy, Commander of his Majesty's Surveying Sloop 

" Beagle." 

You are hereby required and directed to proceed, with the boats 
and party placed under your orders, to continue the examination and 
survey of the eastern coasts of Chiloe, and the islands, channels, &c. 
lying between it and the main land. 

You wiU endeavour to reach San Carlos on or before the 10th of 
January, and there await the arrival of the " Beagle." 
Given on board the "Beagle" at the island of 
Chiloe, this 9th day of December 1834. 

To Lieut. B. J. Sulivan, R. F. 

H. M. S. " Beagle." 



166 APPENDIX, 



No. 22, 



By Robert Fitz-Rot, Commander of his Majesty's Sun-eying Sloop 

" Beadle." 



•'£)* 



You are hereby required and directed to proceed in the whale- 
boat to sun-ey such parts of the western coasts of the Chonos Archi- 
pelago between Lemu Island and the northernmost island, as your 
very hmited time and means will allow. 

You will endeavour to reach Port Low, and there meet the Beagle, 
on or before the 31st of this month. 

Given on board the " Beagle " in \'allenar Road, 
Chonos Archipelago, this 1 3th day of Decem- 
ber 1834. 

To Mr. John LoRT Stokes, R. F. 

Mate and Assistant- Surveyor, 
H.M.S. Beagle. 



No. 24*. 
Extracts from Agiieros. 

Francisco Machado, Piloto que fue a la expedicion que se acaba 
be hacer a la parte del Sud, gn obedecimiento del Decreto del Sefior 
Gobemador, y Comandante General de esta Provincia, su fecha 
29 de Mayo de este presente elSo, y para su cumplimiento, segun 
instruye, dando principio desde la Isla de San Fernando, situada en 
la latitud 45g. 47m., dice: Que el Puerto que tiene esta Isla es 
pequeno, manso ; pero con mal fondo en partes. La Isla de Inche, 
que demora al S. j al S. E. de la aguja, no tiene Puerto, ni caleta 
alguna, bien que lona embarcacion puede dar fondo a su abrigo por la 
parte del E. y esto a necesidad, y por poco tiempo. 

Ada la Tierra Firme se hallan dos Puertos muy mansos, y segu- 
ros :f el que esta mas al S. es el estero de Diego Grallegos, que hace 
ima ensenada acia el S. y el estero que sigue al E. muy hondable. 
En la entrada de este tiene ima Isla que, aunque estrecha la boca, 
no por eso dexa de haber bastante fondo para qualquiera embar- 
cacion. De la boca de este dicho estero, corriendo la Costa al Nd. 

• No. 23 is placed after this. — R. F. t 46 grades. S. 



APPENDIX. 167 

como tres leguas, 6 poco menos, se halla el Puerto donde anclo el 
Pingue-Ana de la Esquadra de Anson : tiene varias Islitas a 
entrada : la mayor es la del S. donde dexa un canal de 10 brazas 
de agua. 

Este Puerto se compone de una ensenada acia el S. S. O. y un 
estero al S. E. por qualquiera parte de las Islitas que tiene en la boca 
se puede entrar : es buen Puerto, manso, y seguro para qualquier 
embarcacion. Desde la punta que avanza mas E. O. como una y 
media legua del estero de Diego Gallegos, que se ve desde San Per-' 
nando al S. corre la Costa al N d. haciendo como ensenada, y en ella 
esta la dicha Isla de Inche, que es el principio del Archipielago de 
los Chonos, entre la qual y la Tierra-Firme estil otio de FaraUones 
grandes, ypequefios. Los vientos que se experimentaron por tiempo 
de 17 dias por el mes de Enero fueron S. O. y O. que es el que Ua- 
man Travesia, y regularmente viene con zerrazon. 

La Tierra-Firme es de serrania alta, y pelada, de piedra aspera, 
color de ceniza, y en las faldas y quebradas bosque, que me parece 
nada cultivable : todo es peninsula que cercan los dos mares : per 
la parte del N. termina en un golfito casi circular, que llaman la 
laguna de San Rafael, y por el S. da principio al golfo de San Este- 
van donde desemboca el rio de San Tadeo ; de uno a otro mar habra 
de 2 a 3 leguas, aunque lo navegable del rio pasa de 5, por las 
^oieltas y revueltas, que son muchas. De la dicha laguna al embar- 
cadero del mismo rio habra como 20 quadras ; y ^ste es el Istmo que 
llaman de Ofqui, y vulgarmente por otro nombre el Desecho. Este 
rio de San Tadeo baxa de una cordillera, cuya abra se ve muy cerca 
de la laguna, y desemboca, como he dicho, en el golfo de San Estevan, 
cuya boca es algo pehgrosa porque tiene poco fondo, y estrecha tanto 
que solo se puede entrar 6 salir quando el mar esta tranquilo. Al 
frente de su boca al S. como 4 leguas esta la Isla de San Xavier, y 
al S. O. de 2 -^ a 3 leguas una punta 6 peninsula donde hay varias ense- 
nadas, y caletas que son buenos Puertos ; y de estos N. O. un bello 
estero directo mas de 2 leguas, muy sereno, de suficiente fondo, y 
bueno ; pero con un pequeno baxo que tiene en su entrada del medio 
al S. : se le puso el nombre de San Quintin. 



De la expedicion que los Padres Fr. Benito Marin, y Fr. Julian 
Real, Misioneros del Colegio de Ocopa, y destinados a las Misiones 



168 APPENDIX. 

del Archipielago de Chiloe, hicieron a ultlmos del ano de 1778, y 
principios del de 1779, a los Archipielagos de Guaitecas, y Guaia- 
neco, al Sud de aquella Provincia, en solicitud de los Indies Gentiles. 

El 10 se hicieron a la vela, y con viento favorable navegaron casi 
todo el golfo que media entre Chayamapu, y Tagau, y Uegaron per 
la tarda al Puerto de Tualad. 

Surgieron de este al amanecer, (11) no obstante que el N. estaba 
considerablemente fresco, y que les ponia en cuidado, porque per- 
maneciendo anclados conocian mayor riesgo ; y lograron en pocas 
horas anclar en Charraguel, aunque habian antes arribado a Tagau 
para comer ; y para seguir desde este el rumbo para el otro dexaron 
el canal que se dirige a la lagima de San Rafael, y tomaron el de 
Aii, cuya boca tiene como un quarto de legua de ancho por el O. E. 
Tomaron este rumbo con el fin de reconocer si habia otra salida mas 
facU para el mar de Guaianeco : y dieron fondo en Yepusnec, en 
donde por la noche estuvieron en manifiesto peligro, porque sentan- 
dose la piragua grande sobre una piedra luego que la vaciante tomo 
su curso, se bolco por un costado ; pero mediante el favor de Dios, 
y patrocinio de Maria Santisima, cuyo nombre tenia la embarcacion, 
y poniendo por su parte las diligencias que en tan arriesgado caso 
eran necesarias, consiguieron salir libres en todo, y sin dano alguno 
en la piragua. 

Enderezada esta, y \4endola ya voyante salieron de aquel Puerto, 
yfueron a comer a otro Uamado el Obscuro. (12) Surgieron luego, 
y continuaron la navegacion por el misrao canal, dexando al E. 
otros dos pequenos con rumbo al S. y Uegaron a hacer noche en 
Tuciia : y porque entraron en el canal la vispera de San Diego, y 
navegaron por el todo el dia de este glorioso Santa, le titularon con 
su nombre. 

El siguiente dia no pudieron salir por la manana por lo mucho 
que llovio, pero aprovecharon la tarde saliendo para otro sitio, que 
hallaron muy incomodo por la fuerza de la corriente que en el expe- 
rimentaron Uevaban las aguas. 

De este surgieron a la manana siguiente (li) con el fin de entrar 
por la primera boca de los dos referidos canales ; y habiendo nave- 
gado hora y media con este designio, no pudieron romper contra la 
^fuerza de las corrientes que haUaron, viendose obligados a arribar : a 
pocas horas se volvi^ron a levar, y navegaron por la primera boca ; 
pero encontrandose despues con otra, que tampoco les fu6 posible 



APPENDIX. 169 

romper contra su corrlente impetuosa, y arribaron a una ensenada 
para esperar proporcion favorable. Por la tarde fueron algunos ma- 
rineros, y un practico con el Padre Fr. Benito a reconocer la boca 
que esperaban pasar ; y regresaron asombrados de haber visto lo 
encrespado, y entumecido de las olas por el encuentro de unas con 
otras, todo lo que les causo considerable horror, y Ueno su corazon 
de temor al considerar les era forzoso haber el pasar por tan mani- 
fiesto peligro. 

Luego que dixeron Misa, (15) y estando el mar en creciente, salieron 
de la ensenada, y no obstante el sobresalto que todos llevaban lo- 
graron pasar con felicidad la boca : continuaron navegando, y dieron 
fondo antes de medio dia. Experimentaron alii el Ueno de las aguas 
entre ima y dos de la tarde, siendo en el mar a las nueve. 

Prosiguieron suviage, yvieronel finde ungrande estero. (16) Re- 
gresaron, y aunque al O. E. encontraron otro canal no entraron a 
reconocerle por no perder tiempo, y poder Uegar adonde estuviesen 
asegurados para desembocar por la arriesgada boca referida. 

Este dia entre dos y tres de la tarde consiguieron pasarla feliz- 
mente, y fueron a anclar en un pequeno canal que se dirige al 
Desecho. (17) 

Prosiguieron la navegacion, y halLiron el canal principal que va al 
Desecho, nombrado Celtau, y Uegaron a hacer noche en el Puerto 
Mosado. (18) 

SaUeron de este, y antes que principiase la vaciante ganaron la 
boca de Celtau, lo que no hubieran conseguido con corta detencion 
que hubiesen tenido, como sucedio a una de las piraguas pequenas, 
que se quedo fuera por su demora. 

Al siguiente dia navegaron un pequeno golfo que se encuentra 
antes de la boca de la laguna de San Rafael, y tomando Puerto 
anclaron en el, y permanecieron toda la mafiana del otro dia, espe- 
rando terminase la vaciante, no obstante haber viento N. claro, y 
favorable. (21) 

Continuaron su derrota, y desembocaron en dicha laguna, la que 
rebalsaron con tiempo apacible, y tambien lo era su vista por los 
muchos farallones de nieve que en eUa haUaron, unos grandes, otros 
pequenos, y medianos otros. Esta situada entre los 46 gr. 55 min. 
y 47 gr. 5 min. de latitud. Dieron fondo a las nueve de la manana 
en el Puerto de San Rafael, el que solamente estii resguardado por el 
S. y O. E. Pasaron luego los practices, y el Piloto Oyarsum a 
reconocer el Desecho, y regresaron con las funestas noticias de que 

s 



170 APPEXDIX. 

el palo donde se enganchaba, y afianzaba el aparejo para su1)ir las 
piraguas se habia ya caido, y que el rio San Tadeo habia rebentado, 
y formado varies brazos, y diversos rumbos. 

Este dia fueron los PUotos, (23) con lo mas de la tripulacion, esta 
con herramientas para abrir el camino, y aquellos para reconocer, e 
informarse si era 6 no transitable dicho rio : y juzgandose conveniente 
que todo esto lo presenciase uno de los Religiosos, fue el Padre Fr. 
Benito con los referidos al reconocimiento. Hecho este se resoMo 
continuar el viage. Despues de puesto el sol amenazo el tiempo de 
borrasca, la que se verifico, y llego a tanto, que pasaron la noche con 
mucha afliccion y temores, sin poder descansar en toda eUa. Resulto 
de esta tormenta, que de las dos piraguas pequenas, la una perdio 
el codaste, y la otra quedo tan maltratada, que solo su plan y una 
falca quedaron servdbles. Continue el tiempo en esta disposicion 
hasta el dia 28. 

En este, aunque ajoido poco, pasaron hasta el principio del Dese- 
cho, y luego dieron disposicion, y probaron a subir la piragua entera ; 
pero habiendo conseguido llegase su proa a lo ultimo de la escalera, 
falto el puno de la garita, y descendio precipitada al principio, jsero 
sin dano alguno. 

Este dia, (29) aunque festivo por Domingo, considerando por sufi- 
ciente y justa causa la notable necesidad en que se hallaban, le emplea- 
ron en trabajar, y prevenir lo necesario para subir la piragua : y al 
siguiente despues de la Misa se principio la maniobra ; pero aun con 
las muchas y eficaces diligencias que hicieron no pudieron conseguir 
el fin que deseaban, y resohderon quitar las falcas a la piragua, con 
lo que lograron su deseo, y la subieron hasta lo mas penoso. 

Conseguido esto emplearon este dia (Die'. 1°.) en que algunos de 
la tripulacion fuesen a trabajar para levantar nueva piragua, y otros 
!i conducir las cargas : y el dia 2 despacharon la piragua Santa Teresa 
a la Ciudad de Castro para que diese noticia de quanto hasta este 
dia les habia acaecido. 

El 3 pasaron a pie el Desecho, y baxaron al rancho que ya estaba 
prevenido en la playa del rio de San Tadeo. Permanecieron alli 
hasta que se aprestaron con todo lo necesario las dos piraguas. El 
dia 17 continuaron el viage navegando rio abaxo. Padecieron algu-' 
nos peUgTos y aflicciones por haberse quebrado las piraguas, y con 
especialidad la San Joseph ; pero pudieron Uegar a la boca, 6 desem- 
bocadero del rio San Tadeo en el golfo de San Estevan, y tomar 
Puerto en un estero estrecho y largo. 



APl-ENDIX. 



171 



(A la vuelta.) 

Al siguiente dia* emprendieron la subida por el rio, y logrando la 
creciente favorable hicieron buen viage ; y el .16 llegaron a comer al 
Desecho, en donde dentro de un rancho hallaron una carta del P. 
Fr. Francisco Menendez, por la que vieron les esperaba en la laguna 
de San Rafael : gozosos con tan plausible noticia pasaron por la 
tarde el Desecho, y encontraron a dicho Religioso en la escalera. 

Los dos siguientes dias permanecieron alii, empleando la tripu- 
lacion en conducir a la laguna lo que venia en las piraguas (las que 
dexaron en piezas en el rancho del embarcadero del rio) y pusieron 
boyante la piragua del Patrocinio. 

El dia 19 salieron despues de comer, y navegando a remo toda la 
tarde llegaron al anochecer a tomar Puerto ; pero antes de dar fondo 
se asento la piragua, y pasaron en ella la noche, hasta que con la 
creciente a la madrugada pudieron lograr que boyase ; y no obstante 
que habia N. se aprovecharon de la vaciante, y pasaron la segunda 
boca. Refresco el viento, y continuaron navegando el golfo atra- 
cados al E., y fueron a comer en el Puerto Uamado Chauguaguen, y 
de alii se levaron, y siguieron por el E. hasta cerca de la boca de 
Celtau, donde pasaron la noche. (20) 

Segunda Expedicion. 

Hecha a los referidos Archipielagos de Guaitecas, y Guaianeco, 
por los Religiosos Misioneros P. Fr. Francisco Menendez, y P. Fr. 
Ignacio Bargas, en solicitud de la reduccion de los Gentiles, a fines 
del ano de 1779, y principios del de 1780. 

Primeramente, nuestro viage hasta la lagunaf (es la de San Rafael) 
fue feUz, sin otra novedad que algunos sustos a la salida del golfo : 
llegamos el dia de los Difuntos despues de haber dicho los dos Misa 
enVicufiamo al Desecho. J Descargose en la escalera el mismo dia, 
y por la tarde se saco la piragua el Patrocinio hasta media quiUa del 
agua : y al otro dia de maiiana se aseguro del todo, y por la tarde la 
otra. Intentamos hacer otra piragua mas, y por haber caido enfer- 
mos cinco marineros no se concluyo ; quedo hecho el plan, y cos- 
tados. El Viernes siguiente (3) comenzaron los temporales, y conti- 
nuaron con algmias nevadas, hasta que se hallaba el bastimento en 
el embarcadero del rio, y las piraguas ya levantadas, que fue a los 
24 dias de nuestra llegada. 

* Feb°. 15, 1779. t Oct^ 11, 1779. t Nov^ 2. 

s 2 



172 APPENDIX. 

Parecia que el tiempo se oponia todo a la expedicion. Para botar 
las piraguas se seco el rio, y comenzo el S. ; todo nos iba en contra ; 
pero su Divina Magestad permitio que con buen tiempo creciese el 
rio, y a los 26 dias, el de San Jacome de la Marca, y primera Domi- 
nica de Adviento, baxamos el rio, y fui a decir Misa a la boca del 
rio San Tadeo. (Nov^ 28.) 

:(: ^ * * * * 

Uno de los Gentiles nos dixo habia visto por aquellos parages 
Huampus mas grandes, que andaba la gente por las bergas, y falcas 
mayores que las nuestras : todas noticias deseadas ; pero no lo 
quieren averiguar. 

Nuestro Senor guarde a V. R. muchos anos, Castro y Marzo 14 
de 1780. 

:f: :^ :}: :}: H^ ^ 

Huampus es nombre propio del idioma Veliche, y significa qual- 
quiera embarcacion ; y en este dicho di6 a entender aquel GentH a 
los Religiosos que en aquella altura habia visto navios, como clara- 
mente se infiere de expresar que la gente andaba por las bergas. 



No. 23. 



Extract from Burney's History of the Discoveries in the South 
Sea. Vol. iv. p. 118, &c. 

Oct. 11th, 1681, they* were in latitude 49° 54' S., and estimated 
their distance from the American coast to be 120 leagues. The wind 
blew strong from the S.W. and they stood to the S.E. On the 
morning of the 12th, two hours before day, being in latitude by 
account 50° 50' S., they suddenly found themselves close to land- 
The ship was iU prepared for such an event, the fore-yard having 
been lowered to ease her, on account of the strength of the wind. 
" The land was high and towering ; and here appeared many islands 
scattered up and down." They were so near and .so entangled, that 
there was no possibility of standing off to sea ; and, with such light 
as they had, they steered as cautiously as they could in between some 
islands and along an extensive coast, which, whether it was a larger 
island, or part of the continent, they could not know. As the day 
advanced, the land was seen to be mountainous and craggy, and the 
tops covered with snow. 

* The buccaneers under Shnrp. 



APPENDIX. 17g 

Sharp says, " we bore up for a harbour, and steered in northward 
about five leagues. On the north side there are plenty of harbours." 
" At eleven in the forenoon they came to an anchor in a harbour in 
forty-five fathoms, within a stone's cast of the shore, where the ship 
was land-locked and in smooth water. As the ship went in, one of 
the crew, named Henry Shergall, fell overboard as he was going into 
the spritsail top, and was drowned ; on which account this was named 
ShergaU's Harbour." 

The bottom was rocky where the ship had anchored ; a boat was 
therefore sent to look for better anchorage. They did not, however, 
shift their berth that day ; and during the night, strong flurries of 
wind from the hills, joined with the sharpness of the rocks at the 
bottom, cut their cable in two, and they were obliged to set sail. 
They ran about a mUe to another bay, where they let go another 
anchor, and moored the ship with a fastening to a tree on shore. 

They shot geese, and other \Adld-fowl. On the shores they found 
large muscles, cockles like those in England, and limpets : here were 
also penguins,* which were shy, and not taken without pursuit ; "they 
paddled on the water with their wings very fast, but their bodies 
were too heavy to be carried by the said wings." The first part of 
the time they lay in this harbour, they had almost continual rain. 

On the night of the 15th, in a high north wind, the tree to which 
their cable was fastened gave way, and came up by the root, in con- 
sequence of which, the stern of the ship took the ground and damaged 
the rudder. They secured the ship afresh by fastening the cable to 
other trees ; but were obliged to unhang the rudder to repair. 

The 18th was a day of clear weather. The latitude was observed 
50° 40' S. The difference of the rise and fall of the tide was seven 
feet perpendicular : the time of high- water is not noted. The arm 
of the sea, or gulf, in which they were, they named the English Gulf ; 
and the land forming the harbour, the Duke of York's Island ; " more 
by guess than any thing else ; for whether it were an island or con- 
tinent was not discovered." 

Ringrose says, " I am persuaded that the place where we now are, 
is not so great an island as some hydrographers do lay it down, but 
rather an archipelago of smaller islands. Our captain gave to them 
the name of the Duke of York's Islands. Our boat which went east- 
ward found several good bays and harbours, with deep water close to 
the shore ; but there lay in them several sunken rocks, as there did 
* Steamer ducks. Penguins swim like fish. — R. F. 



174 APPENDIX. 

also in the harbour where the ship lay. These rocks are less dan- 
gerous to shipping, by reason they have weeds lying about them." 

From all the preceding description, it appears that they were at 
the south part of the island named Madre de Dios in the Spanish 
atlas ; which island is south of the channel, or arm of the sea, named 
the Gulf de la S""" Trinidada ; and that Sharp's English Gulf is the 
Brazo de la Con^epcion of Sarmiento. 

Ringrose has dra^^^l a sketch of the Dulce of York's Islands, and 
one of the English Gulf ; but which are not worth copying, as they 
have neither compass, meridian line, scale, nor soundings. He has 
given other plans in the same defective manner, on which account 
they can be of little use. It is necessary, however, to remark a dif- 
ference in the plan which has been printed of the English Gulf, from 
the plan in the manuscript. In the printed copy, the shore of the 
gulf is drawn in one continued line, admitting no thorouglifare ; 
whereas, in the manuscript plan, there are clear openings, leaving a 
prospect of channels through. 

Towards the end of October, the weather settled fair. Hitherto 
they had seen no inhabitants ; but on the 27th, a party went from 
the ship in a boat on an excursion in search of provisions, and un- 
happily caught sight of a small boat belonging to the natives of the 
land. The ship's boat rowed in pursuit, and the natives, a man, a 
woman, and a boy, finding their boat would be overtaken, all leaped 
overboard and swam towards the shore. This villanous crew of buc- 
caneers had the barbarity to shoot at them in the water, and they 
shot the man dead ; the woman made her escape to land ; the boy, a 
stout lad about eighteen years of age, was taken, and with the Indian 
boat, was carried to the ship. 

The poor lad thus made prisoner had only a small covering of seal 
skin. " He was squint-eyed, and his hair was cut short. The doree, 
or boat, in which he and the other Indians were, was built sharp at 
each end and flat bottomed : in the middle they had a fire burning 
for dressing victuals, or other use. Tliey had a net to catch penguins, 
a club like our bandies, and wooden darts. This young Indian 
appeared by his actions to be very innocent and foolish. He could 
open large muscles with his fingers, which our buccaneers coidd 
scarcely manage with their knives. He was very wild, and would eat 
raw flesh." 

By the beginning of November the rudder was repaired and hung. 
Ringrose says, " we could perceive, now the stormy weather was 



APPENDIX. 



175 



blo\\'n over, much small fry of fish about the ship, whereof before we 
saw none. The weather began to be warm, or rather hot ; and the 
birds, as thrushes and blackbirds, to sing as sweetly as those m 
England." 

On the 5th of November, they sailed out of the English Gulf, 
taking -with them their young Indian prisoner, to whom they gave 
the name of Orson. As they departed, the natives on some of the 
lands to the eastward made great fires. At six in the evening the 
ship was without the mouth of the gulf : the wind blew fresh from 
the N.W., and they stood out S.W. by W., to keep clear of breakers, 
which lie four leagues without the entrance of the gulf to the S. and 
S.S.E. Many reefs and rocks were seen hereabouts, on account of 
which they kept close to the wind till they were a good distance clear 
of the land. Their navigation from here to the Atlantic was, more 
than could have been imagined, like the journey of travellers by night 
in a strange country without a guide. The weather was stormy, and 
they would not venture to steer in for the Strait of Magalhaens, 
which they had purposed to do, for the benefit of the provision which 
the shores of the strait afford, of fresh water, fish, vegetables, and 
wood. They ran to the S. to go round to the Tierra del Fuego, hav- 
ing the wind from the N.W., which was the most favourable for this 
navigation ; but they frequently lay to, because the weather was thick. 

On the 12th, they had not passed the Tierra del Fuego. The lati- 
tude, according to observation that day, was 55° 25', and the course 
they steered was S.S.E. 

On the 14th, Ringrose says, " the latitude was observed 57° 50' S., 
and on this day we could perceive land, from which at noon we were 
due W." They steered S. by E., and expected that at dayUght the 
next morning they should be close in with the land ; but the weather 
became cloudy, with much fall of snow, and nothing more of it was 
seen. No longitude or meridian distance is noticed, and it must 
remain doubtful whether what they took for land was floating ice ; 
or their observation for the latitude erroneous, and that they saw the 
Isles of Diego Ramirez ? 

Three days afterwards, in latitude 58° 30' S., they feU in with ice 
islands, one of which they reckoned to be two leagues in circum- 
ference. A strong current set here southward. Tliey held on their 
course eastward so far, that when at last they did sail northward, 
they saw neither the Tierra del Fuego nor Staten Island. (End of 
November 1681.) 



176 



APPENDIX. 



No. 24 (a). 



Extract from the Voyage of Lionel Wafer in 1686, describing the 
Island of Santa Maria, under the mistaken name of Mocha. 

" The island afforded both water and fresh provision for our men. 
The land is ver}^ low and flat, and upon the sea coast sandy ; but the 
middle ground is good mould, and produces maize, wheat, and barley, 
with variety of fruits, &c. Here were several houses belonging to the 
Spanish Indians, which were very well stored with dunghiU fowl. 
They have here also several horses : but that which is most worthy of 
note, is a sort of sheep they have, which the inhabitants call ' camero 
de tierra.' This creature is about four feet and a half high at the back, 
and a very stately beast. These sheep are so tame that we frequently 
used to bridle one of them, upon whose back two of the lustiest men 
would ride at once round the island, to drive the rest to the fold. 
His ordinary pace is either an amble or a good hand-gallop ; nor 
does he care for going any other pace during the time his rider 
is upon his back. His mouth is like that of a hare ; and the hare-lip 
above opens as well as the maLa-hps, when he bites the grass, which 
he does verj^ near. His head is much hke an antelope, but they had 
no horns when we were there ; yet we found very large horns much 
twisted, in the form of a snail-shell, which we suppose they had shed ; 
there lay many of them scattered upon the sandy bays. His ears 
resemble those of an ass, his neck is small, and resembhng a camel's. 
He carries his head bendmg and very stately, Hke a swan ; is full- 
chested, like a horse, and has his loins much like a well-shaped grey- 
hound. His buttocks resemble those of a full-gro^-n deer, and he has 
much such a tail. He is cloven-footed, like a sheep, but on the mside 
of each foot has a large claw, bigger than one's finger, but sharp, 
and resembhng those of an eagle. These claws stand about two 
inches above the di%-ision of the hoof; and they ser^-e him m chmb- 
ing rocks, holding fast by whatever they bear against. His flesh eats 
as hke mutton as can be : he bears wool twelve or fourteen inches 
long upon the beUy ; but it is shorter on the back, shaggy, and a 
httle incHnmg to curl. It is an innocent and very sendceable beast, 
fit for any drudgery. Of these we killed fortj-three ; out of the maw 
of one of which I took thhteen bezoar stones, of wliich some were 
ragged, and of several forms ; some long, resembhng coral ; some 



APPENDIX. 177 

round, and some oval, but all green when taken out of the maw ; 
yet by long keeping they turned of an ash colour." 



No. 25. 
By Robert FitzRoy, Captain of H.M. Surveying Sloop Beagle. 

You are hereby required and directed to take charge and command 
of the schooner Constitucion, and the party placed by me under 
your orders. 

Directly the vessel is ready for sea, you will proceed to survey 
those parts of the coast of Chile which lie between the parallels of 
thirty-one and thirty -five : and on or before the 3 1st of July, you 
Avill endeavour to meet me in Callao Roads. 

Memoranda : 

At this time of year, unfavourable foggy weather may be expected 
to impede your progress very materially ; but successful, or the con- 
trary, you must endeavour to be punctual at your rendezvous. 

At many places the landing will be bad. Do not on any account 
land then in a boat. Go near only in a boat ; land on a balsa. 

On so straight a coast, subject to a continuance of cloudy weather, 
views of the land may be particularly useful. Mr. King is added to 
your party, because he draws such views very correctly. 

Do not delay in attempting to get deep-sea soundings, when not 
hove-to for other purposes. 

Be very particular in noticing characteristic appearances of the 
land about anchorages ; and such peculiarities of marks, or other- 
wise, as may help to guide a stranger. 

Notice where and how wood and water are to be procured. 

Let Mr. King keep a journal for you, to be given afterwards to me. 
No log will be required by me ; but let that journal contain every 
note which you consider likely to be useful. 

I shall be anxious to send away a tracing of your work, as soon as 
possible after your arrival at Callao. 

Remember that Paposo is the northernmost inhabited place over 
which the government of Chile has authority. In approaching vessels 
or places on the coast of Peru, be particularly on your guard. 

Inquire about the earthquake and waves of the 20th of February. 

At each place make the chief Authority acquainted with your busi- 



178 APPEXDIX. 

ness, and the accompanying letter from the government of Chile, as 
soon as possible. 

H.M. sloop Beagle, in Port Herradura, Coquimbo, 
6th day of June 1835. 
To Lieutenant B. J. Sulivan, R. F. 

H.M.S. Beagle. 

No. 26. 

By Robert FitzRoy, Captain of His Majesty's Surveying 
Sloop Beagle. 
You are hereby required and directed to take charge and command 
of his Majesty's surveying sloop Beagle, until I rejoin you atCaUao. 
You vnR conform your conduct, in all respects, to the instructions 
sent to me for my gmdance by the Lords Commissioners of the Ad- 
miralty. 

You will sail from Valparaiso on the 28th of this month, or as soon 
after as possible, and proceed direct to Copiapo. 

Thence you will proceed to Callao, calling at Iquique, if circum- 
stances are favourable ; and at Callao you will await my arrival. 
H.M. sloop Beagle, in Valparaiso Bay, 

18thof June 1835. R. F. 

To Lieut. J. C. Wickham, 

H.M.S. Beagle. 
N.B. Remember that Peru is in a state of anarchy. 



No. 27. 

Journal of the Proceedings on board the hired schooner. Carmen, 
in search of the crew of his Majesty's late ship Challenger. 

June 22d, 1835. — H.M.S. Blonde's boats getting the schooner 
Carmen ready for sea; at thirty minutes past eight, p.m. went on 
board the schooner vidth the Beagle's whale-boat and surveying instru- 
ments. 

Tuesday, 23d. Blowing a strong gale from the northward all day, 
with very heavy rain ; a great deal of surf on the beach, made it 
impossible to land; therefore nothing was done to forward the 
schooner's sailing. 

Wednesday, 24th. More moderate, but very unsettled weather ; 
Blonde's boats preparing schooner for sea ; at four, weighed and ran 



APPENDIX. ' 179 

under the commodore's stern. Asked the commodore for some ballast, 
a few muskets, and a little powder ; was refused. Thirty minutes past 
four, received final orders ; made all sail, with the wind fresh from 
the southward, and ran through the small passage. 
On board the Carmen were : 

Mr. Wm. Thayer, master of the vessel. 

George Biddlecombe, 2d master of H.M.S. Blonde. 

Alex. B. Usbome, 2d assist, surveyor, ,, Beagle. 

James Bennett, gunner's mate, „ Beagle. 

John Nutcher, boatswain's mate, . „ Blonde. 

John Macintosh, A.B. „ Blonde. 

John Mitchell, A.B. „ Blonde, 

and ten men hired at Talcahuano, who were of very little, indeed 
almost no use as seamen. 

At about ten, p.m. the wind died away to nearly a calm, which 
continued throughout the night. 

Thursday, 25th. Daylight. Saw the Paps of Bio Bio E.S.E. by 
compass, nine miles distant ; light, variable airs from the northward 
throughout the day. Sun-set: north end of St. Mary S.b.W. six 
miles, calm aU night. 

Friday, 26th. Daylight. North end of St. Mary S.E. five miles ; light 
winds from the northward, until four, p.m., when thevdnd freshened 
from north-north-west, with heavy squalls of wind and rain ; sun-set, 
Camero Head, E. distant five miles. At thirty minutes past six, 
observed a fire on Tucapel Head, bearing south-east ; burnt a blue 
light, supposing it might be part of the Challenger's crew on their 
road to Concepcion ; but finding no alteration in the size of the fire, 
and it not corresponding vdth the signal agreed on, continued our 
course towards the supposed place of the Lebu, or Leiibu. 

Satiu-day, 27th. Strong winds from the northward, and squally 
weather, with heavy rain ; stood off and under foresail until two, p.m., 
when the weather cleared a little ; made all possible sail, and stood 
in for the point on which the Chaillenger was lost. At three, Mol- 
guilla Point E. two miles and a half distant, saw nothing of the 
wreck ; bore up, and stood along the land toward the southward, 
from one to two miles oiF shore, in search of the river Lebu. At five, 
P.M., having run ten miles south of Point Molguilla, and five miles 
south of the supposed place of the Lebu, and not seeing any thing of 
the wreck or crew of the Challenger, hauled off, and hove-to ; at 



180 APPENDIX. 

this time any people on the shore could have seen the vessel five 
miles north or south of her, she not being more than a mile and a 
half from the beach, and having a large blue ensign at the fore-top- 
gallant-mast-head. 

At six, fired a rocket, as a signal to the shore ; no answer of any 
description being made, filled and stood off and on, to keep our posi- 
tion during the night ; fresh vidnds and squally, vi^ith heavy rain. 

Sunday, 28th. Strong vidnds from north-west, and squally wea- 
ther, with heavy rain ; shortened saU to foresail, and headed to the 
westward ; thirty minutes past ten, saw the island of Mocha south, 
distant eight miles, sounded in fifteen fathoms ; wore to north-east, 
and carried all possible sail to get out of the bight ; fresh gales and 
squally, with a heavy cross sea. 

Monday, 29th. More moderate, but wind still from the northward. 
At nine a.m. spoke the Blonde, on her way to the supposed place of 
the Lebu ; kept our wind, endeavouring to fetch Tucapel Head, where 
we had seen the fire three days before ; noon, Tucapel Point east- 
north-east, three-quarters of a mile distant ; obser\'ed two fires on 
Tucapel Head ; tacked to the westward, to fetch the Head. 

At thirty minutes past two, Tucapel Point east-north-east, nine 
mUes ; while four men were aloft (James Bennett, gunner's mate. 
Beagle ; John Nutcher, boatswain's-mate ; John Macintosh, A.B. ; 
John Mitchell, A.B., of Blonde), bending the fore-topsail, which had 
been split the previous night, the vessel gave a very hea\y pitch, 
which sprung the foremast, a little below the cross-trees ; and on 
her recovering herself, the head of the mast snapped short off, a foot 
below the fore-yard, bringing with it aU above, and also the four 
seamen who were aloft ; the mainmast, having no support left from 
the tryatic stay, and the deck-stay being aft, ready for tacldng, the 
great weight of the main-boom, added to the pressure of the wind 
on the mainsail, brought the mainmast by the board, fore-and-aft 
the deck, striking the taffraU in its fall, which again carried it away, 
leaving the head of the mast hanging by the rigging over the stern, 
striking heavUy against the rudder and the middle-piece in midships 
on the deck. Fortunately, none of the seamen were seriously injured, 
as they resolutely kept their hold of the topsail-yard, and were carried 
with it into the sea, out of which they soon escaped by means of the 
rigging that was hanging over the side. 

Every effort was immediately used to clear the wreck, and get 



APPENDIX. ' 181 

the temporary rigging up, to secure the stump of the foremast which 
had carried away the wedges in the partners, and had about three 
inches play in the step, from the heel of the mast being decayed ; 
nearly the whole of the standing rigging was lost, from night coming 
on, and it being necessary to get the wreck clear of the vessel as 
soon as possible, lest it should carry away the rudder, and other- 
wise damage the hull of the vessel. 

Not ha^'ing an axe, or any thing but a cooper's drawing-knife, that 
would cut the rigging in the eyes, which had hide on them that had 
been placed there several years before, we were obUged to haul it up 
taut and cut on the rail, thereby rendering it useless for any thing 
but junk. 

There were scarcely any nails on board the vessel ; and it was 
with the greatest difficulty we succeeded, by shifting two cleats up a 
slippery mast, in getting a tackle each side for shrouds, and a hawser 
for a stay. At eight, p.m., observed the Blonde north-west one 
mile ; fired a rocket, and burnt three blue lights ; no answer re- 
turned. 

At about midnight we set the jib, peak of foresail, and Beagle's 
boat sail for a main- sail ; during the whole of this time it was blow- 
ing fresh from the north-west, wdth heavy rain and a cross sea, which 
caused the vessel to roll her gunwale under each time ; every one 
was quite exhausted, particularly those men who had been hanging 
on the mast, getting the tackles secured, the watch therefore was set 
until daylight. 

Tuesday, 30th. Employed getting the foremast better secured, by 
raising sheers vdth fore-yard and jib-boom, and placing a pair of 
shrouds on each side, about twenty feet from the deck, and an extra 
stay to set a stay-sail on, the whole kept up by a few spikes di-awn 
out of the beams. At ten, a.m. strong winds from the westward, with 
heavy rain ; saw the north-west extreme of Mocha, bearing south- 
south-east, three miles distant ; wore to the north-east, to give time 
to get more sail on the vessel, intending to weather the island, if 
possible ; if not, to run to leeward, and then stretch off to the south- 
ward and westward. Noon ; wore, strong vraids and squally, with a 
heavy head sea ; at two, set foresail, double-reefed ; observed the north- 
west extreme of Mocha, south by east, one mile and a quarter dis- 
tant. At three, p.m., when the north-west extreme bore north-east, 
the wind changed suddenly to south-west, bringing the rocks off the 



182 APPENDIX. 

south-west extreme of the island about four points on the lee-bow ; 
but the wind increasing and gi^'ing the vessel more way, enabled her 
to pass about three-quarters of a mile to windward of the outer 
breaker, on which the sea was breaking furiously ; the island itself 
was only visible at intervals, owing to the thickness of the weather, 
and constant, heavy rain. 

At five, the weather being a little clearer, saw the island, its 
centre bearing north-east, four miles distant ; stood to the southward 
during the night, fresh breezes from south-west throughout. 

Wednesday, July 1st. Daylight, employed rigging the fore-yard as 
a jury main-mast ; calm, with drizzling rain and a heavy swell ; by 
noon got the jury main-mast up, and set fore stay-sail for a main- 
sail, secured the boat's mast to the taflrail, and set the sail for a 
mizen. At five, a light air from the southward, stood to the west- 
ward during the night (no stars \'isible). 

Thursday, 2d. Strong winds from west-north-west ; stood to the 
south-west ; at thirty minutes past eight, observed a schooner west, 
standing to the northward ; hoisted the ensign union down in the 
fore-rigging ; but she passed within a mile to windward, and took 
no notice of us. Noon, weather the same ; wore to north-west ; thirty 
minutes past four, observ^ed the land east-north-ea^t, supposed 
Cocale Head ; wore, and stood to the south-west ; fresh breezes and 
squally, with rain at times ; no stars visible throughout the night. 
Midnight, wore to the northward. 

Friday, 3d. Moderate from the westward, with rain at times, 
employed setting up rigging and securing masts ; latitude observ^ed 
(within a few miles) 39° 23' S. 

Repaired the Beagle's boat, which had been badly stove by the 
fall of the masts, as well as our means would allow. Moderate from 
the westward, until two, a.m., when the wind shifted to the north- 
ward ; wore to the westward. 

Saturday, 4th. Moderate, ■wdth rain at times, wind north-west ; 
employed as most necessary, fitting grummets for sweeps, in case of 
a calm, and being drifted near the land. Latitude observed nearly 
38° 40'. S. P.M. Employed as before ; at eight o'clock, wore to the 
northward ; moderate throughout the night. 

Simday, 5th. Light winds from north-west, and fine clear weather ; 
employed repairing sails, chafes, &c. Latitude obsen'ed, 38° 35' S. 
At one, P.M., observed the island of Mocha, south extreme bearing 



APPENDIX. ' 188 

north-east about twenty miles ; at five, the south extreme bore north 
fifty- six east, and by the angle to the north extreme eighteen miles 
distant. Light airs from north-west and fine weather ; at nine, the 
wind shifted to south ; trimmed and steered north by west ; mid- 
night, strong winds and fine. 

Monday 6th. Strong breezes from south-south-east; at daylight, 
Tucapel Head north-north-east ; hauled up for it ; at ten, observed 
a vessel in shore ; but suddenly lost her, and could not again get 
sight of her.* Noon, Ccimero Head east (true), distant ten miles; 
found a strong current setting along shore to the southward, with at 
times a heavy ripple, until one, p.m., when it changed and set to the 
northward, and off'-shore withal ; at six, Dormido Rocks south-south- 
east, distant two miles ; steered north-east by north for the Paps of 
Bio Bio ; but found it necessary to haul up north-east, and latterly 
north-east half-east, owing to a strong current setting to the north- 
ward and westward ; at thirty minutes past nine. Paps of Bio Bio 
south-south-east, distant three miles ; and at two, a.m. (Tuesday, 
7th), the north point of Quiriquina bore south one cable distant; 
stood into the bay, hoping to fetch ' Tome,' there to anchor, untU the 
wind came more favourable for Talcahuano ; but the wind being 
scant, were obliged to wear (as the vessel would not stay), thereby 
losing more than she gained on each tack. At eleven, saw H.M.S. 
Blonde coming dovsm to us ; at one, we were taken in tow by the 
Blonde, and carried into Talcahuano Harbour, at the south-west cor- 
ner of the bay of Concepcion ; and at midnight we anchored. 

A. B. UsBORNE, July 7th, 1835. 



No. 28. 
Winds and Weather. 

On the southern coasts of Chile, winds from the southward, or 
from the northward, prevail more than those from the west ; and 
very much more than those few which come from the east. 

From south-south-east to south-west, and from north-west to 
north (magnetic) are the points whence the wind usually blows — 
with less or more strength, according to the time of year. 

During the summer months, or from September to March, southerly 

* The Blonde, shut in by a point of land — R. F. 



184 APPENDIX. 

winds are prevalent, almost always. They are frequently strong in 
the afternoon, and sometimes during a part of the night. Towards 
morning, and during the early part of the day, moderate winds, 
light breezes, or calms, are to be expected. 

Near the land, it is generally calm at night, excepting about once 
or twice in a month, when the wind blows strongly from the south- 
ward until about midnight. Occasional northerly winds are expe- 
rienced, it is true, duriag the summer ; but they are usually so mode- 
rate, during that season, that they pass almost unheeded. 

About the end of March, the ' northers,' as they are called, begin 
to remind one that fogs, heavy and frequent rains, thick gloomy 
weather, and strong winds, often trouble the southern coasts of 
ChUe. 

During a part of March, and throughout April, May, and June, 
foggy weather is frequent ; and although it is not often that a thick 
fog lasts longer than a few hours, a day, even two days, of continued 
thick fog, is not an unknown occiu-rence. 

With northerly and north-west winds the sky is overcast, the 
weather unsettled, damp, and disagreeable. These winds are always 
accompanied by clouds, and usually by thick rainy weather. From 
the north-west the wind in general shifts to the south-west, and 
thence to the southward. Sometimes it flies round in a violent 
squall, accompanied by rain, thunder, and lightning. At other times 
it draws gradually round. Directly the wind is southward of west, 
the clouds begin to disperse, and as a steady southerly wind ap- 
proaches, the sky becomes clear and the weather healthily pleasant. 

A turn of fresh southerly wind is usually followed by a moderate 
breeze from the south-east, with very fine weather. Light variable 
breezes foUow, clouds gradually overspread the sky, and another 
round turn is generally begun by light or moderate north-easterly 
breezes, with cloudy weather, and often rain. 

This is the general order of change. When the vrind shifts against 
this order, or backs round, bad weather with strong wind may be 
expected. 

Lightning is always a sign of bad weather. It accompanies or pre- 
cedes a change for the worse ; which, howesv^er, is usually a prelude to 
clearing up. Squalls are rare, excepting at the shift from north-west 
to south-west, already mentioned. From the westward (south-west 
by west to north-west by west) the wind does not usually, if ever. 



APPENDIX. 185 

blow nearly so strong as from north-west to north, or from south- 
west to south. 



Currents. 

Near the island of Mocha, and to the westward of Cape Rumena, 
the cun-ent usually runs to the north-west, from half-a-mile to one 
mile and a half, each hour. Distant in the ofRng, more than twenty 
or thirty miles from land, this set of current is so diminished that it 
is hardly sensible ; but near Mocha, and especially near the very 
dangerous out-lying rocks oiF the south and south-west extreme of 
that island, it is increased to two, and, at times, even three miles an 
hour. 

From the great river Bio Bio, and from other rivers in the vicinity, 
floods, escaping to seaward, often cause strong and irregular currents 
which set to the southward — passing the island of Santa Maria, 
sweeping round Point Lavapie, and Cape Rumena, and Tucapel 
Point — into the bay where his Majesty's ship Challenger was wTecked. 

These southerly currents are usually found to set strongly along- 
shore, but seldom reach an offing of six miles to the westn^ard of 
Cape Rumena. 

A very intelligent Hanoverian, Anthony Vogelborg, employed 
during several years upon these coasts, was once drifted in a small 
vessel, from six miles south of the Paps of Bio Bio, to the rocks 
oif the north end of the Island of Santa Maria, in one night, during 
a dead calm. 

After the great earthquake of the 20th of February, which affected 
all the coast about Concepcion, and especially the Island of Santa 
Maria, the currents set to the south-eastward so strongly, that a boat 
belonging to the above-mentioned Anthony Vogelborg (which he was 
steering) running near the Island of Mocha, under sail, with a fresh 
southerly breeze, could hardly make head against the strong stream 
that was passing along shore from the north-westward. It is, there- 
fore, to be apprehended, that the strength and direction of the cur- 
rents in the neighbouring ocean are unsettled and extremely uncer- 
tain for some time after a serious earthquake. 



186 APPENDIX. 

No. 29, 

Santiago, 12 de Agosto de 1835. 

Senor : 
He instruido al Presldente del contenido de la carta de V.S. de 
ayer, en que me incluye una copia de los resultados del viaje de ob- 
servacion del Capitan FitzRoy, de la fragata de S.M.B. Beagle, en 
cuanto a la parte de la costa de Chile comprendida en el. 

Su E. ha recibido esta prueba de la atencion del Capitan FitzRoy, 
con el mayor interes y reconocimiento, y me encarga rogar a V.S. se 
lo manifieste de su parte. 

Reitero a V.S. las espresiones de mi mayor consideracion y esti- 
macion ; y tengo la honra de ser su mas atento, 

Seguro serv'idor, 
(Firmado) Joaquin Tocornal. 
Senor Consul Jeneral, 
de S.M.B. 



I 



No. 30. 



By Robert Fitz-Roy, Captain of His Britannic Majesty's 
Surveying Sloop Beagle. 

You are hereby required and directed to take upon yourself the 
charge and command of the schooner Constitucion (tender to the 
Beagle), and all on board of, or belonging to her. 

As soon as you axe ready for sea, you will proceed to that part of 
the coast of Chile, near the Desert of Atacama, at which the survey 
of Lieut. B.J. Sulivan ended. 

From that part you vnU coast along and survey the shores north- 
ward towards Callao, and thence toward Puna, near Guayaquil. 

At Puna your survey is to terminate. 

You win thence return to Callao in the schooner Constitucion, or 
you will sell the said schooner, and, with your party, make your way 
to Callao, by the means which you consider best for his Majesty's 
service : combining economy with efficiency. 

If opportunity should offer, a measurement from Puna to the Gala- 
pagos woiild be very desirable. 



APPENDIX. 187 

On arriving at Callao, from Fund, you will wait upon his Majesty's 
Consul-general, and request him to assist in procuring a passage to 
England, for yourself and your party, at the least expense to the 
pubUc which will be consistent with the necessary accommodation 
which you will require, in order to prosecute your work during the 
homeward passage. 

When you arrive in England, you will repair -with your party to 
Plymouth, there report yourself to the Commander-in-chief, and 
request him to inform the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty. 

You will also request him to allow your party to be borne, for 
victuals only, on the books of one of his Majesty's ships, until the 
arrival of the Beagle, or the receipt of orders from the Admiralty. 

You will endeavour to leave Callao finally before the month of 
June, and arrive in England before the month of October 1836. 

You are furnished with the documents herein named : 
Copy of my instructions. 
Letter from the President of Chile. 
Circular letter from the Government of Peru. 
Copies of correspondence with his Majesty's Consul-general 

in Peru. 
Letter to the Bolivian authorities. 

And with instruments, stores, and provisions sufficient to last for 
eight months. 

Money for the purchase of fresh provisions is supplied to you ; and 
you wUl keep a minute account of all money which passes through 
your hands on account of Government. 

When no longer wanted for the survey, the schooner is to be sold, 
and the produce of her sale carried to your contingent account. 

Previous to sale, you will hold a smT^ey on the vessel, her boat, 
and all such stores as you cannot advantageously carry with you to 
England ; taking to your assistance in the survey the most competent 
persons whom you can obtain. 

Clear reports of survey, and accounts of sale will be requii-ed. 

You will not on any account take part in, or in any way interfere 
mth any disturbance or disagreement of any kind, which may arise 
or be pending in your neighbourhood, bearing always in mind that 
the exclusive object of your mission is of a scientific nature. 

You will not on any account, or for any reason whatever, allow a 
passenger, letters, effects of any kind, gold, silver, or jewels, to be 

t2 



188 APPENDIX. 

received or carried on board of the schooner Constitucion, or in her 
boat, excepting what actually belongs to your own party. 

Remembering how frequent and uncertain are political changes, 
you will be very guarded in your conduct. You will show your 
instructions ; explain distinctly that you are detached from the Beagle 
in her tender, for the puq^ose of continuing the survey of the coast 
of Peru ; and you wUl most carefully avoid every act which might 
unnecessarily offend. 

You wiU communicate frequently with his Britannic Majesty's 
Consul-general in Peru, whose influence and zealous support will be 
of the utmost consequence ; and you wall endeavour upon all occa- 
sions, to follow his advice as exactly as possible. 

Given imder my hand on board his Majesty's 
Sloop Beagle, in Callao Bay, this 24th day of 
Auo'ust 1835. 



o 



R.F. 



To Mr. Alex. B. Usborne, Master's Assistant, 
H.M.S. Beagle. 



No. 31. 



Ministerio de Relaciones Esteriores del Peru. 

Palacio del Gobierno, en Lima, 
Senor ; Setiembre 4 de 1835. 

El Infrascrito Ministro de Relaciones Esteriores tiene la honra de 
acompaiiar al Sefior Consul Jeneral de S. M. Britanica los documen- 
tos que ha credido necesarios para que la " Constitucion" practique 
sin inconveniente en la Costa del Peru el Viage y esploracion cien- 
tifica a que esta destinada. 

Dichos docmnentos son, unas Ordenes libradas por el Ministerio 
de la Guerra a las Autoridades de su Dependencia, afin de que no 
impiden el aceso a cualquier pun to de la Costa del Buque Espedi- 
cionario, ni el desembarco de las personas que conduce, y se faciliten 
en lo posible sus trabajos : 

Ordenes del mismo tenor de la prefectura de este departamento h. 
los funcionarios locales subaltemos suyos, y finalmente im amplio 
pasavante para todas las Autoridades Ciyiles y MiUtares del litoral 
de la Republica. 



APPENDIX. 189 

Tiene el Suscrito la complacencia de dar con estas medidas un Tes- 
timonio del Interes que Su Gobiemo toma en el ecsito de la ilustrada 
empresa del Gobierno Britanico ; y de Suscribirse. 

Su Muy Atento Servidor, 
(Firmado) M. Ferreyros. 

Senor Consul Jeneral de S.M. Britanica. 



Republica Peruana. 

Ministerio de Estado del Despacho de Relaciones Esteriores. 

Palacio del Gobierno en Lima a 22 de Julio de 1835, 16°. 
Senor ; 

Ha sido muy satisfactorio para el Infrascrito impartir A los Prefec- 
tos de este Departamento y del de la Libertad, la Orden que acom- 
paSa en Copia a esta comunicacion, relativa al permiso y ausilios que 
el Senor Consul Jeneral de S.M. Britanica solicita en su apreciable 
nota de 20 del que exije, se franqueen a los Oliciales del Bergantin 
"Beagle" para el desempenode laComision cientifica que se les ha 
confiado. 

Ya que las Ciencias practicas que mas conspiran k la prosperidad 
y adelantamiento del Genero humano deben al Gobierno Britanico una 
proteccion tan decidida, no seria conforme, con los principios ni con 
los intereses del Gobiemo Peruano negarse a dar las facdidades que 
puede franquear 4 los Marinos Comisionados para absolver la impor- 
tante Comision de rectificar al mapa y k contribuer del modo que le 
es dado A dilatar los limites de la Ciencia, y asegurar el ecsito del 
Comercio Universal. 

Se han hecho prevenciones semejantes al ministerio de Guerra y al 
de Hacienda para que las trasmita a sus subordinados, y espera el 
Infrascrito que el Seiior Consul Jeneral le indique si aun seran nece- 
sarias recever disposiciones que librarA gustoso para la consecuciou 
de tan util trascendencia. 

Acepte el Senor Consul Jeneral la distinguida consideracion con 
que es : — 

Su Atento Servidor 
f (Firmado) M, Ferreyros. 

Senor Consul Jeneral, de S.M, Britanica. 



190 APPENDIX. 

MInisterio de Estado de Despacho del Kelaciones Esterlores, 
Palacio del Gobierao a 22 de Julio de 1835. 16°. 

A los Senores Prefectos de los Departamentos de Lima y de la 

Libertad. 
Seiior ; 
Se halla surto en el Puerto del Callao y puede ser que recorra 
al literal de este Departamento el Bergantin de S.M. Britanica 
" Beagle" que ha venido al Pacifico espresamente con el designio de 
determinar con exactitud la posicion geografica de los Puntos prin- 
cipales de la Costa para corregir cualquier error que hubiese en los 
Mapas y perfeccionar por este medio la ciencia de la navegacion de 
que dependen en gran manera las seguridades y ventajas del Co- 
mercio. Deseando vivamente S.E. contribuir por su parte al bien exito 
de esta espedicion cientifica en que la humanidad y la civilizacion se 
interesan al mismo tiempo y dar al Gobiemo de S.M. Britanica una 
muestra de consideracion me ha ordenado prevenir a V.S., bajo de 
la mas estricta responsabilidad, que permita acercar y desembarcar 
sin el menor embarazo en cualquier punto de la Costa de su mando 
a los oficiales del " Beagle" para que puedan hacer con sus instrumen- 
tos todas las Observaciones Astronomicas y cientificas que quisieran 
practicar ; y que ademas se les proporcionen todas los auxilios y 
recursos que puedan necesitar, y pidieren V.S. quien deberas reco- 
mendarlos a sus subordinados con la eficacia y esmero que merecen 
por su caracter y por la grande importaneia de su comision. Digolo 
a V.S. de Orden Suprema a fin de que sin la menor demora espida 
la necesaria a su cabal cumplimiento. 

(Firmado) M. Ferreteos." 

A todas las Autoridades civiles y militares de la costa de Yquique y 
provincia de Tarapaca hasta Puna. 

Palacio del Gobiemo en Lima. 
Sabed : que la Goleta Constitucion construida en Maule y del 
porte de treinta y cinco toneladas, patache del Bergantin de S.M.B. 
" Beagle" conduce a su bordo Oficiales de la Marina Real Inglesa, 
encargados por S.M.B. de recorrer las costas del Pacifico € islas ad- 
yacentes, con el fin de rectificar los Mapas hidrograficos. El Gobiemo 
de la Repiiblica, i^o solo les ha permitido toda libertad en la practica 



APPENDIX. 191 

de sus observaciones, sino que quiere y manda bajo de la mas estricta 
responsabilidad a las autoridades litorales de cualesquiera clase y 
rango que sean, que no les pongan embarazo alguno para acercarse 
a todos los pantos de la costa sin ecepcion ; permanecer en ellos el 
tiempo que crean conveniente, y desembarcar y morar en tierra a 
cualquiera hora, y ademas, que les ministren todos los ausilios que 
pudieren. A este fin me ordena expedir este documento ligando a 
su obsers'ancia a los funcionarios a quienes se presentare, y recomen- 
dandoles muy encarecidamente que si en el distrito de su mando 
ecsisten algunos pianos geograficos de la costa, trabajados en el Peru, 
interesen a su nombre a los que los posean para que se sirvan mos- 
trarlos a los referidos Oficiales, a fin de que puedan llenar mds cum- 
plidamente el important! simo objeto de su comision. Dado de orden 
suprema en el Palacio del Gobierno en Lima a 1° de Setiembre de 
1835. 

(Firmado) M. Ferheyros. 



No. 33. 

(Duplicado.) 

El Ciudadano Mariano de Sierra, JenertJ de Brigada de los Ejercitos 
Nacionales, Benemerito a la Patria, Ministro de Estado, Secretario 
Jeneral de S.E. el Presidente de la Republica, &c. 

A las autoridades Civiles y Militares de las Costas de la Republica, 

Sabed; Que la Goleta " Constitucion " patache delBergantin de 
S.M. Britanica Beagle, construida en Maule del porte de veintecinco 
toneladas, conduce a su bordo Oficiales de la Marina Real de su 
Nacion con el objeto de recorrer las costas del Pacifico e Yslas adya- 
centes para la rectificacion de las cartas hidrograficas, que les ha sido 
encargadopor S.M. Britanica, yhabiendo el Supremo Gobierno de la 
Republica permitidoles la necesaria libertad en la practica de sus 
observaciones, quiere que leis Autoridades litorales no les pongan 
impedimento ni embarazo alguno en la aprocsimacion a los puertos, 
desembarque y permanencia en ellos por el tiempo que creyesen con- 
veniente los referidos Oficiales Ingleses, y que les proporcionen los 
ausilios que pidiesen en el orden debido. 

A este objeto es que S.E. me ordena espedir el presente documento. 



192 APPKNDIX. 

quedando legada su observancia bajo responsabilidad a losiuncionarios 

a quienes estas letras se presentasen. Dado en la Casa del Supremo 

Gabierno en Lima a 18 de Enero de 1836. 17o de la Independencia : 

15° de la Repiiblica. 

El Ministro Secretario Gral. 

Mariano de Sierra. 



No. 34. 

That multitude of islands, of which the native name is Paamuto, 
to us more commonly known as the Dangerous Archipelago of the 
Low Islands, may be said to lie strewed between the parallels of 
thirteen and twenty-five south, and the meridians of 120 and 150 
west : though stricter limits would be 13° and 22° S. ; 135 and 150 
west ; because some of those south of 22, and east of 135, are high 
islands, and but rarely have communication with the groups in a 
lower latitude. 

Easter Island, though without the boundaries specified, is but an 
outpost, as it were, of the Dangerous Archipelago ; and, no doubt, 
was first peopled from that extensive region of (generally speaking) 
low coral islands. The high, or rather hilly exceptions, such as 
Gambler, Osnaburgh, Pitcairn, Easter, &c. are few, in comparison 
with the seventy or eighty groups of islets which surround lagoons, 
besides many mere dry reefs. 

By far the larger number of the lagoon islands have at least one 
harbour in each cluster accessible to shipping ; and a considerable 
trade has been carried on with the natives for pearl oyster- shells. 

What the number of inhabitants may be, who are dispersed 
through the Archipelago, it is exceedingly difficult to estimate, for 
two reasons : we know very little of them ; and they are migratory. 
From the httle I have learned on the subject, I think they cannot 
be less than ten thousand, nor more than thirty thousand, exclusive 
of children. 

Fish, and shell-fish, hogs, and cocoa-nuts, are the principal sub- 
sistence of the Low islanders ; but the natives of Gambler, and a few 
other hUly islands, have plenty of vegetable food in addition. 

Those Paamuto islands which are not very remote from Otaheite, 
affect to receive laws from her sovereign : they have, however, no resi- 
dent authority among them, except the head of eaeh family. 



i 



» APPENDIX. 193 

The language of these islanders differs from that of the Ota- 
heitans so much that they do not easily understand each other : 
yet I believe that both are radically the same. Taata is man, at 
Otaheite ; in Paamuto, Tanaka ; which is almost the same as Ka- 
naka, the word for man in the Sandwich Islands ; and not very dif- 
ferent from Tangata in New Zealand. Some of the Low islanders 
say their ancestors came from the south-eastern islands ; others say 
from the Marquesas; again there are some who assert that their 
forefathers arrived from islands to the westward : so that no reli- 
ance can be placed upon the little yet known of their origin. There 
is, however, reason for supposing that the earlier inhabitants were 
not of one famUy, or tribe ; but that they were emigrants from more 
than one quarter. 

In most of the entrances to harbours in the lagoon islands, there 
is a strong current of tide, which sets in and out alternately, about 
six hours each way. The tide rises nearly two, or at most three, 
feet. It is high water at about one, on the days of fuU and new moon, 
among the western groups of islands, and from half an hour to an 
'hour later among those which lie towards the south-east. The cur- 
rents which do not appear to be caused by tide are irregular ; and, 
as yet, too little is knovra of their usual direction to enable any one 
to say more than that during settled weather, and a steady trade 
wind (south-easterly), the surface waters in general move westward 
from five to twenty miles a day ; and that in the rainy season, from 
October to March, when westerly vpinds, squalls, and rain are fre- 
quent, the currents vary most, and occasionally set eastward, at the 
rate of from half a mile to two miles an hour. 

Numerous instances are upon record of canoes being drifted out of 
their course — even several hundred miles — by currents and westerly 
winds : few narratives of voyages in the Pacific are without a notice 
of them : and they materially assist in explaining how remote, and 
perhaps very small, islands, may have been first peopled from the 
west : against the direction of the generally prevalent wind. 



No. 35. 

The British Resident at New Zealand, to His Britannic Ma- 
jesty's Subjects, who are Residing or Trading in New Zealand. 

The British Resident announces to his countrymen that he has 
received from a person who styles himself "Charles, Baron de 



194 APPENDIX. , 

Thierry, sovereign chief of New Zealand, and king of Nuhahiva," 
(one of the Marquesas Islands) a formal declaration of his intention to 
establish in his own person an independent sovereignty in this coun- 
try, which intention he states he has declared to their Majesties the 
Kings of Great Britain and France, and to the President of the 
United States ; and that he is now waiting at Otaheite the arrival 
of an armed ship from Panama, to enable him to proceed to the Bay 
of Islands with sti-ength to maintain his assumed sovereignty. 

His intention is founded upon an alleged invitation given to liim 
in England by Shunghi and other chiefs, none of whom as indivi- 
duals had any right to the sovereignty of the country, and, conse- 
quently, possessed no authority to convey a right of sovereignty to 
another. Also, upon an alleged purchase made for him in 1822, by 
Mr. Kendall, of three districts on the Hokianga River, from three 
chiefs who had only a partial property in these districts, parts of 
which are now settled by British subjects, by virtue of purchase from 
the rightful proprietors. 

The British Resident has also seen an elaborate exposition of the 
views of this person, which he has addressed to the missionaries of the 
Church Missionary Society, in which he makes the most ample pro- 
mises to all persons, whether whites or natives, who \\t11 accept his 
invitation to live under his government ; and in which he offers a 
stipulated salary to each individual missionary in order to induce 
them to act as his magistrates. It is also supposed, that he may 
have made similar communications to other persons or classes of 
his Majesty's subjects, who are hereby invited to make such com- 
munications, or any information on this subject they may possess, 
knovra to the British Resident, or to the additional British Resident 
at Hokianga. 

The British Resident has too much confidence in the loyalty and 
good sense of his countrymen, to think it necessary to caution them 
against turning a favourable ear to such insidious promises. He 
firmly believes that the paternal protection of the British govern- 
ment, which has never failed any of his Majesty's subjects however 
remote, wiU not be withheld from them, should it be necessary to 
prevent their lives, liberties, or property, from being subjected to the 
caprice of any adventurer, who may choose to make this country, in 
which British subjects have now by the most lawful means acquired 
so large a stake, the theatre of his ambitious projects : nor, in the 
British Resident's opinion, will his Majesty, after having acknow- 



APPENDIX. 195 

ledged the sovereignty of the chiefs of New Zealand in their col- 
lective capacity, by the recognition of their flag, permit his humble 
and confiding aUies to be deprived of their independence upon such 
pretensions. 

But, although the British Resident is of opinion that such an 
attempt as is now announced must ultimately fail, he, nevertheless, 
conceives, that if such a person were once allowed to obtain a foot- 
ing in the country, he might acquire such an influence over the 
simple-minded native as would produce effects which could not be 
too much deprecated or too anxiously provided against ; and he has 
therefore considered it his duty to request the British settlers of all 
classes, to use all the influence they possess vsdth the natives of 
every rank, in order to counteract the efforts of any emissaries which 
may have arrived or may arrive amongst them : and to inspire both 
chiefs and people with a spirit of the most determined resistance to 
the landing of a person on their shores, who comes with the avowed 
intention of usurping a sovereignty over them. 

The British Resident will take immediate steps for calUng toge- 
ther the native chiefs, in order to inform them of this proposed 
attempt upon their independence, and to advise them of what is due 
to themselves and to their country, and of the protection which 
British subjects are entitled to at their hands. And he has no doubt 
that such a manifestation will be exhibited of the characteristic 
spirit, courage, and independence of the New Zealanders as will stop 
at the outset such an attempt upon their hberties by demonstrating 
its utter hopelessness. 

James Busby, 
British Residency, at New Zealand, British Resident. 

Bay of Islands, 10th Oct. 1835. 



No. 36. 

Declaration of the Independence of New Zealand. 

1 . We the hereditary chiefs and heads of the tribes of the northern 
parts of New Zealand, being assembled at Waitangi in the Bay of 
Islands, on this 28th day of October 1835, declare the Indepen- 
dence of our country ; which is hereby constituted and declared to 
bean independent state, under the designation of "The United 
Tribes of New Zealand." 



190 APPENDIX. 

2. All sovereign power and authority within the territories of the 
United Tribes of New Zealand is hereby declared to reside entirely, 
and exclusively, in the hereditary chiefs and heads of tribes in their 
collective capacity : who also declare that they will not allow any 
legislative authority separate from themselves in their collective 
capacity to exist ; nor any functions of government to be exercised 
within the said territories, unless by persons appointed by them, 
and acting under the authority of laws regidarly enacted by them in 
congress assembled. 

3. The hereditary chiefs and heads of tribes agree to meet in 
congress at Waitangi, in the autumn of each year, for the purpose 
of framing laws for the dispensation of justice, the preservation of 
peace and good order, and the regulation of trade ; and they cordi- 
ally invite the southern tribes to lay aside their private animosities, 
and to consult the safety and welfare of our common country, by 
joining the confederation of the United Tribes. 

4. They also agree to send a copy of this declaration to his Ma- 
jesty the king of England, to thank him for his acknowledgment of 
their flag : and in return for the friendship and protection they have 
she^\^l, and are prepared to shew to such of his subjects as have 
settled in their country, or resorted to its shores for the purposes of 
trade, they entreat that he will continue to be the parent of their 
infant state, and that he will become its protector from all attempts 
upon its independence. 

Agreed to unanimously on this 2Sth day of October 1835, in the 
presence of his Britannic Majesty's Resident. 



Here follow the signatures, or marks, of thirty-five hereditary 
chiefs and heads of tribes, which form a fair representation of the 
tribes of New Zealand, from the North Cape to the latitude of the 
river Thames. 

English witnesses, 
(Signed) Henry Williams, Missionary C. M. S. 
Geo. Clabke, C. M. S, 
James C. Clendon, Merchant. 
Gilbert Maix, Merchant. 

I certify that the above is a correct copy of the declaration of the 
chiefs, according to the translation of missionaries who have resided 



APPENDIX. 197 

tCH years and upwards in the country, and it is transmitted to his 
most gracious Majesty the King of England, at the unanimous 
request of the chiefs. 

James Busby, 
British Resident at New Zealand. 



No. 37. 



Colonial Secretary's Office, Sydney, 
Sir: 29th June 1835. 

I am directed by the governor to inform you that he has received 
a despatch from the right honourable the Secretary of State for the 
Colonies, communicating the representation made by you of the 
advantages which would result to you personally, as well as to other 
Europeans who have settled in the district in which you reside, by 
your being invested with an appointment corresponding to that 
lately conferred upon Mr. James Busby : — the extreme distance of 
that gentleman from the quarter in which you and other European 
settlers reside, preventing him from rendering that assistance which 
he might otherwise be expected to afford : — and I am accordingly 
commanded by Sir Richard Bourke to acquaint you, that in pursu- 
ance of the authority thus conveyed, his Excellency has been pleased 
to nominate j^ou to be an "Additional British Resident" at New 
Zealand. 

The creation of the appointment held by Mr. Busby originated in 
the desire of checking the atrocities and irregularities committed 
at New Zealand by Europeans, and of giving encouragement and 
protection to the well-disposed settlers and traders from Great Bri- 
tain and this colony ; and as the general rules by which it is the 
wish of this government that the British resident should regulate his 
proceedings, should also guide you in cases in which you may feel 
yourself called upon to act — 

I am directed by his Excellency to transmit to you the enclosed 
extract of the instructions (13th April 1833) issued to Mr. Busby on 
his departure to assume the duties of his office. 

By an adherence to the principles laid down in these orders, and 
their discreet application to circumstances, it is hoped that you will 
not be disappointed in your expectation of being enabled to benefit 



198 APPENDIX. 

not only yourself, but others, and it will, his Excellency conceives, 
be unnecessary to do more than impress upon you the importance of 
obtaining the objects you seek by a moral influence over chiefs and 
natives. 

It should further be your particular study not only to act in con- 
cert with the British resident, but to maintain with him that good 
understanding which is necessary to give eflFect to your appointment, 
and to preserve the influence of both. 

The British resident wiU be requested to make known your 
appointment to masters of vessels, and others resorting to New Zea- 
land ; and, on your arrival at your destination, you will take such 
measures as your own experience, and that of any missionaries who 
may be on the spot, may suggest as the best for apprising the British 
settlers and the natives, of the nature of your office and objects. 

Upon this subject Mr. Busby, to whom I have the honour of 
transmitting you a letter of introduction, wUl no doubt be able to 
aflFord you valuable information. 

The Secretary of State has intimated that you have disclaimed 
all desire of emolument in soliciting the appointment now conferred 

upon you. 

I have the honour to be. 
Sir, 
Your most obedient servant, 
(Signed) Alexander M' Leay, 
To Thomas M' Donnell, Esq., Colonial Secretary. 

Additional British Resident 

at Hokianga, in New Zealand. 



No. 38. 



Extract from the Instructions of his Excellency, the Governor of 
New South Wales, to James Busby, Esq., British Resident at 
New Zealand, dated 13th April 1833. 

To check as much as possible the enormities complained of, and to 
give encouragement and protection to the weU- disposed settlers and 
traders from Great Britain and this colony, it has been thought pro- 
per to appoint a British subject to reside at New Zealand, in an 
accredited character, whose principal and most important duty it wUl 



APPENDIX. 199 

be to conciliate the good will of the native chiefs, and establish upon 
a i^ermanent basis that good understanding and confidence which it 
is important to the interests of Great Britain, and of the colony, to 
perpetuate. 

It may not be easy to lay down any certain rules by which this 
desirable object is to be accomphshed ; but it is expected, by the 
skilful use of those powers which educated man possesses over the 
wild or half-civilized savage, an influence may be gained, by which 
the authority and strength of the New Zealand chiefs wdl be arranged 
on the side of the resident for the maintenance of tranquillity 
throughout the islands. 

It will be fitting that you explain to the chiefs the object of your 
mission, and the anxious desire of his Majesty to suppress, by your 
means, the disorders of which they complain ; you will also announce 
your intention of remaining among them, and will claim the protec- 
tion and privilege which you will tell them are accorded in Europe 
and America to British subjects, holding, in foreign states, situations 
similar to yours. 

You will find it convenient to manage this conference by means of 
the missionaries, to whom you wUl be furnished with credentials, 
and with whom you are recommended to communicate freely upon 
the objects of your appointment, and the measures you should adopt 
in treating with the chiefs. 

The knowledge which the missionaries have obtained of the lan- 
guage, manners, and customs of the natives may thus become of ser- 
vice to you. Assuming, however, that your reception will be as 
favourable as has been anticipated, I will endeavour to explain to 
you the manner of proceeding, by which I am of opinion you may 
best succeed in efFectiag the object of your mission ; you will at the 
same time understand, that the information I have been able to obtain 
respecting New Zealand is too imperfect to allow of my presenting 
you with any thing more than a general outline for your guidance, 
leaving it for your discretion to take such further measures as shall 
seem needful, to arrest British subjects offending against British or 
colonial laws in New Zealand. 

By the 9th of George IV., chap. 83, sec. 4, the Supreme Court 
in New South Wales and Van Diemen's Land have power to enquire 
into, hear and determine all offences committed in New Zealand, by 



200 APPENDIX. 

the master and crew of any British ship or vessel, or by any British 
subject hving there ; and all persons convicted of such offences may. 
be punished as if the offence had been committed in England. The 
law having thus given the court the power to hear and determine 
offences, it follows, as a necessary incident, that it has the power of 
bringing before it any person against whom any indictment should be 
found, or information filed, for any offences within its jurisdiction. 

I would here observe, that I can propose no other means by which 
you can secure the offender, than the procuring his apprehension and 
deUvery on board some British ship, for conveyance to this country, 
by means of the native chiefs with whom you shall be in communi- 
cation. It is weU known, that amongst those Europeans who are lead- 
ing a wandering and irregular life at New Zealand, are to be found 
transported felons, and offenders, escaped from this colony and Van 
Diemen's Land. It is desirable that opportunities for the apprehen- 
sion and transmission of those convicts to either colony should be 
promptly embraced. 

The chiefs are, it is said, well acquainted with the descriptions of 
the different Europeans residing in their country, and wiU be found 
able and wilhng to point cut and secure, at a convenient time, those 
whom they know to be fugitives from the Austrahan colonies. You 
will be furnished from the office of the principal superintendant, with 
the names and descriptions of those convicts from New South Wales 
who are known or suspected to be concealed in the islands of New 
Zealand ; and you wiU use your discretion as to the fittest time for 
causing their apprehension, and removal of such as may be within your 
reach, or are guilty of any offence against the peace and tranquillity 
of the coimtry. You vidll, of course, take every precaution to avoid 
the apprehension of a free person in mistake for a convict, as an 
action for damages would probably follow the commission of such an 
eiTor. 

This government vsdll indeed be disposed to save you harmless in 
all such cases, where becoming circumspection has been used. 

When any of his Majesty's ships are off the coast, you will request 
the commander to receive the convict, or other person, arrested by 
your means, for conveyance to tliis place. 

I would further observe, that, by means of the information which 
you are likely to receive from the chiefs, you may become acquainted 



APPENDIX. ^01 

with the criminal projects of Europeans before their execution ; and 
by a timely interference you may be able altogether to prevent their 
mischievous designs, or render them abortive. 

In the character which you hold you will be justified in addressing 
any British subject, to warn him of the danger to which he may be 
exposed, by embarking or persevering in any undertakmg of a crimi- 
nal or doubtful nature. 

In the manner I have now described, and by proceedings of a simi- 
lar character, it may be possible to repress the enormities which have 
heretofore been peqjetrated by British subjects in New Zealand. 
It may also happen that this salutary control wiU not affect British 
subjects only, but that the knowledge of there being a functionary 
stationed in New Zealand, through whom offences committed by the 
subjects of any other State against the people of that country wiU be 
made known to the British Government, and through that Govern- 
ment to the other European and American powers, may induce the 
subjects of those powers to adopt a less licentious conduct towards 
the New Zealanders, and other inhabitants of the South Sea Islands. 

There is still another form in which the influence, it is hoped, the 
British Resident may obtain over the minds of the New Zealand 
chiefs, may be more beneficially exhibited. 

It is possible, by your official moderation, that the evils of intestine 
war between rival chiefs or hostile tribes may be avoided, and their 
differences peaceably and permanently composed. It is also pos- 
sible, that at your suggestion, and by the aid of your councils, 
some approach may be made by the natives towards a settled form of 
government ; and that by the establishment of some system of juris- 
prudence among them, their courts may be made to claim the cogni- 
zance of all crimes committed within their territory : and thus the 
offending subjects, of whatever state, may be brought to justice by a 
less circuitous and more efficient process than any which I have been 
able to point out. 

If, in addition to the benefits which the British missionaries are 
conferring on those islanders, by imparting the inestimable blessings 
of Christian knowledge and a pure system of morals, the Zealanders 
should obtain through the means of a British functionary, the insti- 
tutions of courts of justice, established upon a simple and compre- 
hensive basis, some sufficient compensation would seem to be rendered 
for the injuries heretofore inflicted by our delinquent countrymen, 

u 



902 APPENDIX. 

Having thus explained to you, generally, the course of proceeding 
by which I think your residence in New Zealand may be made condu- 
cive to the suppression of the enormities which British subjects, and 
those of other states, have been in the habit of committing in these 
islands, I have only further to observe, that it wiU be your duty to 
assist, by every means in your power, the commercial relations of 
Great Britain and her colonies with New Zealand. It would indeed 
be desirable that you should become the medium of all communica- 
tions between the New Zealand chiefs and the masters of British or 
colonial vessels frequenting the coasts, and the merchants and set- 
tlers estabUshed in the islands. This arrangement will probably grow 
out of your residence in the country, and you should keep it in view 
as an important object. You wiU be pleased to forward by every 
opportunity a shipping report, setting forth the names, masters, 
number of crew, tonnage, and countries, of vessels arriAing at the 
Bay of Islands, or other parts of New Zealand, whence you can 
obtain correct accounts ; with the cargoes of such vessels, their 
objects in touching at New Zealand, as far as you are informed ; and 
any other particular concerning them that may be worthy of notice. 

I beg to call your attention to the strange and barbarous traffic in 
human heads, which certainly did exist to some extent, but which, I 
am given to understand, is now nearly abandoned. Should it be 
foimd to continue or revive, some legislative act may be necessary to 
prohibit, in this colony, the crime and disgrace of participating in so 
brutalizing a commerce. 

Having already mentioned the assistance which I anticipate you 
win receive from the missionaries, I have now only to impress on you 
the dut}' of a cordial co-operation with them in the great objects of 
their sohcitude, namely, the extension of Christian knowledge 
throughout the islands, and the consequent improvement in the 
habits and morals of the people. 

RiCHAED BOUEKE. 



No. 39. 

The modes of surveying coasts, where there is anchorage, and 

water smooth enough to admit of boats being frequently employed, 

have been so often detailed, that, without repeating what is said 

i;Q every treatise on the subject, I will only try to describe in this 



APPENDIX. 203 

place the methods adopted by the officers of the Beagle, in the exa- 
mination of a wild sea-coast — such, for example, as that of the 
south-western part of Tierra del Fuego. 

On that coast the weather was so continually bad, there was so 
much swell, and the water near the steep precipitous shores always 
so deep, that anchorage (except in harbours) was impracticable : 
boats were seldom able to assist (while under way), and the bearing 
compass, though particularly good, and well placed, was of very little 
use : it was therefore never trusted in important bearings. Another 
impediment, and not a slight one, was the current ; which set irre- 
gularly from one knot to three knots an hour, along the shore. 

But there are seldom evils, unbalanced by remedies. The stormy 
and desolate shores of Tierra del Fuego are broken into numerous 
islands, about which anchorages are abundant, and they are excel- 
lent, when once a vessel is in them. To find, and enter, or leave 
them in most instances, was troublesome, and often dangerous. But, 
with the help of those havens, and the distinct marks afforded by a 
high rocky shore ; and by tlie sharp peaks of more distant heights, 
a correct survey was effected. 

Beginning at the western extreme, near Cape Pillar (because the 
prevaihng winds are westerly, and the current sets to the eastward), 
our first object was to find a safe harbour in which to secure the 
ship. There we made observations for latitude, time, and true bear- 
ing ; on the tides, and magnetism. We also made a plan of the 
harbour and its environs ; and triangulations, including all the 
visible heights, and more remarkalile features of the coast, so far as 
it could be clearly distinguished from the summits of the highest 
hills near the harbour. Upon these summits a good theodolite was 
used, which was set, invariably, to a well-defined mark, near the 
observatoiy ; from which mark the true bearings of the stations 
on the summits of the hills were ascertained by observations of the 
sun made with a theodolite. 

Many leagues of exposed, and difficult coast, were looked down 
upon, in this manner ; and, at the least, their exact bearings from 
one fixed spot ascertained. But if more than one height afforded a 
round of angles with the theodolite, and the position of each of 
those heights was accurately known by triangulation depending 
upon a base measured at the harbour, then the positions of various 
other hills or marks were ascertained ; and so much easier became 



204 APPENDIX. 

the sea- work afterwards executed in the ship. I need hardly allude 
to the facilities, afforded by heights, for making eye sketches of the 
coast line, and other details, such as the ranges of lulls, forms of 
banks, &c. Ascending heights near the sea is advantageous in ano- 
ther point of view ; for not a rock or a shallow escapes notice, if the 
day is tolerably clear. While in harbour, every place in the vicinity 
which could be examined in boats, or overland excursions, was ex- 
plored, as far as our means and time would allow. 

Before I speak of the sea-work, it may be useful to say a word 
about ' bases/ of four kinds, arranged according to their relative 
value. 

The first are those derived from good astronomical or chronome- 
trical observations, made at two stations several mUes apart. 

The second are deduced from angular measurements of small 
spaces exactly known. 

The third are obtamed by actual measurement with a chain, with 
rods, or with a line : — 

And the fourth are the rather uncertain bases obtained by sound. 

This statement of the relative value of bases, is only meant to refer 
to their employment in sea-surveying. I need hardly remind the 
reader of these notes, that the third description of bases, however 
exact nominally, requires a host of minute precautions, in addition 
to what I never found between Valdivia and Cape Horn, namely, a 
nearly level and accessible space, of considerable length, on which to 
measure. 

To attain the utmost precision is a laudable endeavour, no doubt, 
when carrying on extensive trigonometrical operations on land ; but 
it should be borne in mind, that every hour employed in what is 
commonly called ' hair-sphtting' — in minute details that do not affect 
the chart or plan which is the result of a sea-survey, is not only an 
hour lost, but an hour taken away from useful employment. 

The second kind of bases are so quickly and easily measured, either 
with a sextant or micrometer, across any kind of land or water, and 
have been so repeatedly proved in every part of the Beagle's surveys, 
that I consider them unobjectionable, when used for such limited 
•operations as making plans of harbours, or fixing the positions of 
objects only a few miles distant. By multiplying bases, which with 
such easy methods is soon effected ; and by a frequent use of the 
sextant, artificial horizon, and chronometer, material errors may be 



APPENDIX. 205 

kept out of the work of a practised surveyor. With a sextant, hori- 
zon, and chronometer (in a sheltered spot), a micrometer and board,* 
a theodolite, and intelligent assistants, much work may be done in a 
short time. 

When ready to proceed, the chronometer rates being ascertained, 
and the weather glasses affording reasonable hope of a day or two 
without a gale of wind, we started at day-light, and worked against 
time. Those officers who were engaged particularly with the survey, 
did not take part in the routine duties of the vessel. One attended 
to the bearing compass, and usually wrote the various angles and 
bearings, taken by others as well as himself, in a bearing-book. 
Another officer took angles. A third attended to the ship's course, the 
soundings, and the patent log. When many angles were required at 
one time, or when observations for time, latitude, or true bearing, 
were made while taking a round of angles, other officers assisted. 

If the bearing compass was steady enough it was used, even 
when true bearings were obtained ; or when, if cloudy, the triangu- 
lation was carried on by points fixed from the last harbour. As the 
compass was so placed as to be uninfluenced by local attraction, 
the bearings it gave, when steady, were satisfactory ; yet it was 
never trusted imphcitly ; nor at all in matters of consequence. Its 
use was as an auxiliary ; not as a principal. Bearings, or angles, of 
the highest points, or of marks so well defined as not to be mis- 
taken in consequence of a change of the place of an observer, were, 
of course, always selected, if such were visible : and vertical angles 
of all notable heights were not omitted. 

For the sake of perspicuity, we considered that positions, fixed 
points, or marks, were separated into three classes. In the first 
class, were obsen^atories or places at which the latitude, longitude, 
and true bearing, were accurately ascertained ; besides those high 
peaks, or other well-defined objects which could be seen at a dis- 
tance of some leagues, and whose exact places were known by a 
triangulation which connected them with an observatory ; and the 
highest points of islands, which were neither low, nor small enough 
for the eye to overlook them at the first glance. 

* A board some feet long, painted black on one side, white on the 
other; exactly measured, and suspended horizontally, at right angles to 
the observer. 



206 APPENDIX. 

In the second class we considered all the minor fixed points 
wliich were included in the triangulation, excepting the details of the 
coasts and ' boundary lines,'* which belonged to the tliird class. 

We supposed that the ship had sailed from the ' first' harbour. f At 
six, in the morning, (marked 6) the position of the vessel was fixed 
by two or more angles between marks, already fixed, upon the land. 
At 6'30, and at 7 similar means were used to fix the ship's place. 
Soundings were taken, and laid down by proportioning to the times 
of each sounding, the portions of distances run between the two 
stations, as shewn by patent log, by bearings of a mark, such as 
6 (in the figure) while sailing from 6 30 to 7 : by independent 
double angles, (two angles between three marks), orliy simple cross- 
bearings. 

Transit bearings were always sought for, by compass as well as by 
noting when marks were ' on ;' or, in a line, one with another, with- 
out reference to the compass. We endeavoured to ascertaiii (or fix) 
the ship's position at the same moment, by the most available of the 
numerous methods so readily occurring Mobile the log was going, the 
time noted carefully (as often as angles or bearings were taken), 
and several first class marks in sight. Transit bearings were useful 
in the details of the coast line, as may be seen by the lines dra^vn 
from 6-30, 7 and 8 ; and they corroborated the correctness of the 
triangulation, when applied to first and second class marks. 

By a judicious selection of objects, and a clever application of 
transit bearings, I have seen extensive and correct triangulations 
carried on from data, obtained at sea, which appeared uttei-ly in- 
adequate. | I do not imply that the absolute position of any one 
point was independently correct, because all depended at first upon 
observations at sea ; but tkat the points of the triangulation were all 
so correct, relatively, that, upon after examination, when the regular 
routine of harbour work had been combined with the data obtained 
afloat, and their truth ascertained by connection with the previous 
observatory, no alteration was found necessary. 

Perhaps I should explain, that in the plan of the ' first ' harbour 
all depended upon the base Ab ; by which also were fixed B and C. 
From the summits B and C ; — G, D, E, F, were fixed, as well as a 

* By ' boundary lines ' [ mean limiting outlines of shoals, or rocky 
place?. f See figure, t By Mr. Stokes. 



7^. 



Oji.s£HrATIOJ\rS 6'.V" SIIORi: AT A 



o/i o/i.si-uiiA'iiiny at^I 




ojiSMjuiirojn.rr /. 



nf 



ilibliahtdly/'Heray CcdbumU.Gjeat ilaTLboroxi^ 3+wat.]6S9 



APPENDIX. 207 

number of inferior marks ; by a ' round ' of angles taken with a 
theodolite, at each station (B and C), the instrument being in each 
case set to A. From A, the true bearings of B and C were ascertained 
astronomically. When the position of L was exactly determined by 
latitude, and distance from the meridian of A, the long and accu- 
rate base AL became known. With that, as a foundation, the work 
was laid down : and by that base, if necessary, the former positions 
of G, D, E, and F, were corrected. But so well did angular mea- 
sures answer, that it was scarcely ever requisite to make such cor- 
rections. 

It has been shewn that the log served only to place soundings, or 
help to fill up a space, while clouds obscured marks. I should add 
that it was serviceable in ascertaining the direction and strength of 
currents. Currents altering in strength, as well as in direction, 
prevented our applying the patent log to other uses, although we 
had every reason to put implicit confidence in its indications, and 
have often proved their value in the still waters of a deep sound, 
where no stream of tide^ or current, existed : as well as in harbours, 
where angular bases were measured for the special purpose. Views 
of the lands, both in plan and profile, were very frequently taken. 
When boats could be lowered, and a sufficient object demanded their 
employment (as at 11, of the first day, and at 10 of the second day) 
they did not hang idly at their davits. 

In the example I have given, circumstances conspired in our 
favour, a rare event in Tierra del Fuego, or on any similar coast, 
exposed to the prevailing westerly winds of high latitudes ; but when 
we failed to find anchorage, the triangulation was carried on by first 
class marks ; and by the ship's positions, when fixed by good observa- 
tions at sea. But however well such a method may answer in a fine 
climate— on that coast it was in general unsatisfactory, and very 
inferior to that of going from one harbour to another. 

Among many kinds of notation useful in svirveying, the annexed 
sketch shews a method used by Mr. Stokes, which I had not then 
seen adopted. It is very convenient, and assists the memory more 
than any other. In figure 2, A and B are stations, at which the 
angles specified were taken right and left of a mark, whose bearing 
was ascertained. Or, the angles only were taken, and the triangles 
afterwards calculated, or protracted, by reference to the base upon 
which they depended, such as AB. A sketch on this principle, how- 



208 



APPJiNDlX. 



ever slightly made, brings the place to mind in an instant, and 
avoids any necessity for names* or letters. 



No. 40. 
Nautical Remarks on the Northern Coast of Chile. 

Scarcely any extensive coast less requires particular description 
than that of Chile. With a tolerable chart, and the lead going, a 
stranger may saQ into, or out of, almost any Chilian port without hesi- 
tation. As there are, however, some anchorages and landing-places 
hitherto little known, except to coasters, it may be useful to give 
a few notices of them. 

Valparaiso, and the ports southward, have been described so often, 
that I will not occupy any of these crowded pages with remarks on 
such well-known places ; although in another publication, strictly 
nautical, they will appear. 

QuiNTERO, HoRcoN, and Papudo, have no hidden dangers. The two 
former lie to the southward and northward, respectively, of a strag- 
gling cluster of black rocks, above water : the first is now little fre- 
quented, being rather shallow, and out of the way : the second is a 
summer roadstead, with a good landing-place, and easy communica- 
tion thence to Puchancavi. Papudo is a small open bay, with a good 
landing-place. Northerly wdnds throw in a heavy swell. Its situation 
is pointed out by a high, peaked hill, called Gobernador, immediately 
over the port. 

Pichidanque, sometimes called Herradura, has a rock near the 
middle, on which, at low tide, there are but fifteen feet of water : it 
is in a line between the north end of the little island in front of the 
harbour, and a gully at the north-east side, through which a river runs 
from Quilimari, and four cables' lengths from the island. The tide 
rises five feet, and syzygial high water is at nine. The Silla, over 
Pichidanque, I have already mentioned Cp. 426). 

Conchali is an exposed roadstead, seldom used but by smugglers. 
The landing is everywhere bad, excepting in one httle cove at the 
north side of the bay. 

• Short characteristic names are preferable to letters, or numbers, 
because thej' help the memory so much. 



APPENDIX. 209 

Maytencillo is a little cove, fit only for a boat to land in at 
particular times. 

The next opening in this high rugged coast is that of the river 
LiMARi, which looks large from seaward, but is inaccessible. The 
coast near Limari is steep and rocky. Two miles from the en- 
trance of the river, there is a low, rocky point, with a small beach 
on which boats sometimes land ; but a heavy surf breaks on it. Near a 
mile from the coast the land rises suddenly to a range of hills, about 
one thousand feet high, which runs parallel to the coast, and extends 
two or three miles north and south of the river ; the summits of the 
hills to the northward are covered with wood. The north entrance 
point is low and rocky ; the south is a steep slope, with a remarkable 
white sandy patch on the side of it. The river at its mouth is about 
a quarter of a mile wide ; but the surf breaks heavily right across ; 
inside it turns a little to the north-east, and then runs to the east- 
ward through a deep gully in the range of hiUs before-mentioned. 
Moimt Tahnay is a remarkable hiU, 2,300 feet high ; it is three 
miles from the coast, and seven miles southward of the river ; it is 
thickly wooded on the top ; the sides are quite bare. Ten mUes 
southward of Mount Talinay lies a deep valley, with a remarkable 
sandhill on its north side, close to the coast ; at the mouth of the 
valley there is a small sandy beach. Within five miles of Maytencillo 
there is a point with several rocks, miming oiF it about a quarter of a 
mile ; from which to Maytencillo the coast is composed of blue rocky 
cliffs, about one hundred and fifty feet high ; the land above the 
cliffs rises to between three and four hundred feet ; and then about 
three miles in shore the range of hills runs from three to four thou- 
sand feet high. 

About fourteen miles northward of Limari is a small bay, with a 
sandy beach in the north corner ; but a heavy surf. From this bay 
northward the coast is rocky and much broken : about eight miles 
southward of Point Lengua de Vaca is a small rocky peninsula, with 
a high, sharp rock in the centre of it, southward of which Ues a 
smaU, deep cove, vdth a sandy beach at the head ; but the entrance 
is nearly blocked up by small islets, and rocks both above and below 
water. The entrance is too bad for the smallest vessel ; though in fine 
weather boats can land in the cove. The outer breaker is not more 
than two cables from the shore ; but when calm the swell sets 
directly on it. This cove is Tortoral de Lengua de Vaca. 



210 APPENDIX. 

Point Lengua de Vaca is a very low, rocky point, rising gradually 
in- shore to a round hummock, about a mile to the southward of the 
Point. There are rocks nearly awash about a cable's length from 
the Point, and at two cables' lengths distant there are but five feet. 
After rounding Point Lengua de Vaca, the coast runs to the south- 
east, and is rocky and steep for about two miles from the Point, 
where there are fifteen fathoms about half a mile from the shore. 
About three miles from the Point, a long, sandy beach commences, 
which extends the whole length of the large bay as far as the island 
or peninsula of Tongoy. The south part of the beach is called Play a 
de Tanque, the north and north-east side of the bay Playa de Tongoy. 
Off the south-west extreme of the beach there is anchorage about 
half a mile from the shore, in from five to seven fathoms ; the bot- 
tom is a soft, muddy sand in some places, but in others it is hard. 
With a southerly wind it is very smooth, and the landing is very 
good, but a heavy sea sets in with a northerly breez^. This is an 
anchorage that was once frequented by American whalers. The vil- 
lage, which is called the Rincon de Tanque, consists of about a dozen 
' ranchos.' The only water to be got is brackish ; about two miles and 
a half to the E.N.E.* where there is good water, the landing is gene- 
rally very bad, and the water is some distance from the beach. 

From Tanque to the peninsula of Tongoy there is anchorage in 
any part of the bay, at from one to two miles from the shore, in from 
seven to ten fathoms, sandy bottom. There is good anchorage with 
a northerly wind for small vessels, to the southward of the peninsula, 
abreast of the small village on the Point, with the outer Point bear- 
ing W.N.W. in four fathoms sandy bottom, with clay underneath it ; 
but no vessel, however small, should go into less than four fathoms, 
as the sea breaks a little inside that depth when blowing hard from 
the north^vard. Large vessels would also find a little shelter with 
the wind to the northward of north-west. With a strong southerly 
breeze a vessel would not be able to remain at anchor to the south- 
ward of the peninsula ; but there is a small b \j on the north side, 
which is completely sheltered from southerly winds. In the south- 
east corner of this bay there is a small creek, into which, when 
smooth, boats can go ; it runs about a mile inland, and near the head 
there is fresh water for which the whalers sometimes send their boats. 

* All bearings are magnetic, unless otherwise specified. 



APPENDIX. 211 

The village of Tongoy consists of half a dozen small houses, built 
on a high point at the south side of the peninsula. 

The coast on the west side of Huanaquero Hill is broken and 
rocky, affording no shelter for any thing but a boat ; to the north- 
ward there is a deep bay, well sheltered from southerly and westerly 
winds, but open to the northward : between this and Port Herradura 
there is no place fit for a vessel. 

Herradura and Coquimbo are well known. Teatinos is a bold 
rugged point, the land behind it rising in ridges, which gradu- 
ally become higher as they recede from the coast to Copper Hill, 
which is 6,400 feet high. The point which makes as the north 
extremity of the bay, in coming from the northward, is a low rocky 
point, called Poroto ; about four miles to the northward of Point 
Poroto, is the port of Arrayan, or Juan Soldado ; but it does not 
deserve the name : it is merely a small bight behind a rocky point, 
scarcely affordmg shelter for a boat from southerly winds, and en- 
tirely open to northerly. A little to the northward of Copper Hill is 
another hiU, on the same range and about the same height : the 
north side of the hill is steep, and at the foot of it is the small Bay 
of OsoRNO, which is about half a mile long, but not deep enough to 
afford any shelter for the smallest vessel. About half a mile to the 
northward of the bay there is a hamlet, consisting of a few small 
houses, called Yerba Buena. 

The Pajaros Islands are two low rocky islands, lying about 
twelve miles from the coast ; the northern is much smaller than the 
southern, and, as far as could be seen from the shore, there is no 
danger round or between them. A little to the northward of Yerba 
Buena there is a small island, called Trigo, separated from the shore 
by a channel about a cable's length broad ; but it is only fit for boats ; 
the island, oxcept when very close, appears to be only a projecting 
point ; there is a large white rock on the west point of it. 

About three miles to the northward of Trigo Island, is the Port 
of ToRTORALiLLO, which is formed by a small bay facing the north, 
with three small islands off the west point. In coming from the 
southward, the best entrance for small vessels is between the south- 
ernmost island and the point, where there is a channel about a cable's 
length wide, with from eight to twelve fathoms water. Tlie dry rock 
off the point on the main land, should not be approached nearer than 
half a cable, as a sunken rock lies nearly that distance from it. There 



212 APPENDIX. 

is no channel between the northern and middle islet, as it is blocked 
by breakers : a vessel may anchor about half a mile from any part of 
the beach in from six to eight fathoms, sandy bottom. The landing 
is not good, the best is on the rocks near the entrance ; but nothing 
could be embarked from there : the east end of the beach is the best 
for that purpose. From the land to the northward, running so far 
westward, it is not Hkely that a heavy sea would be caused by a 
northerly gale. 

Temblador is a small cove in the east side of TortoraliUo, but 
the landing there is worse than on the other beach, and it is not so 
well sheltered. 

About three miles to the northward of TortorahUo, there is the 
small island of Chungunga ; it is about a mile from the shore, and 
is a good mark for knowing the port : there is a rocky point a-breast 
of it ; a little in-shore of which there is a remarkable saddle hill, 
with a nipple in the middle, which, to a person coming from the 
southward, appears as the extreme of the high range, that runs 
thence to the eastward of TortoraliUo, and is from two to three 
thousand feet high. 

A little to the northward of Point Chtmgunga, there is a large 
white sand-patch, which is seen distinctly from the westward ; it is 
at the south end of the Chores beach, which runs for seven or eight 
miles to the north-west, to Point Chores ; a heavy surf always breaks 
Upon it. 

Off Point Chords there are three islands, the inner one is low 
and nearly joins the shore ; nothing but a boat can pass inside it. 
About a mile to the westward of this island, there is another small 
island ; between them the channel is clear of danger. To the south- 
west of this island about a mUe, is the largest of the Choros islands ; 
it is about a mUe long, the top is very much broken, and at the 
south-west end it very much resembles a castle : there is a small 
pyramid off the south end, and rocks break about a quarter of a mile 
from the shore. Tlie channel between the two outer islands is clear 
of danger ; but about half a mUe to the westward of the small island, 
there is a rock nearly awash. Five miles to the south-east of the 
southern Choros Island, there is a very dangerous reef of rocks 
only a little above the water. 

Point Carrisal is a low rocky point, about five miles to the north- 
ward of Point Choros, with a remarkable round hummock ; to the 



APPENDIX. 213 

southward of it is the small cove of Polillao, where there is shelter 
for small vessels, but the landing is bad : there are two small rocky 
islets off the south point of the cove. To the northward of Point 
Carrisal is the bay of the same name, but it is not fit for vessels ; at 
the bottom of the bay a heavy surf breaks about half a mile from the 
shore. The north side of the bay is formed by a rocky point, with 
outlying rocks and breakers about a quarter of a mile off all sides of 
it. There is a landing-place in the bay, near the south-east corner, 
where the rocky coast joins the beach, but in bad weather the surf 
breaks outside it. 

Nearly one mile to the northward of the north point of Carrisal 
Bay is the Port of Chaneral ; it is well sheltered from northerly 
and southerly winds, but the swell sets in heavily from the south- 
west, which makes the landing bad ; the best is in a small cove on 
the north side of the port, near the beach at the head of it : there is 
also a landing-place on the south side, but it is bad when there is 
any swell. On the beach at the head of the port there is always too 
much surf to land, except after very fine weather. About four miles 
and a half to the westward of it is the Island of Chaneral ; it is nearly 
level, except on the south side, near which there is a remarkable 
mound %vith a nipple in the centre of it. Tliere are rocks nearly half 
a mile from the south point of the island, and one about the same 
distance off the north-west point. On the north side there is a small 
cove, where boats can land with the wind from the southward ; 
there is anchorage close off it, but the water is deep. An Ameri- 
can sealing schooner was lost there a few years ago, from a norther 
coming on while she was at anchor. 

The land round Chaneral is low, with ridges of low hUls running 
from the points, the tops of which are very rugged and rocky, and 
the land is sandy and very barren ; the range of high hiUs is several 
miles from the shore at this part, but between the range and coast 
there are several smaller hiUs rising out of the low land. The vil- 
lage of Chaiieral is about three nailes from the port, and is said to 
consist of about twenty houses. There are no houses near the port. 
We were told by some of the people that came off, that the only 
vessel that had ever been here was a small schooner, called the Con- 
stitucion (our vessel), which had taken a cargo of copper to Huasco. 
There was a large quantity of copper, said to belong to Mr. Edwards, 
ready to be embarked. 



214 APPENDIX. 

To the northward of Chaneral Bay the coast is low, and projects 
to the N.W. for about ten miles. The extreme west point. Point 
Pajaros, has a small rocky islet off it, about two cables from the 
shore : the land in-shore rises gradually to a low ridge, about half 
a mile from the coast, the high range is about three miles in-shore. 
To the northward of Point Pajaros the coast runs to the East, forming 
a small bay, open to northerly, but well sheltered from southerly 
winds ; there is anchorage in from eight to twelve fathoms, about 
one-third of a mile from the shore, but the landing is bad. 

About four miles N.E. of Point Pajaros is another point, with a high 
rock off it, to the northward of which is the Bay of Sarco, in 
which there is also shelter from southerly winds. A deep gully runs 
inland from the S.E., corner of the bay, at the mouth of which is a 
sandy beach, with anchorage about one-third of a mile off, in from 
eight to twelve fathoms, but the landing is not good. There are 
two or three small huts close to it. To the northward of Sarco the 
high land runs close to the coast, the sides of the hills are covered 
with yeUow sand, the summits are rocky, and the whole coast has a 
miserably barren, appearance. To the northward of the deep gully 
about four miles, there is a projecting rocky point, at the foot of a 
high range of hills, with a very remarkable black sharp peak near 
its extreme, the coast to the northward of this runs nearly north 
and south, and is very rocky for about eight miles, when it turns to 
the westward, forming a deep bay, in the N.E. comer of which is a 
small beach called Tongoy. To the northward of the bay a high 
range runs out towards Point Alcalde, the extreme point of the bay, 
which is nearly seven miles to the southward of Huasco ; the point is 
very rocky with small detached rocks close to it : in-shore it rises a 
little, and there are several small rocky lumps, running out of the 
sand, one of which, from the southward, shows very distinctly : it 
is higher than the rest, and forms a sharp peak ; a little in-shore of 
which the land rises suddenly to the extreme of the high range. 
About seven miles to the northward of Point Alcalde, is the point 
forming the Port of Huasco, it is a low rugged point, with several 
islands off it, one of which only is of any size, it is separated from 
the main by a very narrow channel, and appears from sea-ward to be 
the point of the main ; it is covered with low rugged rocks, one of 
which on its north side is much higher than the rest, and shows 
distinctly coming from the southward, but from the northward it is 



APPENDIX. 215 

nii:sed with the other rocks behind it ; to the south-west of this 
island there are several other small rocky islets, which appear as 
two small islands when seen from a distance. A little in-shore of 
the extreme point there is a short range of low hUls, forming four 
rugged peaks, which show very distinctly from the southward and 
westward : the land falls again inside them for a short distance 
more, and then rises suddenly to a high range running east and 
west, which is directly to the southward of the anchorage. The 
top of the range forms three roimd summits, the easternmost of 
which is a little higher, and the middle a Httle lower than the other. 

Nearly three miles to the N.E. of the anchorage, there is another 
range of hills about 1 ,400 feet high : on the south slope of which 
there is a sharp peak, from which it slopes to the valley that the 
river runs through. The river is small, and a heavy surf breaks 
outside it, the water however is excellent ; there is another lagoon 
small river in the valley, neai-er the port, but the water is very 
brackish. The anchorage is very much exposed to northerly winds, 
and a heavy sea then rolls in, but a heavy norther does not occur 
more than once in two or three years. The village consists of about 
a dozen small houses, scattered among the rocks on the point 
dividing the old and new ports. Tlie country rovmd presents a 
more barren and miserable appearance than any part even of this 
desolate coast : the ground is composed of a mass of small stones 
mixed -with sand, out of which project masses of rugged, craggy 
rocks. A Httle in-shore the stony ground is changed for a loose 
yeUow sand, which covers the sides and bases of nearly all the hills 
round : the summits are stony without any appearance of vegeta- 
tion ; but in the low grounds a few stunted bushes grow among the 
stones, and after rain (a rare blessing) they look much fresher than 
might be expected in such soU, and then the vaUey through which 
the river runs also appears green, forming a striking contrast to 
the country around. 

Point Lobo, about ten miles to the northward of Huasco, is 
rugged, with several small hummocks on it ; to the southward of 
this there are several small sandy beaches with rocky points between 
them, but a tremendous surf breaks on them, allowing no shelter 
even for a boat. A httle in-shore of the point, there are two low 
hills, and within them the land rises suddenly to a range about 
1,000 feet high. In the bay to the northward of Point Lobo, there 



216 APPENDIX. 

are several small rocks, and about six miles from it there is a reef 
which runs perhaps half a mile off a low rocky point : the outer rock 
is high and detached from the others. 

About eleven miles to the northward of Point Lobo, is a very- 
rugged point, with several sharp peaks on it, about half a mile to 
the northward of which is the small port of Herradura, which can 
hardly be distinguished till quite close to it. Off the rugged point, 
and between it and the entrance to Herradura. there are outlying 
rocks and breakers, about a quarter of a mile from the shore : off 
the south entrance point there is a patch of low rocks, which in 
coming from the southward appear to extend right across the 
mouth of the port. The entrance faces the N.W., and is between 
this low patch of rocks, and a small islet to the N.E. of it : there is 
no danger witliin half a cable of either point. The port runs in 
about three-quarters of a mile to the eastward of the islet, and is 
sheltered from both northerly and southerly winds, but with a 
strong northerly breeze a swell rolls in round the islet. It is rather 
small for large vessels, and they would not be able to he at single 
anchor in the inner part of the cove, but there is quite room enough 
to moor across it. about a quarter of a mile above the islet, in four 
fathoms, fine sand. In this place an American ship, the Nile, of 
420 tons, was moored during a northerly gale, which blew very hea- 
vily ; and she was perfectly sheltered. The landing is better than in 
any place between it and Coquimbo : but there is a very serious 
inconvenience in the want of water. There is a small lagoon 
about a mile from this place, in the valley at the head of Car- 
risal Cove, but it is worse than brackish ; yet the ' peones,' who 
are at work shipping the ore, make use of it. A deep valley runs 
in from the head of the cove, separating the high ranges of hills, 
and is a good mark to know it by. The range to the southward of the 
valley is the highest near the coast, and is distinctly seen from both 
the northward and southward ; there is a small nipple in the highest 
part of it. Carrisal is a small cove about a mile to the N.E. of 
Herradura, well sheltered from southerly winds, but as it is so close 
to Herradura, which is so much superior, it is not likely to be of 
much use. 

To the northward of Carrisal the coast is bold and rugged, with 
outlying rocks a cable's length off most of the points. About nine 
miles to the northward of Herradura there is a high point with a 



APPENDIX. 217 

round hummock on It, and several rugged hummocks a little in- 
shore. To the northward of this there is a cove, sheltered from the 
southward, where small vessels may anchor, but it is not fit for 
large vessels ; there is another cove similar to it about a mile to the 
northward of it. A Httle to the northward of the second cove, there 
is a high rocky point, which is the termination of the high part of 
the coast ; to the northward of the point there is a small port, wliich 
from the chart appears to be Tortoralillo : it is well sheltered from 
southerly winds, and the landing is good. In the inside part of it a 
vessel, not drawing more than ten or twelve feet, might moor shel- 
tered from northerly winds, in three and four fathoms, but with a 
northerly wind there would be a heavy swell in : there is anchorage 
farther out imder the point, in from eight to ten fathoms ; but a ves- 
sel should not go nearer the shore than eight fathoms, as the bottom 
inside is rocky. 

During the summer months this would be a very good port for 
small merchant vessels ; but there is no appearance of water near. 
Abreast of it the high range of hills recedes from the coast, which 
is low, with some low rocky hills a little in-shore. 

About two miles to the northward of Matamores there is a low 
rocky point, a little to the northward of which there is a small deep 
bay, at the mouth of a valley, in which, apparently, there is an- 
chorage for a vessel ; but there was a hea^y surf on the beach, and 
as the landing was bad we did not w^ait to examine it. To the 
northward of this the low hills are not so rocky, but are covered 
with yellow sand, except near the summits, where they are stony. 

About six miles to the northward of this bay there is a remarkable 
rocky point, with a detached white rock off it, and a lump with a 
nipple on it, a little in-shore. About half a mile to the northward 
of this, is the small port of Pajonal, which, in coming from the 
southward, may be easily known by this nipple, and a small island, 
with a square topped lump in the centre of it, which is off the point 
to the northward of the port. A range of hUls, higher than any 
near, rises directly from the north side of the port ; and in the valley, 
about a mUe from it, there is a range of small and very rugged 
Mils rising out of the low land. 

The anchorage is better sheltered from southerly winds than any 
to the southward, except Herradura, and there would not be much 
swell, as the point and island to the northward project considerably 



218 APPENDIX. 

to the westward. The southerly swell rolls into the mouth of the 
port, but on the south shore it is smooth, and the landing pretty- 
good : there is a dangerous breaker about a quarter of a mile to the 
south-west of the south extreme point, which only shows when 
there is much swell. The best anchorage is about half way up the 
cove, near the south shore, in five fathoms : near the head it is very 
flat. We found a cargo of copper ore ready to be shipped here, but 
no vessel had ever been in the port : there is no water within two 
miles, and there it is very bad indeed. The name of Pajonal was 
told to us by a young man who was getting the ore down, but he 
appeared to know scarcely anything of the coast, and there were no 
inhabitants near the place. 

About a mUe and a half to the northward of the island before 
mentioned, there is another point, with an island and several rocks 
off it ; both the islands may be passed M^thin half a mile, but there 
is no passage mside them. To the northward of the northernmost 
island, the coast runs to the eastward, forming a large and deep bay, 
which at a distance looks very inviting; but before we were within 
a mile of the depth of it, we were in three fathoms, with rocks all 
round us, some above and others a little below water. From the 
bay being well sheltered from the southward, they do not show till 
close to, except two patches which are off the north point, and are 
always uncovered. A mile to the northward of these rocks there is' 
another bay, which is quite clear of danger ; and in the south corner 
of it, a small cove, there is good anchorage in seven fathoms, 
well sheltered from southerly winds, but very open to northerly. 
The water is perfectly smooth vidth a southerly wind, and no swell 
could ever reach it imless it blew from the northward. There is a 
small bay, half a mile to the northward of this, where a vessel may 
anchor, but it is not so well sheltered ; there were no signs of inha- 
bitants, nor the least appearances of water in the valleys. The land 
at the back of the bay is low, but to the northward of the north 
bay it rises to a ridge of sand hills, nmning east and west, and ter- 
minating in a steep rocky point, with a cluster of steep rocky islets 
off it. To the northward of this point the coast is rocky and 
broken, Avith rocks a short distance from the shore for about four 
miles, where there is a rugged point with a very high, sharp-topped 
hill a little in-shore, which from the southward shews a double 
peak ; directly to tlie northward of this point, there is a deep rocky 



APPENDIX. 219 

bay, with a small cove close to the point where we anchored in 
five fathoms, but half a cable off shore on either side : it is not 
fit for a vessel. The bay is partly sheltered from northerly winds, 
but a northerly swell rolls in, and it does not appear to be a proper 
place for a vessel to enter. 

From an old fisherman, who was living in a hut, we learned that 
the name of the place is Barranquilla de Copiapo, and to our 
surprise saw a cargo of copper prepared for shipping. He also told 
us that another cargo had been shipped from the same place about 
a year before ; though the cove is too small for any vessel to anchor 
in with safety, and outside it the water deepens very suddenly. 
Tliere is no anchorage in the cove at the head of the bay, and the 
landing there is very bad ; in the small cove the landing is good. 
There is no fresh water nearer than the river of Copiapo, which is 
about fifteen miles off. 

The deep bight to the southward of this, in which are the three 
bays before mentioned, is called Salado Bay ; the south point of it, 
with the island off it, is Point Cuernos. No vessel had ever been in 
either of these bays, but the middle one is much superior to Bar- 
ranquilla, and might be a much better place to embark the ores. 

From BarranquiUa to Point Dallas the coast is rocky and broken, 
without any place sufficient to shelter the smallest vessel. Point 
Dallas is a black rocky point, with a hummock on its extreme, 
which, coming from the southward, appears to be an island ; the land 
rises to a range of low sandy hiUs, with rocky summits. 

The Caxa Grande is a small sharp-topped rock, which is the only 
one of the reef that shows above water ; the patch near the point 
was a-wash when we passed. 

The channel between it and Point Dallas appears to be wider than 
it is given in former charts, but the reef off the point projects 
much farther. The sea was high, and there was occasionally a 
breaker above a quarter of a mUe from the point ; at about that 
distance from the breakers cm the reef, the least water we had was 
eleven fathoms ; when the swell is not high, the breaker off the 
point would not show ; it appeared to be detached from the reef 
which joins the point. 

Copiapo is a very bad port ; the swell roUs in heavily, and the 
landing is worse than in any port to the southward ; it may easily 
be known by the Morro, to the northward, which is a very 

X 2 



'220 



APPENDIX. 



remarkable hill, nearly level at the top, but near the east extreme 
of it there are two small hummocks ; the east fall is very steep, 
the end of another range of hills shews to the northward. To 
the S.W., apparently forming part of the same range, is another 
hill, the west side of which forms a steep bluff ; in coming from 
the southward, these hUls wiU be seen in clear weather, before 
the land about the port can be made out. From a fisherman, who 
knew the coast to the southward, we learned that the small port we 
passed the night in, to the northward of Port Herradura, is called 
Matamores ; the high point to the southward of it is Point Mata- 
mores. Tortoral, or Tortoral baxo, is the bay between it and Pajonal. 
He described it as having always a heavy surf in it, and the landing 
bad. The south point of the Bay of Salado, vdth the islet off it, 
is called Point losCachos. He was in the vessel that took the carso 
of copper from Barranquilla. She was a large brig of 300 tons, 
and was anchored off the mouth of the cove. The island to the 
north of Copiapo Bay, called Isla Grande, is very remarkable ; it 
has a small nipple on each extreme, that on the eastern is the 
highest : to the westward of the middle of the island, there is ano- 
ther small round nipple. 

The channel between Isla Grande and the main is clear of danger 
in the middle ; but such a heavy swell rolls through, that it is 
scarcely fit for any vessel. Off the north extreme of the island 
there is a reef under water, projecting two cables to the eastward ; 
at a cable's length distance from the reef we had eight fathoms ; the 
point on the main appeared to have no danger off it ; the rocks to 
the southward of it are inside the line of the points. The swell in 
the channel was by far the worst we had experienced on this coast : 
to the northward of the island there are several small rocks, one of 
which is high. There is no danger within a quarter of a mile of 
them. 

The point on the main, to the northward of the islcind, is very 
rocky ; on the S.W. point there are two rugged hummocks, and 
several rocks and islets close to the shore, but no danger outside 
them : from this to Point Morro, the shore is steep and cliffy, with 
remarkable patches of white rock in the cUffs to the south of the 
point, which is steep, with rugged lumps on its summit. The 
Morro rises suddenly, a Uttle in-shore. 

On rounding the point, you open a deep bay which runs in to the 



APPENDIX. 221 

S.E.; there are several small rocky patches in it, and at the north end 
of the long sandy beach there is a piece of rocky coast, the north ex- 
treme point of which has a small island off it. The entrance to Port 
Yngles is to the southward of this point, round a low rocky point, to the 
southward of which, close in-shore, there is a small island off a sandy 
cove ; there is a rock a- wash at high-water, about a cable's length to 
the N.W. of the south extreme point, but it always shows ; after 
passing this rock the point is steep-to, and may be approached w'ithin 
a cable's length. The harbour inside forms several coves, in the first of 
which, on the starboard hand going in, there is anchorage for small 
vessels, but the bottom is stony and bad. There is a low island to 
the S.E. of this cove, above which is the best anchorage, with 
southerly winds. About half-way between it and a projecting rocky 
point on the east shore, small vessels may go much closer into the 
cove, to the southward of the island, where the landing is very good. 
The bay in the N.E. corner is well sheltered from northerly winds, 
and no sea could ever get up in it ; but the landmg is not so good 
there, the best is at a rocky point at the south end of the northern- 
most beach, where there is a small cove among the rocks perfectly 
smooth : it is by far the best harbour, but there is no fresh water 
near. The cove at the head of the harbour is very shoal; no 
vessel should go higher up than abreast of the projecting rocky 
point on the east shore, where she would have four and five 
fathoms in mid-channel. The bottom is hard sand, and may be seen 
in twelve fathoms water, which makes it appear very shallow. In 
the entrance there are eighteen fathoms close to the shore on both 
sides. 

PoBT Caldera is close to the northward of Port Yngles, and is 
directly round the point with the small island ofF it ; it is a fine bay, 
well sheltered, but the entrance more open than Port Yngles, and 
the landing not so good. There was a cargo of copper ore ready to 
be shipped in the south comer of the bay ; but no vessel had then 
ever taken a cargo away. There were a few fishermen Hving in a hole 
in the cliflT during the fishing season : the only vessel they had ever 
seen in the port was a brigantine, with provisions for the mines. 
No vessel had ever been in Port Yngles. There is water near 
the beach, on the east side, but it is very salt ; it appears wonderful 
how they can make use of it. but they have no other nearer than 
Copiapo. The land is entirely covered with loose sand, except a few 



222 APPENDIX. 

rocks on the points ; the bottom of the bay is low, but the bulls rise 
a Uttle inland,. and the ranges become higher as they recede from the 
coast : the first hill to the eastward is a very remarkable sharp-topped 
hiU, the sides of which are covered with sand, with two low paps to 
the eastward of it. They have had strong northers here for two 
days, and sometimes a good deal of sea in the south corner of the 
bay ; but in the north-east corner, which they call CalderiUo, it is 
then smooth; they very seldom have heavy northers. There are' 
fish to be got in the bay, but only with a net : in all the ports we 
visited we caught none alongside. Near the outer points of the ports 
there are rock fish to be caught, but there is always a heavy swell 
in such places. 

Point Cabeza de Vaca is a remarkable point, about twelve miles 
to the northward of Caldera : it has two small hummocks near its 
extreme ; inside them the land is nearly level for some distance in- 
shore, where it rises to several low hills, which form the extremity of 
a range. The coast between Caldera and the point forms several 
small bays, with rocky points between them, off all of which there 
are rocks a short distance : there is no danger within a quarter of 
a mile from Point Cabeza de.Vaca. To the northward of the point 
there is a small rocky bay, called Tortoralillo, oiF the north entrance 
point of which there is a reef of rocks, with a high rock at the extreme 
of it, which extends above a quarter of a mile from the shore : about 
half a mile to the north-west of this there is a heavy breaker when 
there is much swell. 

To the northward of this the coast is steep and rocky for three or 
four miles, with a high range of bills running close to the shore ; then 
there is a small cove, called Obispito, with a white rock on the south 
point of it : to the northward of this the land is low and very rocky, 
with breakers about a quarter of a mile from the shore. About two 
miles from the cove there is a point, with a small white islet off it ; to 
the northward of which the coast trends to the eastward, and forms 
the small cove of Obispo, in which we anchored, but it is not fit for any 
vessel. There was a fire on shore in the night, but we saw no ore, and 
ias the landing was bad we did notattempt it. There is a very high sand 
hill, with the summit stony, a little in-shore of the cove, and to the 
northward of it a higher range of stony hiUs running close to the 

* For more inronnation respecting- the vicinity of Copiapo, see pages 
22D and 230. 



APPENDIX. 223 

coast for about seven miles, where it terminates in low rugged hills 
a little in-shore of a brown rugged point, with a large white patch 
on its extreme, which is an islet, but does not show as one from the 
sea. To the northward of this point there is a fine bay, in which 
we anchored, and, from a fisherman who came otF, learned that it is 
Flamenco : it is a very good port, well sheltered from southerly 
winds, and better from northerly, as the point projects far enough 
to prevent a heavy sea getting up. The lauding is good in the S.E. 
corner of the bay, either on the rocks, or on a beach in a small cove 
in the middle of a patch of rocks, a little more to the northward, 
where there are a few huts, in which two brothers, with their fami- 
lies, were living ; their chief employment was catching and salting 
fish, called cougre, and drying them to supply Copiapo. In one 
day they had caught foiu: hundred. They appeared to live in a 
miserable way, in huts made of seal and guanaco skins, much worse 
than a Patagonian "toldo"; the only water they had to drink was 
half salt, and some distance from the shore. They sometimes get 
guanacoes, that they run down with dogs, of which they have a 
great number. ^ 

The only vessel they had ever seen here, was a ship which 
anchored one night, on her way to Las Animas for copper ore, six 
years ago ; they described Las Animas as a very bad place, not fit for 
any vessel, and in consequence no cargo had ever been shipped again, 
but taken to Chaneral, which was better, but not so good as Fla- 
menco. There are no mines so near Flamenco as to Chaneral. 

Flamenco may be known by the white patch on the brown 
rugged point, to the southward of which, in-shore, there are low 
jugged bills, rising to a high range. On the north side of the bay 
the land is very low: the north point is a low rocky point, with a 
detached hUl rising out of the low land a little in-shore. To the 
northward there is another lull very much Uke it ; in the depth of 
the bay the land is very low, and a deep valley runs back between 
two ranges of rugged hills. The hiUs are all covered wdth yellow 
sand near their bases, and to about half way up their sides, the tops 
•axe stony, with a few stunted bushes. 

In the bay, to the northward of Flamenco, in which Las Animas 
was said to be, we could see no place fit even for a boat to land; the 
whole bay is rocky, with a few little patches of sand, and a heavy 
surf was breaking on the shore. The north point of this bay is 



224 APPENDIX. 

low, but a little In-shore there is a high range of hills, the outside 
of which is very steep : to the northward of this point there is a 
small rocky bay, which appears to answer better to the description 
of Las Animas than the other ; it did not appear a fit place for ves- 
sels, and the landing was bad. The north point of this bay is a 
steep rocky point, with a round brown hill rising directly from the 
water's edge ; the sides of the hiUs are crossed by dark veins, run- 
ning in different directions, which are very remarkable. To the 
northward of this point there is a deep bay, which, from the descrip- 
tion, must be Chaneral : the south side of it is rocky with small 
coves, but the landing appeared to be bad ; the east and north 
sliores of it were low and sandy, and a heavy surf was breaking on 
the beach. We could see no signs of any people, or piles of ore, 
along the coast ; and as it did not appear a good place for vessels, 
and our time was short, it was not thought worth a more particular 
examination. Tlie north point of the bay is low and rocky, with a 
high range a little in-shore. To the northward of this point the 
hills and coast are both composed of brown and red rocks, with a 
few bushes on the summits of some cf the hills : the sandy appear- 
ance the hills have to the southward ceases, and the prospect is, if 
possible, more barren. 

Nearly nine miles to the northward of the point of this bay is 
Sugar Loaf Island, which is about half a mile from the shore ; in 
coming from the southward, there is a high sugar loaf hill on the 
main, a little to the southward of the island, for which it may be 
mistaken, but the island is not so high and the summit is sharper. 
Between Sugar Loaf Island and Chaneral, the coast is rocky and 
affords no shelter : there is a small bay to the southward of the 
passage, between the island and the main, which would afford shelter 
from northerly winds, but with southerly it is exposed, and the 
landing is very bad. In the middle of the passage there are five 
fathoms in the shallowest part : the water in the northern end of it 
is smooth, and a vessel might anchor off the point of the island, 
sheltered from southerly winds, in six or seven fathoms ; but after 
eight fathoms it deepens suddenly to thirteen and twenty fathoms, 
about half a mile from the island. There is a small bay on the 
main, to the northward of the channel, where a vessel would be 
sheltered from southerly winds, but we did not examine it. 

About twenty miles to the northward of the Sugar Loaf Itland 



APPENDIX. 225 

there is a projecting point, with some small rocky islets off it, which 
we supposed to be Point BaUena, from the description given at Port 
Caldera. Between the point and the Sugar Loaf Island, the coast 
runs hack a Uttle, and is rocky, with a high range of hills running 
close to the shore. A Httle to the northward of Point Ballena there 
is a small bay, with a rocky islet about half a mile off the south 
point of it ; the top of the islet is white, and answers the descrip- 
tion given to us of a port called Ballenita : but it is not worth 
the name of a port; it is very rocky, with two or three small patches 
of sandy beaches, in which a heavy surf was breaking ; the hills 
run close to the water, and have a very rugged appearance. A 
little to the northward of this there is another bay, which seemed to 
be Lavata : the south point has several low rugged points upon it, 
and in-shore the hills rise very steep. There is a small cove with 
excellent landing, directly behind this point, on which we anchored ; 
there was a better-looking port inside, but it was so far from the 
outer coast, that our time would not allow more than a hasty glance. 

The inner cove of the bay in which we anchored appeared to 
afford good shelter from southerly winds, and the water was very 
smooth. A little to the northward of this bay there is a point, 
which, till close, appears to be an island: but it is joined to the 
shore by a low shingle spit : the summit of it is rugged, with several 
steep peaks on it : several rocky islets lie scattered off the point. 

Near three miles and a half to the northward of this, there is ano- 
ther point, very rugged, and with a high round hummock a little 
in-shore : to the southward of this point there is a deep bay, in which 
we expected to find Paposo, as we were some distance to the north- 
ward of its position in the old charts, but there were no appearances 
of any houses or inhabitants : the bay is very rocky, and does not 
afford good anchorage ; several rocks lie off the south point, and a 
little inside it there is a reef running half-a-mile from the shore: in 
the bottom of the bay there are several small white islets ; and two 
or three small sandy coves, which are not large enough to afford 
shelter for a vessel. This bay is called Isla Blanca. 

About three miles from the north point of the bay, there is a 
white islet, with some rugged hummocks upon it : a little in-shore 
there is a hill of a much lighter colour than any round it ; to the north- 
ward of this there is a deep bay, in which we were certain of finding 
Paposo, and, as wc were becalmed, I went in a boat to search for it ; 



226 APPENDIX, 

on landing at the point we saw a smoke on the east side of the bay, 
and, on pulling over there, found two fishermen, who told us that 
the place was Hueso Parado, and that Paposo was round another 
point about eight miles to the northward. On inquiring for water, 
they brought us some, which was better than what was used in some 
other places to the southward, but it was still scarcely fit for use ; 
they said it was similar at Paposo, and they thought it very good. 
In the south comer of the bay there appeared to be fit anchorage for 
vessels, and the landing good, but very open to northerly winds. 
No vessel had ever been there in the recollection of the men that we 
spoke to, neither had they heard of any ; they described Paposo as 
having only four ' ranchos ' and a few fishermen : the port not good. 
The bay that Paposo is in they called Nuestra Senora, the north 
point of the bay Point Rincon, and the south. Point Grande ; the 
projecting point, answering to the Point Nuestra Senora of the 
Spanish charts, they called Point Plata. The bay to the north- 
ward of Point Ballena, is BaUenita ; the bay in which we anchored 
to the northward of it is called Lavata ; the point, with the penin- 
sula, is Isla de las Tortolas : the point to the northward of it Point 
San Pedro ; the bay which we were in afterwards is Isla Blanca, 
and the point of Hueso Parado Bay, Point Taltal. 

The only place at which we observed the time of syzygial high-water, 
quite satisfactorily, was Huasco,* where it is 8.30, and the rise four 
feet at neap tides ; at springs, it rises about two feet more. From 
the swell on all this coast, it is very diflicult to get the time of high- 
water at aU near the truth ; the rise and fall appeared to be five 
or six feet on aU parts of the coast. The only perceptible ciurent 
we experienced was in the channel between Sugar Loaf Island and 
-the main, where there was a very slight one to the northward, not 
more than a quarter of a mile an hour; and this was after a fresh 
breeze from the southward for several days. It is said, however, by 
•coasters, that there is usually a set, towards the north, of about 
half a mUe an hour. 

• And here the tide was very carefully observed in a cove, where 
there was no swell ; yet from the small rise, the exact time could not be 
taken within a few minutes. The water remained at the same level 
about half an hour. 



I 



APPENDIX. -227 



Winds on the Coast of Chile. 

Very few words will suffice to give strangers to the coast of 
Chile a clear idea of the winds and weather they may expect to 
find there, for it is one of the least uncertain climates on the face 
of the globe. 

From the parallel of 35° S., or thereabouts, to near 25° S., the 
wind is southerly, or south-easterly, during nine months out of 
twelve ; in part of the other three there are calms, or hght 
variable breezes, and the remainder is really bad weather ; northerly 
gales and heavy rain prevailing, not only on the coast, but far 
across the ocean in parallel latitudes. 

From September to May is the fine season, during which the skies 
of Chile are generally clear, and, comparatively speaking, but httle 
rain falls. I do not, however, mean that there are not occasional 
exceptions to the general case : strong northers have been known 
(though rarely) in summer ; and two or three days of hea^y rain, 
with but Httle intermission, now and then disturb the equanimity 
of those who have made arrangements with imphcit confidence in 
the serenity of a summer sky. Tliese im welcome interruptions are 
rarer, and of less consequence, northward of 31° than they are to 
the south of that parallel : so nearly uniform, indeed, is the climate 
of Coquimbo, that the city is called ' La Serena.' 

In settled weather a fresh southerly wind springs up a little before 
noon (an hour sooner or later), and blows till about sunset, occa- 
sionally till midnight. This wind is sometimes quite furious in the 
height of summer ; so strong, indeed, that ships may be prevented 
from working into anchorages, especially Valparaiso Bay, although 
they may take every previous precaution, by sending down top- 
gallant yards, striking top-gallant masts, and close-reefing their 
sails. But the usual strength of the southerly sea-breeze (as it is 
called, though it blows along the land from the south) is such as a 
good ship would carry double-reefed top-sails to, while working to 
vnndward. 

This is also nearly the average strength of a southerly wind in 
the open sea, between the parallels above-mentioned, and there it is 
neither so strong by day, nor does it die away at night. Within 
sight of the land a ship finds the wind freshen and diminish, 



228 APPENDIX. 

nearly as much as in the ports of this coast, where the nights are 
generally calm, till a land breeze from the eastward springs up. 
This light message from the Cordillera is never troublesome, neither 
does it last manyhours. "With these winds the sky is almost always 
clear ; indeed, when the sky becomes cloudy it is a sure sign of little 
or no sea breeze in summer, and probably a fall of rain : in the 
winter it foretels an approaching northerly wind, with rain. 

In summer, ships anchor close to the land, to avoid being driven 
out to sea by strong southerly winds ; but as the winter approaches 
a more roomy berth is advisable, though not too far out, because 
near the shore there is always an undertow, and the wind is less 
powerful. Seamen should bear in mind that the course of the 
winds on this coast, as in all the southern hemisphere, is from 
north to south, by the west : that the hardest northerly blow, with 
most sea, comes from the westward of north, and that, therefore, 
they should get as much as possible under the shelter of rocks or 
land to the westward of them, rather than of those which only 
defend from north winds, ' Northers,' as they are called, give good 
warning : an overcast sky ; little or no wind unless easterly ; a swell 
from the northward; water higher than usual; distant land remar- 
kably visible, besides being raised by refraction ; and a falling baro- 
meter ; are their sure indications : but all northers are not gales : 
some years pass without one that can be so termed ; though few years 
pass in succession without ships being driven ashore on Valparaiso 
beach. Thunder and lightning are rare : wind of any disagreeable 
strength from the east is unknown. West winds are only felt while 
a ' norther ' is shifting round, previous to the sky clearing and the 
wind moderating. The violence of southerly winds lasts but a few 
hours : that of a northerly gale seldom continues beyond a day and 
a night, generally, indeed, not so long. 

Some persons say that the strength of northerly winds is not felt 
to the northward of Coquimbo, but I have evidence of gales, with 
heavy seas, at Copiapo : and Captain Eden informed me that he had 
a very heavy gale of wind in H. M.S. ' Conway,' in latitude 25° S., 
and longitude 90° W., where such an interruption to the usual 
southerly winds was little expected. 

How to make passages is easy to tell, for there are but two ways. 
When going northward, steer direct to the place, or as nearly so as 
is consistent with making use of the steady winds which j)revail in 



APPENDIX. 229 

the offing : and if bound to the south, steer also du-ect to the place, 
if fortunate enough to have a wind which admits of your doing so ; 
but if not, stand out to sea, by the wind, keeping every sail clean full : 
tiie object being to get through the adverse southerly winds as soon 
as possible, and reach a latitude from which the ship will be sure of 
reaching her port, on a direct course. Every experienced seaman 
knows that no method is more adverse to making quick passages 
than that of ' hugging the wind,' as it is called. When Sir Thomas 
Hardy was on this coast, he used to cross the southerly winds with 
a topmast studding-sail set, as many men cross the trades, his object 
being to get into other winds. The current on the coast of Chile is 
northerly, about half a mile an hour ; varying a little with the wind. 



The idea some persons have of Copiapo being a difficult place to 
make is rather unfounded ; the following is the manner in which we 
made it in the Beagle, when strangers to that part of the coast. 

July 3. A dull gloomy day, wind moderate from the southward ; 
at 10 A.M. we were thirty miles south of Copiapo, by the dead rec- 
koning from noon yesterday ; but being aware of the northerly set, 
which near the shore is half a mile an hour, we steered an E.N.E. 
course in for the land ; at noon it was in sight, forming two long 
rounded-topped hills : the northern one was the highest, it ended in 
a bluff, with a low point sloping off it ; this we rightly supposed 
was the Morro of Copiapo, it bore N.E. ; and the other which was 
a-head the high land of Tortoral ; this had a gradual slope to sea- 
ward. A roimd and rather peaked black rock, about ten feet high, a 
little open, of a low level (eighty-five feet high) of a light brown 
colour, with some remarkable white patches on it, was seen at three ; 
and a little before it, about a point south of the Morro, was a low, 
black, rocky island. The latter was Isla Grande, and the former the 
Caxa Grande rock, with the west point of the anchorage cove, on 
which there is a flag- staff : as we neared the land the wind gradually 
left us ; and, as the day closed, we were four miles from the Caxa 
Grande. The clouds that covered the high land in-shore of Copiapo, 
lifted off a little in the evening, showing us two remarkable hills, one 
with a notched top, and the other like a sugarloaf, with rather a flat 
top ; this was in a direction a little south of the Caxa Grande, and 



230 APPENDIX, 

the other nearly over Isla Grande. (Head to the westward during 
the night with light variable airs.) 

July 4. A perfect calm aU day, and no observation : we were 
drifted abreast of the bluff under the Morro by the afternoon ; it has 
some very curious white patches, which are seen at some distance ; 
indeed the whole of the land is very remarkable. Plyed to the south- 
ward during the night, wind light. 

July 5. Wind light from the N.N.E., and gloomy weather; at 10 
A.M., passed one mile to the N.E. of the reef; north of the Caxa 
Grande rock we had eighteen fathoms, between it and the Isla 
Grande, -with, fifty-seven outside, and sixteen in. As we stood in we 
could not, from the mast-head, see any thing of the breakers said to 
be off the Caxa Grande rock : as the breakers ran high on the other 
reefs ; had there been any thing of the sort there, we should most 
likely have seen it : all the information we have been able to get on the 
.subject denies their existence. Detached, but close to the N.E. part 
of the anchorage point, are two black rocks, ten feet high ; they 
show well from the northward. About twenty-five miles to the N.E. 
of the Morro, are two singular peaks : they are higher than any of 
the other land ; the summit of the northern one is very pointed, and 
the southern is rather saddle-topped ; these, it would seem, mu6t be 
very remarkable from seaward. We anchored in seven fathoms, Caxa 
Grande rock bearing S. 67° W., distant three cables from the two 
rocks before-mentioned. 



As Iquique is situated on a part of the coast where calms are fre- 
quent, and exposed to a constant swell from the westward, there may 
perhaps exist some difficulty in finding it ; indeed, from this very cir- 
cumstance, persons do not go sufficiently near the shore, although 
the position of the spot is nearly correct in the common charts. 

The centre of the island Hes in lat. 20° 12' 30" S. and long. 
70° 15' W. The sUght indentation the bay makes in this high precipi- 
tous coast is not perceptible from an offing of nine or ten miles, neither 
is the collection of sand behind and south of the bay likely to catch 
the eye of a stranger : should there happen to be a vessel there, her 
dark masts against the white sand make an excellent mark ; without 
which, there is nothing to guide a stranger until he gets within sight 
of the church steeple, or some white patches in the cliffs under Ta- 



APPENDIX. ggi 

rapaca Mountain ; the latter will probably be seen first ; they are nine 
mUes to the southward of the anchorage. 

The houses in thevillage, when first seen, have just the appearance 
of so many black rocks on a sandy beach. The anchorage is very 
tolerable, as it is sheltered from the S.W. swell by the islaind; which 
is surrounded by numerous small detached rocks, particularly on the 
N.E. and W. sides; therefore it should not be approached nearer 
than half a mUe. 

This island was once much higher ; the many cargoes of birds' 
dung* it has afforded have reduced it to its present low state. The 
landing is bad at the best time, as you have to thread your way 
among patches of sunken rocks ; on which the sea breaks with great 
violence at the fvdl and change of the moon : several boats have been 
knocked to pieces, and lives lost. In the summer it is a calm nearly 
all night, sometimes there is a light air from the land. The sea breeze 
sets in from the southward or south-west about ten or eleven in 
the forenoon ; it seldom blows fresh, but lasts imtil eight or ten at 
night. In the winter, calms, hazy weather, and light northerly winds 
are common. 

The only trade now to Iquique is for saltpetre ; the rich silver 
mines formerly worked are exhausted. 

The water the inhabitants use is brought from Pisagua, a small bay 
thirty miles to the northward, for which they pay dearly, brackish 
as it is. Forty houses and an old chiu-ch, situated on a bare sandy 
flat, without a vestige of verdure of any kind near, are the features 
Iquique presents ; in vain does the eye wandei for something green 
to rest upon — extreme desolation reigns every where, from shore 
to summit. 



No. 41. 

Remarks on the Coast of Peru. 

All the bearings are magnetic. 

From Point San Pedro (the south point of the bay of Nuestra 
Sefiora), at the distance of twenty miles, is Point Grande, the 
north point of the before-named bay. This point, when seen from 
the S.W., appears high and rounded, terminating in a low rugged 

* Called ' guano :' it is a valuable manure. 



235i APPENDIX. 

spit, with several hummocks on it, and surrounded by rocks and 
breakers to the distance of a quarter of a mile. N. 21° W., nine 
miles and a quarter, is Point Rincon, having a large white rock oiF 
it; between these two points, in the latitude of 25.02 S., lies the 
village of Paposo, the most northern village on the coast of ChUe. 
This is a miserable place, containing about 200 inhabitants, under 
an Alcalde ; the huts are scattered, and difficult to distinguish, from 
their being the same colour as the hills at the back of them. Ves- 
sels touch here occasionally for dried fish and copper ore : the 
former plentiful but the latter scarce. The mines he in a S.E. direc- 
tion, seven or eight leagues distant : but are very httle worked. 
Wood and water may be obtained on reasonable terms; the water is 
brought from wells two miles off, and is difficult to embark. Vessels 
bound for this place should run in on a parallel of 25.05., and 
when at the distance of two or three leagues, the white islet off 
Point Rincon will appear, and shortly after the low white head of 
Paposo. The course should be immediately shaped for the latter ; for 
with that head hearings. S.E. , distant half a mile, is the anchorage, in 
from fourteen to twenty fathoms, sand and broken shells. Should the 
weather be clear (which is seldom the case), a rornid hiU, higher than 
the surrounding ones, and immediately over the village, is also a 
good guide. 

North twenty-three degrees west from Point Grande, at the dis- 
tance of twenty-three miles, is Point Plata, similar in every respect 
to Point Grande, terminating in a low spit, off which he several 
small rocks, forming a bay on the northern side, with from seventeen 
to seven fathoms water ; rocky, uneven ground. 

From this point to Point Jara, which hes north ten degrees west, 
fifty-two miles, the coast runs in nearly a direct line, a steep, rocky 
shore, surmounted with hills, from 2,000 to 2,500 feet high, and 
without any visible shelter, even for a boat. 

Point Jara is a steep, rocky point, with a rounded summit, and 
has on its northern side a snug cove for small craft; it is visited 
occasionally by sealing vessels, who leave their boats to seal in the 
vicinity. Water is left with them ; and for fuel they use the kelp, 
which grows in great quantity, as neither of these necessaries of life 
are to be had within twentj'-five leagues on either side ofthem. 

Nearly four miles due north from this point is the south point of 
the large bay of Moreno, or Playa brava, high and rocky, with a 



APPENDIX. 233 

black rock lying oiFit ; andN. 26° W., twcntjr-two miles distant, is 
Point Davis (the south-west point of Moreno peninsula), which 
slopes gradually from Mount Moreno, and has two nipples on its 
extreme. 

Mount Moreno, formerly called George Hill, is the most conspi- 
cuous object on this part of the coast ; its summit is 4,060 feet above 
the level of the sea, sloping gradually on the south side to Point 
Davis, where it terminates ; and on the north more abruptly towards 
the barren plain on which it stands. It is of a light brown colour, 
without the slightest sign of vegetation, and has a deep ravine on its 
western side. 

Immediately under Mount Moreno is Constitucion Harbour, a 
small but snug anchorage, formed by the main land on one side and 
Forsyth Island on the other. Here a vessel might careen and undergo 
repairs without being exposed to the heaAy rolling swell which sets 
into most of the ports on this coast ; and the landing is excellent : 
the best anchorage is oif a sandy spit at the north-east end of the 
island, in six fathoms water, muddy bottom ; farther out the hold- 
ing ground is bad ; it would be advisable to moor ship securely, as 
the sea-breeze sometimes sets in strong. In running in, the island, 
or weather side, should not be hugged too close, as a number of 
sunken rocks lie oft" the low cliffy points — some only being buo)'ed 
by kelp. A mid-channel course would be the best, provided the wind 
allowed of reacliing the anchorage before-mentioned : neither wood 
nor water are to be found in this neighbourhood — therefore provi- 
sion must be made accordingly. 

N. 8° W., twelve miles from this harbour, is Moreno Head, a 
steep bluiF, the termination of a range of table land, which runs 
in a line from Mount Moreno ; on the northern side of this head 
is Herradura Cove, a narrow inlet, running in to the eastward, with- 
out affording any shelter. 

N. 4° W., nine miles from tliis head, lies Low Point, with some 
sunken rocks lying off it, and five miles farther on is Leading 
Bluff ; this is a very remarkable headland, and with the hill of 
Mexillones, which lies a few miles south of it, is an excellent 
guide for the port of Cobija ; it is about one thousand feet high, 
and facing the north is entirely covered wth guano, which gives 
it the appearance of a chalky cliff. There is an islet about half 
a mile to the north-west, attached to the main by a reef of 

y 



234 APPENDIX. 

rocks, but no danger of any description outside it. The hill of 
Mexillones is 2,650 feet high, has the appearance of a cone with 
the top cut oflF, and stands conspicuously above the surround- 
ing heights. This in clear weather is undoubtedly the best of 
the two marks ; but as the tops of hills on the coast of Peru are 
frequently covered with heavy clouds, the bluff is the surer mark, for 
it cannot be mistaken ; as, besides its chalky appearance, it is the 
northern extreme of the peninsula, and the land falls back several 
miles to the eastward of it. 

Round this head is the spacious bay of Mexillones, eight miles 
across — but of little use, as neither wood or water is to be obtained- 
The shore is steep-to ; there is anchorage on the west side, tw^o 
miles inside the blufF, a cable's length off a sandy spit, in seven 
fathoms sandy bottom : at the distance of three cables there is thirty 
fathoms. 

From this bay the coast runs nearly north and south, without any 
thing worthy of remark, until you reach the Bay of Cobija, or La 
Mar. This lies N. 13° E. thirty-one mUes from Leading BlufF, is 
the only port of the Bolivian Republic, and contains about fourteen 
hundred inhabitants. Vessels call occasionally to take in copper ore 
and cotton ; but the trade is small (particularly in 1835, as the 
revolution in Peru had destroyed the little they had). Water is scarce, 
at least, that which is good : there are wells, but the water from 
them is very brackish, and will not keep in casks. Fresh meat 
may be procured at a high price ; but fruit and vegetables, even for 
their owti consumption, are brought from Valparaiso, a distance of 
seven hundred miles. They have a mud-built fort, of five or six 
guns, on the summit of the Point ; the only fortification about the 
place. 

If coming from the southward toward this bay : after having passed 
the Leading BlufF (which should always be made), it would be advis- 
able to shape a course so as to close the land two or three leagues 
to windward of the port, and then coast along until two white-topped 
islets, ofF False Cobija Point, are seen ; a mile and a quarter to the 
northward of them is the port. On the Cobija Point there is a white 
stone, which shews very plainly, in relief against the black rocks at 
the back of it : a white flag is usually hoisted at the fort, when a ves- 
sel appears in the offing — which is also a good guide. In going in 
there is no danger ; the point is steep-to, and may be rounded at a 



APPENDIX. 035 

cable's length distant, and the anchorage is good in eight or nine 
fathoms, sand and broken shells. In the bay there are a number of 
straggling rocks, all well pointed out by kelp. It is high water 
at the full and change at 9 h. 54m., and the tide rises four feet. 
Landing, at all times is indifferent, and at full and change, owing to 
the heavy swell, it requires some skill in winding through the narrow 
channel, formed by rocks on each side. Two miles north and east 
is Copper Cove, a convenient place for taking in the ore ; there is 
anchorage in twelve fathoms, a short distance from the shore. 

After leaving the north point of Cobija Bay, which has a number 
of straggHng rocks a short distance oiF it, the coast takes a rather 
more easterly direction ; generally shallow sand bays, yviih rocky 
points, and hills from two to three thousand feet high close to the 
coast, but no anchorage or place fit for shipping, until you reach 
Algodon Bay, twenty-eight miles from Cobija. 

This bay is small, and the water deep ; we anchored a quarter of a 
mile from the shore, in eleven fathoms, sand and broken shells, over 
a rocky bottom ; its only use is as a stopping-place for water, should 
it be required. It may be obtained at the Gully of Mamilla (seven 
miles to the northward) from a spring, a mile and a half from the 
beach ; the usual method of bringing it is in bladders made of seal- 
skin, holding seven or eight gallons each, with which most of the 
coasters are provided — ^the only vessels that profit by a knowledge of 
these places. 

Algodon Bay may be distinguished by a guUy leading down to it, 
and that of Mamilla to the northward, which has two paps on the 
heights, over the north side of it ; there is also a white islet off Algo- 
don Point. 

N. 2° W., ten miles from this bay, is a projecting point, called 
in the Spanish chart San Francisco, but known more generally 
by the name of Paquiqui ; on the north side of it, and near the 
extreme, is a large bed of guano, so much used on this coast for 
manure, that it may be said to be quite a trade. A brig of one 
hundred and seventy tons was loading with it for Islay at the time 
we passed ; she was moored head and stern within a cable's length 
of the rocks, on which a considerable surf was breaking, and the 
guano was brought off in a balsa to a launch just outside the surf. 
There is better anchorage farther in the bay ; but this is chosen for 
convenience. 

y2 



236 APPENDIX. 

N. 2°W., sixteen miles from Paquiqui, is Point Arena, a low, 
sandy point, with rocky outline : between the two is a small fishing 
village, near a remarkable hummock : anchorage may be obtained 
under Point Arena, in ten fathoms ; fine sandy bottom. 

N. 6° E., twelve miles from Point Arena, is the gully and river 
of LoA, which forms the boundary hne between Bolivia and Peru. 
It is the principal river on this part of the coast ; but its waters 
are extremely bad, in consequence of rimning over a bed of salt- 
petre, and the hiUs surrounding it containing a quantity of copper 
ore. It is sedd that the ashes of a volcano faU into it, which 
add greatly to its unwholesomeness ; but bad as it is, the people 
residing on its banks have no other. At Chacansi, in the in- 
terior, where it di\ades, it is tolerably good. In the summer sea- 
son it is about fifteen feet broad and a foot deep, and runs with 
considerable strength to within a quarter of a mile of the sea, where. 
it spreads, and flows over, or filters through the beach ; but does not 
make even a swatchway, or throw up any banks, ever so small. 
A chapel on the north bank, half a mile from the sea, is the only 
remains of a once populous village. People from the interior visit it 
occasionally for guano, which is in abundance. 

There is good anchorage, but rather exposed to the sea-breeze, 
with the chapel bearing north, half a mile from the shore, in from, 
eight to twelve fathoms, muddy bottom ; and landing may be eflFected 
under Point Chileno ; but the best anchorage near here is the Bay of 
Chipana, six miles N. 39° W. from the river, and a snug cove for 
landing, near the extreme of the point ; but at the full and change, 
a heavy swell sets in, and I doubt a boat being able to land with. 
goods at those times. 

The best distinguishing mark for the Loa is the gully through 
which it runs, that may be easily known from its being in the 
deepest part of the bay, formed by Point Arena on the south and 
Point Lobo on the north ■; and the liiUs on the south side being nearly 
leve^ while those on the north are much higher and irregular. 

For the Bay of Chipana — after making the land in the latitude 
of the Loa, a large white double patch is seen on the side of a hill 
near the beach, and another similar one, a little to the northward : on 
discovering these marks (which may be seen three or four leagues), 
a course should be shaped directly for the southern end, where lies 
the anchorage in seven fathoms, sand and broken shells, under a low. 



APPENDIX. 237 

level point. No danger need be feared in entering- ; as although the 
land is low, it may be approached within half a mile, in from six to 
ten fathoms. The anchorage inside the long kelp-covered reef mio-ht 
perhaps, be preferred ; but the landing is not so good. 

N. 27° W. of this bay, at the distance of eighteen miles, is Point 
LoBo, or Blanca, high and bold, on its extreme are several hillocks. 
Between these two is a small fishing village, called Chomache, under 
a point, which has a long reef off it, on the outer part of which 
a cluster of rocks shew themselves a few feet above water. The 
people of this village get their water from the Loa — a passage 
requiring, on a balsa, four days or more. 

N. 21° W., fourteen miles off Point Lobo, is Point Pacache, a low 
rugged projecting point, with an islet a quarter of a mile off it, but 
quite clear outside this islet : half way between these two points is 
the Cone (PabeUon) of Pica, a remarkable hillock of guano ap- 
pearing as if it had been covered with snow which had thawed at 
the top, leaving the lower half frozen, contrasting strongly vnth the 
surrounding hills, which are of a barren sun-burnt brown. This is 
also a place of resort for the guano vessels ; they find pretty good an- 
chorage close to the northward of the Pabellon. 

East, a little southerly, a few mOes in-shore of this, is a beU- 
shaped mountain, named Carrasco, 5,500 feet high : in clear wea- 
ther it is a good mark for the neighbourhood of Iquique. 

From Point Pacache to Point Grande, N. 8°W. twenty-eight miles, 
the coast is low and rocky, the termination of a long range of table 
land, CEdled the heights of Oyarvide, or Barrancas, from its cliffy 
appearance : it has innumerable rocks and shoals off it, and should • 
not be approached on any account nearer than a league, for the fre- 
quent calms and heavy swell pecuHar to this coast render it unsafe 
for nearer approach. 

Point Grande at the north end of the Barrancas, is a low cliffy 
point, with three white patches on its northern side ; round this 
point is the Bay of Cheuranatta. 

N. 3°W., eleven miles from Point Grande is the anchorage and 
town of Iquique ; a miserable place that affords scarcely sufficient 
provisions for the consumption of its inhabitants, about five hundred 
souls ; and no water nearer than Pisagua (a distance of nearly forty 
miles), from which place it is brought by boats built for the purpose, 
and is very dear. Yet, with these disadvantages, it is a place of con- 



S38 APPENDIX. 

siderable trade, from the quantity of saltpetre, and the silver mines of 
Huantacayhua, in its neighbourhood : the latter are Uttle worked, as 
the saltpetre is a surer profit, large cargoes of which are annually 
taken in English vessels. There are no imports ; all the property 
belongs to merchants in Lima, where vessels are chartered, and have 
only to call here and take in their cargoes. 

Vessels bound for this place should run in on the parallel of Point 
Grande, until the white patches on that point are discerned, when a 
course should be shaped for the northern of three large sand hiUs : 
stand boldly in on this course tUl the church steeple appears, when 
shortly after, the tovra and low island will be seen, under which is 
the anchorage ; care must be taken in rounding this island to give it 
a good berth, a reef extending off it to the westward, to the distance 
of two cables' lengths. 

The anchorage is good in eleven fathoms, with Point Piedras 
bearing N. 9° W. ; W. extreme of the island, W. 32° S. ; church 
steeple S. 15° E. 

Vessels have attempted the passage between the island and the 
main by a mistake, and thereby got into danger, from which they 
have been extricated with difficulty : it is only lit for boats or very 
small vessels. 

Lcinding is bad and the way hazardous, owing to the number of 
blind breakers with which it abounds ; boats have been lost at the 
full and change of the moon, when the heavy swell sets in. Balsas 
are employed to bring cargoes to a laimch at anchor outside the 
danger, as is the case in most of the ports on this coast. 

N. 12° W., eighteen miles from Point Piedras (the north point of 
Iquique Bay, which has a cluster of rocks round it), is the small bay 
of MexiUones, appearing as a low black island vdth a white rock 
lying off it, and may be known by the GuUy of Aurora a httle to 
the southward, and a road apparently well trodden on the side of 
the hUls, leading to the mines. And N. 20° W., thirty-three miles 
from Point Piedras, is Point Pichalo, a projecting ridge at right 
angles to the general trend of the coast, with a number of hummocks 
on it. Round to the northward of this point is the village and road- 
stead of Guano Pisagua ; this, as well as MexiUones, is connected 
with Iquique in the saltpetre trade, and is resorted to by vessels for 
that article. In rounding the point, a sunken rock lies about half a 
cable's length off, and should be looked out for, as it is necessary to 



APPENDIX. 239 

hug the land close to ensure fetching the anchorage off the village at 
the beginning of the ridge ; baffling ^\^nds are frequent, which may 
throw you near the shore, but do not signify, as the water is smooth 
and the shore steep-to. The best anchorage is with the extreme of 
Pisagua Point, N. 7° 30' W. ; and Pichalo Point, W. 1S° S., two 
cables' length off the village, in eight fathoms, by which you will 
avoid a rock with four feet water on it, lying off the sandy cove at 
the distance of two cables. 

North of this, at the distance of two miles and a half, is the gully 
and river of Pisagua, the water of which supplies the neighbouring 
inhabitants ; it is not, when at its greatest strength, more than ten 
feet across, and then does not overflow, but merely filters through the 
beach into the sea. Generally speaking, it is dry nine months in the 
year ; weUs are dug near it where water, such as it is, may always be 
found : but no vessel should trust to watering at this place, as, be- 
sides its unwholesomeness, the difficulty and expense attending it 
would be very great. 

From this to Point Gordo the coast is in low broken cliffs, with a 
few scattered rocks oiF it, and ranges of high hills near. Point Gordo 
is a low jutting point, where a long line of cliflF, several himdred feet 
high, commences ; which continues, with only two breaks, to Arica. 

These breaks or gullies, as they are called, are veiy remarkable, 
and are useful in making Arica from the southward. The first is the 
gully of Camarones, which hes seven miles north of Point Gordo, 
and is about a mile in width, running at right angles to the coast 
towards the mountains, with a stream of water running down it, and 
a quantity of brush-wood on its banks ; it forms a slight sandy bay, 
scarcely sufficient to shelter a vessel from the heavy swell. 

The Gully of Victor is the other ; it lies N. 17° W., twenty-nine 
miles from that of Camarones, and fifteen miles from Arica ; it is about 
three quarters of a mile in width, and from a high bold point, called 
Point Lobo, jutting out to the southward, forms a tolerably good 
anchorage for small vessels ; it also runs toward the mountains in a 
similar manner to that of Camarones, and Uke it has a small stream 
running through, with verdure on its banks. Vessels boimd to Arica 
should endeavour to make this gully or ravine, and when within 
three or four leagues of it they will see Arica Head, which appears 
as a steep blufi^, with a round hill in shore, called Monte Gordo. 
Upon nearer approach the island Huano will be observed, joined to 



240 



APPENDIX. 



the head by a reef of rocks. To the northward of this island, and 
round the head is the port and town of Arica, the sea-port of Tacna. 
Of late this place has been the seat of ci\'il war from which it has 
severely suffered. It was in contemplation in the latter end of 1836 
to make it the port of the BoliA-ian territory ; should that take place, 
it would perhaps become next in importance to the harbour of CaUao, 
the principal port in Peru : its present exports are bark, cotton, and 
wool ; for which is received, in return, merchandize, chiefly British. 
Fresh provisions and vegetables, with all kinds of tropical fruit, may 
be had in abundance and upon reasonable terms ; the water also is 
excellent, and may be obtained Math little difficult}^ ; as a mole is run 
out into the sea, which enables boats to lie quietly while loading and 
discharging : the only inconvenience is ha\dng to carry or roll it 
through the town. Fever and ague are said to be prevalent ; this in 
all probability arises from the bad situation which has been chosen 
for the town, the high head to the southward excluding the benefit 
of the refreshing sea-breeze, which generally sets in about noon. In 
entering this place there is no danger whatever ; the low island may 
be rounded at a cable's distance in seven or eight fathoms, and an- 
chorage chosen where convenient. 

Hence the coast takes a sudden turn to the westward, and as far as 
the river Juan de Dios, is a low sandy beach with regular soxuidings: 
from this river it gradually becomes more rocky, and increases in 
height tiU it reaches the Point and Moero S.\ma, kno^^^l by some as 
the Devil's Headland. This is the highest and most conspicuous land 
near the sea, about this part of the coast, and appears from its boldness 
to project beyond the neighbouring coast hne ; on its western side 
is a cove formed by the point called Sama, where coasting vessels 
occasionally anchor for guano ; there are three or four miserable 
looking huts, the residence of those who collect the guano ; it would 
be quite impossible to land except in a balsa, and even then with 
difficulty. Should a vessel be drifted down here by baffling winds 
and heavy swell, which has been the case, she should endeavour to 
pass the head (as a number of rocks surround it) ; and about a mile 
to the westward anchorage may be obtained in fifteen fathoms. 

N. 4&° W., nine miles from Point Sama, is a low rocky point, 
called Tyki, t.nd between the two, the small river Lucumbu, having 
low cliffs on each side of it ; this, like most of the rivers on the 
coast, kas not strength to make an outlet for itself, but is lost in the 



Al'PEXDIX. 941 

shingle beach at the foot of the before-mentioned cUffs ; regular 
soundings, which continue gradually increasing until youreach Point 
Coles, may be obtained at the distance of two mUes, in from fifteen 
to t\\"enty fathoms. 

W. 21° N., at the distance of thirty-one miles from Point Sama, 
is Point Coles ; the coast between is alternately sandy beach, with 
low clifi^, and moderately high table land a short distance from the 
coast. I doubt if landing could be effected any where between Arica 
and Port Coles, as a high swell sets directly on this part and appears 
to break with redoubled violence. 

PoixT Coles is very remarkable ; it is a low, sandy spit, rmining 
out from an abrupt termination of a line of table land. Near its 
extreme is a cluster of small hummocks, the whole, at a distance, 
appearing as an island ; off the point, to the south-west, is a cluster of 
rocks or islets, but no hidden dcuiger exists, although there is gene- 
rally a quantity of froth, under which a reef may be suspected. 
N. 13° E., five miles and a half from this point, is the \'illage and 
roadstead of Ylo. This is a poor place, containing about three hun- 
dred inhabitants, under the local governor and captain of the port. 
But httle trade is carried on, and that chiefly in guano : a mine of 
copper has been lately discovered, which may add to its imporlance. 
The inhabitants have to supply the necessaries of life by cultiva- 
tion, and do not care to trouble themselves about luxuries. Water 
is scarce, and wood is brought from the interior, so that it is not 
on any account a suitable place for shipping. The best anchorage 
is off the village of Pacoche (a mile and a quarter south of the 
town), in twelve or thirteen fathoms, and the best landing is in 
Huano Creek : but bad, indeed, is the best, and great care must 
be taken lest the boat be swamped, or hurled with violence against 
the rocks. 

In going into Ylo, the shore should not be approached nearer than 
half a mile (as many sharp rocks and blind breakers exist), until 
three small rocks, called ' the Brothers,' always visible inside the table 
end, bear east, when the village of Pacoche may be steered for, and 
anchorage taken abreast of it, as convenient. 

English Creek affords the best landing, but boats are forbidden 
that cove, to prevent contraband trade being carried on. 

From Ylo, the coast trends to the westward, with a cliffy out- 
line, from two to four hundred feet in height, and with one or two 



242 APPENDIX- 

coves, useful only to small coasters, until you reach the Valley of 
Tambo, which is of considerable extent, and may be easily distin- 
guished by its fertile appearance, contrasting strongly with the barren 
and desolate cliffs on either side : those on the east maintain theirregu- 
larity for several miles, while on the west the regularity is broken, 
and from the near approach of the hills their aspect is bolder. 

The next point of this valley is called Mexico, it is E. 18° S., 
twenty-one miles from Islay Point, and is exceedingly low, pro^ 
jecting considerably beyond the general trend of the coast ; it is 
covered with brushwood to the water's edge, and at the distance of 
two miles in a southerly direction, soundings may be obtained in 
ten fathoms, muddy bottom ; from that depth, in the same direction, 
it increases to twenty fathoms ; but on each side of the bank there 
are tifty fathoms. 

W. 18° N., twenty-one miles from Point Mexico, is Point Islay, 
and between the two, five miles from the latter, the cove of Mol- 
LENDO, once the port of Arequipa ; but of late years the bottom has 
been so much altered, that it is only capable of affording shelter 
to a boat or very small vessel ; in consequence of which it has been 
thrown into disuse, and the bay of Islay now receives vessels tliat 
bring goods to the Arequipa market. 

Islay, the port of Arequipa, formed by a few straggling islets off 
the point, extending to the north-west, is capable of containing 
twenty or five and twenty sail. The town is built on the west side of a 
gradually declining hill, sloping toward the anchorage, and is said to 
contain fifteen hundred inhabitants (chiefly employed by the merchants 
of Arequipa). As in all the sea-ports of Peru, a local governor and 
captain of the port are the Authorities ; this is also the residence of 
a British vice-consul. Trade was in a more flourishing condi- 
tion here, even during a civil war, than at any place we visited ; 
there were generally four or five, and often double that number of 
vessels discharging or taking in cargoes. 'J 'he principal exports were 
wool, bark, and specie, in exchange for which British merchandize 
was chiefly coveted. 

Islay being much frequented by British merchant vessels, and dif- 
ferences of opinion having arisen as to the best method of making 
it, detailed and clear directions should be given. Vessels have fre- 
quently been in sight, to the westward of the port, yet from the 
strength of the current (half a knot, and at the full and change often 



APPENDIX. 243 

as much as one knot per hour) setting to the westward, have been 
prevented from anchormg for several days. 

This, no doubt, has been partly owing to the hitherto inaccurate 
position assigned it, and from a proper reluctance to expose a vessel 
on an imperfectly known coast, to be baffled and drifted about by 
light and variable airs, in addition to a heavy swell continually roUing 
directly toward the shore. 

With the following directions, it is to be hoped that more confi- 
dence wiU be acquired, and consequently less delay occasioned in 
sailing to the seaport of the second city of Peru. 

Coming from the southward, the land abreast of Tambo should 
be made, and a certainty of that place ascertained, which (according 
to the state of the weather) may be seen from three to six leagues : 
the course should then be shaped toward a gap in the mountain to 
the westward, with a defined sharp-topped hill in the near range, a 
short distance from it. In this gap is the road leading to Arequipa, 
which winds along the foot of the before-named hill from Islay. 

As the coast is approached, the foot of the hills wiU be seen to be 
covered with white ashes (said to have been thrown from the volcano 
of Arequipa), not found on any other part of the coast. This 
peculiarity commences a httle westward of Tambo, and continues 
as far as Point Omilius, and when within three leagues, the Point 
Islay and white islets forming the bay, will be plainly observed, and 
should be steered for. 

Care must be taken in closing the point, as a rock, barely covered, 
lies a quarter of a mile to the southward. It is the custom to go to 
the w .stward of all the islands ; but, with a commanding breeze, it 
would unquestionably be better to run between the third outer and 
next island,* which enables you to choose your berth at once ; this 
can seldom be done by the other route, the wind heading as you 
enter, obliging you to anchor, and use warps. The best anchorage 
is just within Flat Rock Point, off the landing-place, in ten or twelve 
fathoms. A hawser is necessary to keep the bow to the swell, to 
prevent rolling heavily, even in the most sheltered part. Vessels 
from the eastward should close the land about Tambo, and observe 
the same directions. 

If from the eastward the parallel of seventeen degrees five minutes 

• His Majesty's ships Menai and Challenger passed in between these 
islands. 



244 



APPENDIX. 



should be made, and run in on, this will be about a league to the 
southward of the point ; and, if the longitude cannot be trusted. 
Point Ornelius, being the most remarkable land, and easily seen 
from that parallel, should be searched for in passing. It lies 
W. 28° N., fourteen miles from Point Islay — is about two hun- 
dred feet high — ^has the appearance of a fort, with two tier of 
guns, and is perfectly white ; the adjacent coast to the west is dark, 
and forms a bay ; and on the east are low black cliffs ; with ashes on 
the top extending half-way up the hills. If the weather be clear, 
the valley of Quilca may be seen, which is the first green spot west 
of Tambo. Ornelius, however, must be searched for, and when 
abreast of it Point Islay vdU be seen, topping to the eastward, as two 
islands off a gradual declining point, the sharp hill before-named 
in the near range, will also be seen, if favourable weather ; and shortly 
after the town will appear like black spots, in strong relief against 
the white ground, when a course may be shaped for the anchorage 
under the white islets, as before. Landing at Islay is far from good ; 
a sort of mole, composed of a few planks, with a swinging ladder 
attached to it, enables you generally, with a little management, to 
get on shore in safety ; but often at the full of the moon vessels are 
detained three days or more, without being able to land or take in 
cargo. Fresh provisions may be had on reasonable terms ; but neither 
wood nor water can be depended on. There are no fortifications of 
any description. 

The coast between Islay and Point Cornejo is an irregular black cliff, 
from fifty to two hundred feet high, bounded by scattered rocks to 
the distance of a cable's length ; about two leagues from Islay is a 
cove, called MoUendito, the residence of a few fishermen : there 
is a similar cove a little to the eastward of Point Cornejo. West- 
ward of that point the coast retires and forms a shallow bay, in 
which are three small coves — Aranta, La Guata, and Noratos ; and 
W. 36° N., thirteen miles distant, is the valley and river of Quilca, 
off which vessels occasionally anchor, under the Seal Rock lying to 
the south-east of Quilca Point. This anchorage is much exposed ; 
but landing is good in the cove westward of the valley. Watering js 
sometimes attempted, by fiilling at the river and rafting off, but must 
always be attended with much difficulty and danger. The valley is 
about three-quarters of a mile in width, and differing from the others, 
which are level, rims down the side of a hill; and from the regu- 



APPENDIX. 245 

larity of the cliffs by which it is bounded, has the appearance of a 
work of art. 

W. 6° N., at the distance of six leagues, is the valley of Camana ; 
the coast between is nearly straight, \^^th alternate sandy beach 
and low broken cliff, the termination of the barren hills immediately 
above. Camana is from two to three miles broad, near the sea ; and 
apparently well cultivated : the village is situated about a mile from 
the sea ; but is scarcely perceptible, being small, and surrounded 
by thick brushwood. 

On approaching from the eastward, a remarkable cliff, resembling 
a fort, will be seen near the sea ; this is an excellent guide till the 
vaUey becomes open. There is anchorage in ten or twelve fathoms, 
muddy bottom, due south about a mile ; but landing would be dan- 
gerous. 

W. 18° N., twenty-three miles, is the the valley of OcoSa, the 
next remarkable place ; it is smaller and less conspicuous than the 
former ; but similar in other respects. An islet lies at its southern 
extreme, and several rocks near the extreme of the chff, on its 
eastern side. 

W. 11° N., fourteen miles, is a projecting bluff point called Pesca- 
dores, it has a cove on itsea^t side surrounded by islets ; and off the 
point, at the distance of three quarters of a mile in a southerly direc- 
tion, lies a rock barely covered: to the westward of the point is a bay 
but no anchorage ; the coast then runs in nearly a direct line until 
you reach Point Atico, a rugged point, with a number of irregular 
broken hillocks on it, barely connected vrith the coast by a sandy 
isthmus. At a distance it appears like an island, the isthmus not 
being visible far off: there is tolerable anchorage in nineteen or 
twenty fathoms on its west side, and excellent landing in a snug cove 
at the inner extreme of the point. By keeping a cable's length off 
shore, no danger need be feared in running into this roadstead. The 
valley of the same name Ues a league and a half to the eastward^ 
where are about thirty houses, scattered among the trees, that grow 
to the height of some twenty feet. From this point the coast conti- 
nues its westerly direction (low and broken cUff, with hills imme- 
diately above) until you reach Point Capa, where a bay commences 
that runs as far as Point Chala ; in it there are several coves, but 
none that could be serviceable to shipping. 

Point Chala bears from Point Atico W. 20° N. and distant sixteen 



246 APPENDIX. 

leagues and a half, is a high rocky point, the termination of the 
Mono, or hill of that name. This mount shoM's very prominently, 
and has several summits to it ; on the east side is a valley that sepa- 
rates it from another lovi^er hiU, with two remarkable paps, and on 
the west it slopes suddenly to a sandy plain ; the nearest range of 
hills to the westward are thrown in-shore considerably, making 
Morro Chala still more conspicuous. 

W. 26° N., eighteen miles from Point Chala, is Point Chavini, 
which appears like a rock on the beach ; between the two is a sandy 
beach, with Uttle green hillocks and sand-hills ; there are also two 
rivulets, rimning from the valleys of Atequipa and Lomas, that are 
seen in the distance. 

Half a mile to the westward of Chavini is a small white islet, and 
a cluster of rocks level with the water's edge ; hence to the road- 
stead of Lomas a sandy beach continues, with regular soundings oif 
it, at two miles from the shore. 

Point Lomas projects at right angles to the general trend of the 
coast, and, similar to Atico, is all but an island ; it may easily be 
distinguished although low, by its marked difference (being black 
rock) from the adjacent coast. 

This road is the port of Acari, affords good anchorage in from five 
to fifteen fathoms, and tolerable landing ; it is the residence of a few 
fishermen, and used as a bathing place for the inhabitants of Acari, 
which, from the information obtained, is a populous town several 
leagues in-land. AH supplies, even water, are brought here by thostf 
who visit it : the fishermen have a well of brackish water scarcely fit 
for use. Boats occasionally call here for otters, which are plentifidat 
particular seasons. 

W. 21° N., twenty-three miles from Lomas Road, is the Harbour 
of San Juan ; and eight miles further, that of San Nicolas. The 
former is exceedingly good, and fit for a vessel to undergo any 
repairs in, or heaving dovra, in case of necessity, without being 
inconvenienced by a swell ; but all materials must be brought, as well 
as water and fuel, none of which are to be found there. 

The shore is composed of irregular broken cliffs, and at the head 
of the bay is a sandy plain ; still the harbour is good, indeed much 
better than any other on the south-west coast of Peru, and might be 
an excellent place to run for if in distress. It may be distinguished 
by Mount Acari, a remaikable sugar-loaf hiU, almost perpendicu- 



APPENDIX. 24)7 

larly over the cliff on the north side of the bay ; and three leagues 
to the eastward, a short distance from the coast, a high bluff head, 
the termination of a range of a table land. Between this bluff and 
the harbour the land is low and level, with few exceptions, and has a 
number of rocks lying off it to the distance of half a mile. 

S.W. three-quarters of a mile from Steep Point (the southern point 
of the harbour) lies a small black rock, always visible, with a reef of 
rocks extending a quarter of a mile to the northward ; and nearly two 
miles to the S.E., there is an islet that shows distinctly. A passage 
may exist between this reef and the point, but prudence would forbid 
its being attempted ; the safest plan is to pass to the northward, 
giving it a berth of a cable's length ; and not close the shore until 
well within the next point (a sunken rock Hes off it), when you may 
haul your wind and work up to the anchorage at the head of the bay, 
and come to in any depth from five to fifteen fathoms, muddy bottom. 
In working up, the northern shore may be approached boldly ; it is 
steep-to, and has no outlying dangers. 

The harbour of San Nicolas lies N. 41° W, eight miles from San 
Juan, is quite as commodious and free from danger as the latter, but 
the landing is not so good. 

Harmless Point may be rounded wdthin a cable ; there are a niun- 
ber of scattered rocks to the southward of it, but as they all appear, 
there is no danger to be feared. There are no inhabitants at either of 
these ports, so that vessels wanting any repairs may be sure of not 
being interrupted while so employed. 

N. 59° W., eight and a half miles from Harmless Point, is Point 
Beware, high and clifiy, with a number of smaU rocks and bhnd 
breakers round, and some heights close above it ; from this point the 
coast is alternately chff and small sandy bays, till you reach Point 
Nasca, round which is what has been termed Port CabaUos. 

Point Nasca may be readily distinguished : it is a bluff head of a 
dark brown colour, 1,020 feet in height, with two sharp topped 
hummocks of a moderate height at the foot of it ; the coast to the 
westward falls back to the distance of two miles, and is composed 
of white sand hills ; in the depth of this bight is Caballos, a rocky 
shallow hole, that should only be kno-wn to be avoided ; we lay at 
anchor in seven fathoms, as far in as it was thought prudent to go, 
for twenty four hours, without being able to effect a landing : the 
■wind came round the head in heavy gusts, which, combined with the 



248 APPENDIX. 

long ground swell, made it doubtful if two anchors would hold us till 
our observations wiere concluded. The only traces we saw of there 
ever having been any inhabitants at this dreary place, was a pole 
sticking up on the top of a mound, near the head of the bay. 

N. 64° W., thirteen leagues from Point Nascais Point SantaMaria, 
and the rock called the Ynfiemillo. This point is low and rugged, sur- 
rounded by rocks and breakers. At the distance of a league and a 
half, inland, to the eastward, is a remarkable table topped hill, called 
the table of Dona Maria ; this hill may be seen in clear weather at 
a considerable distance from seaward, and from its height and pecu- 
liar shape is a good mark for this part of the coast. 

The Ynfiernillo Rock lies due west from the northern extreme 
of the point, at the distance of a mUe ; it is about fifty feet high, 
quite black, and in the form of a sugar loaf ; no dangers exist near 
it : there are fifty-four fathoms at two mUes distance. Between this 
rock and Point Caballos, the coast to a short distance west of the 
small River Yea is a sandy beach, with ranges of moderately high 
sand hills. From thence to the YnfierniUo it is rocky, with grassy 
cliffs immediately over it, and some small white rocks l5Tng off. 

N. 31° W., ten and a half miles from Santa Maria, is Point Azua, 
a high bluff, with a low rocky point off it; between is a sandy 
beach, interrupted by rocky projections, and a small stream running 
from the hills. 

N. 3° W., from Point Azua, and at the distance of twenty-one 
miles, is the southern entrance to the bay of the Yndependencia. 
This extensive bay which is fifteen mUes in length in a N.W. and 
S.E. direction, and three miles and a half broad, has been till of late 
years, completely unknown or overlooked : no mention is made of it 
in the Spanish charts, and it was not till the year 1825 that the 
Hydrographer at Lima became aware of its existence, and then only 
by an accidental discovery. It has two entrances : the southern 
called Serrate, which takes its name from the master of the vessel 
by whom it was discovered, is formed by the Island of Santa Rosa 
on the north, and Point Quemada on the south : it is three quarters 
of a mile wide and free from danger. The northern entrance is 
named after the Dardo and TruxiUano, two vessels that were con- 
ve5ring troops to Pisco : they ran in, mistaking it for that place, and 
were wrecked : many of the people on board perished. It is formed 
by Point Carretas on the north and the Island of Vieja on the south. 



APPENDIX. 249 

is five miles in width, and clear in all parts. It is bounded on the 
west by the Islands of Vieja and of Santa Rosa, and on the 
east by the main-land, which is moderately high, cliffy, and 
broken by a sandy beach, at the south end of which is a small 
fishing village called Tungo. The people of this village are resi- 
dents of Yea, the principal town in the province, which is about 
twelve leagues distant; they come here occasionally to fish and 
remain a few days, bringing with them aU their supplies, even to 
water, as that necessary of life is not to be obtained in the neigh- 
bourhood. ITiere is anchorage in any part of this spacious bay ; 
the bottom is quite regular, about twenty fathoms all over, excepting 
off the shingle spit on the north-east side of Vieja Island, where is 
a bank running off that spit to the northward, on which are five and 
six fathoms : this is decidedly the best place to anchor, for on the 
weather shore, near Quemado Point, it blows strong and in sudden 
gusts off the high land, and great difficulty would be found in land- 
ing ; whereas, at the spit, you are not annoyed by the wind, and 
there is a snug cove, or basin, within it, where boats may land 
or lie ui safety at any time. 

Approaching this part of the coast from seaward, it may be dis- 
tinguished by three clusters of hiUs, Quemado, Vieja Island, and 
Carretas ; they are nearly of the same height, and at equal distances 
from one another. The S.W. sides of Morro Carretas and the 
Island of Vieja are steep dark chff, but Morro Quemado slopes gra- 
dually to the water's edge, and is of a much lighter colour. At the 
southern extreme of Vieja Island, is a remarkable black lump of 
land, in the shape of a sugar loaf : off which lies the white level 
island of Santa Rosa, the S.W. side of which is studded with rocks 
and breakers, but there is no danger a mUe from the shore. 

N. 35° W., six leagues and a half from the north head, or Point 
Carretas, is theBoqueron, or southern entrance to the Bay of Pisco ; 
between the two is a deep angular bay, with the Island of Zarate 
near its centre. The Boqueron is formed by the main land on the 
east, and the Island of San Gallan on the west ; this island is two 
miles and one-third long in a north and south direction, and one 
mile in breadth : it is high, with a bold chffy outHne. There is a 
deep valley dividing the hUls ; which when seen from the south-west, 
gives it the appearance of a saddle ; the south extreme terminating 
abruptly, while at its northern end it slopes more gradually and has 



250 APPENDIX. 

several peaks on it. Off this end are some detached rocks, tlie nor- 
thern of which has the appearance of a nine-pin, and shews dis- 
tinctly. 

S. J E., at the distance of a mile from its south extreme, lies 
the Pinero Rock, which is much in the way of vessels bound to 
Pisco from the southward; it is just level with the water's edge, 
and in fine weather can always be seen; but when it blows hard 
(which it sometimes does through this channel) and a weather 
tide is running, there is such a confused cross sea that the whole 
space is covered with foam, rendering it difficult to distinguish the 
rock ; at such a time the shore should be kept well aboard on either 
side, and when in a line with the outer extreme of the island and 
the white rock off Point Huacas, you vdU be within the rock and 
may steer for Point Paracca ; on rounding which you will open the 
Bay of Pisco. 

This extensive bay, formed by the Peninsula of Paracca on the 
south, and the Ballista and Chincha Islands on the west, is the 
principal port of the province of Yea. The to^vn of Pisco is built on 
the east side, about a mile from the sea ; and is said to contain three 
thousand inhabitants, who derive considerable profit from a spirit 
they distil, known by the name of Pisco or Italia, great quantities 
of which are annually exported to different parts of the coast : sugar 
is also an article of trade, but the pisco is the staple commodity. 
Refreshment may be obtained on reasonable terms : wood is scarce : 
excellent water may be had at the head of Paraccas Bay, under the 
south cluster of trees, two miles from the fishing village of Paracca : 
the landing there is very good, and the wells are near the beach. 

The best anchorage off the town is vnth. the church open of the 
road, bearing E. 14° N., in four fathoms, muddy bottom, three- 
quarters of a mile from the shore. A heavy surf beats on the beach 
with rollers to the distance of a quarter of a mUe off, rendering it 
dangerous to land in ship's boats ; launches built for the purpose 
are used in loading and discharging vessels ; but at times even these 
cannot stand it, and all commxinication is cut off for two or three 
days together. 

There are four entrances to this capacious bay : that to the south- 
ward already named; between San Gallan and the Ballista Islands; 
between those and the Chincha Islands ; and the great or northern 
entrance ; aU of which, from appearances, may be safely used ; but. 



APPENDIX. 251 

between the islands, time would not allow a Ml examination, and, 
therefore, there may be dangers that were unseen by us. 

In coming from the southward, after passing Point Paracca, a 
course may be shaped midway between Blanca Island and the church 
of Pisco, which will be seen distinctly : this will lead directly to the 
anchorage. A mile and a half round Point Paracca is a bay, off 
which a shoal patch extends, with four fathoms on it ; the tail of 
this bank wiU be passed in standing towards the anchorage, the 
water then deepens suddenly, and when abreast of Blanca Island 
you will have twelve fathoms muddy bottom ; from this depth it 
decreases gradually to the anchorage. 

In coming from the northward it is all plain sailing ; after passing 
the Chincha Islands stand in boldly to the anchorage ; the water 
shoals quicker on this side Blanca Island, but there is no danger 
whatever. Vessels having to ballast here, should work up and 
anchor under Shingle Point ; they can lie close to the shore, and 
boats may load with expedition. 

In coming from seaward this part of the coast may easily be 
knovm by the Island of San Gallan, and the high Peninsula of 
Paracca at the back of it, which make like large islands, the land 
on each side being considerably lower and failing back to the east- 
ward, so as not to be visible at a moderate distance. As the shore - 
is approached the Chincha and Ballista Islands will be seen ; which 
will confirm the position, there being no other islands lying off the 
coast about this parallel. 

From Pisco the coast runs in a northerly direction, a low sandy 
beach with regular soundings oiF it, till you reach the River Chincha; 
from thence commences a clay cliffy coast, which continues as far as 
the River Canete. From this river to Point Frayle is a beautiful 
and fertile valley, in the middle of which is situated the town of 
Cerko Azul. This valley produces rum, sugar, and chancaca, a 
sort of treacle, for which it is resorted to by coasters. The ancho- 
rage is W.N.W. from the bluff that forms the cove, three-quarters 
of a mile distant, in seven fathoms ; nearer the shore the water is 
shoal, which causes a long swell ; the landing place is on the northern 
side of the point, on a stony beach, where a heavy surf is constantly 
breaking. 

N. 39° W., fifteen miles from Cerro Azul, lies the Island of Asia. 
a round, white islcuid, about a mile in circumference, with some rocks 

z 2 



252 



APPENDIX. 



extending from it to the shore. Between the two is a bay, hut 
scarcely affording anchorage. The coast line is partly a rocky and 
partly a sandy beach ; in-shore are hOls about fourteen hundred 
feet in height, inclining gradually toward the coast. 

N. 41° W., twenty miles from Asia Island, is Chilca Point; it is 
about three hundred feet in its highest part, has several rises on it, 
and terminates in a steep cUfF, with a small flat rock close off it. 
The valley of Chilca hes a league to the southward of the point, 
and the harbour of the same name half a league to the northward. 
This is a snug cove, but very confined ; anchorage is good in any part 
of it, and landing tolerable ; there is a small village at the head of 
the bay, but no information could be obtained from the inhabitants 
about Chilca, for they deserted their huts on our arrival. 

From Chilca the coast forms a bend to about the Valley of Lierin, 
off which are the Pachacamac Islands. The northern is the 
largest, half a mile in length, and about a cable's length broad ; the 
next but one to it is the most remarkable, being quite Hke a sugar- 
loaf, perfectly rounded at the top : the others are mere rocks, and 
not visible at any distance. At the northern end of these islands 
lies a small reef, even with the water's edge : the group run nearly 
parallel to the coast, in a N.W. and S.E. direction, and are about a 
league in extent. There is no danger on their outer side, but 
towards the shore the water is shoal, which causes a long swell, that 
at times must break. Between these islands and the Morro Solar is 
a sandy beach, with moderately high land a short distance from 
the sea. The Morro Solar is a remarkable cluster of hOls, situated 
on a sandy plain ; when seen from the southward it has the appear- 
ance of an island in the shape of a quoin, sloping to the westward, 
and faUing abruptly on its in-shore side ; facing the sea it termi- 
nates in a steep cliff, and has a sandy bay on each side of it. 

Off the point of the southern sand bay is an islet with some 
rocks lying about it, and off the point of the northern sand bay is 
a reef of rocks of about a cable's length ; round this reef, on the 
north side of the Morro, is the town and road of ChoriUos. The 
town of ChoriUos, built on the chff, at the foot of one of the 
slopes of the Morro Solar, is used chiefly as a bathing-place for the 
inhabitants of Lima, and during a revolution its road is filled with 
the shipping from Callao ; though it is an exceedingly bad place for 
them : the bottom is a hard sand, with patches of hard stony clay 



APPENDIX. ■ 253 

mixed together, called tosca ; and the heavy swell that sets round 
the point causing almost a roller, brings a vessel up to her anchor 
and throws her back again with a sudden jerk, each of which makes 
her drag, or endangers snapping the cable. 

Vessels having to anchor here ought not to shut the southern point 
the Morro in with the next point to the northward : by keeping this 
mark open they will be in eight or nine fathoms, and not have so 
much swell as there is further in. The landing is very bad ; canoes 
built purposely and dexterously managed are the usual means of com- 
munication : no doubt there are times when a ship's boat may land 
without danger, but very seldom probably without the crew being 
thoroughly drenched. From ChoriUos the coast runs in a steady 
sweep with cliffs of less height, tiU it reaches the Point of CaUao, 
which is a shingle spit, stretching out toward the Island of San 
Lorenzo, and with it forms the extensive and commodious Bay of 
CaUao. 

The Island of San Lorenzo, which is 1050 feet at its highest 
part, is four miles and a half long, in a N.W. and S.E. direction, 
and one mile broad. OiF its S.E. end lies a small but bold-looking 
island, called Fronton, and to the S.W. are the Palominas rocks : 
its northern end, or Cape San Lorenzo, is clear, and round it is the 
usual passage to the anchorage at Callao. In rounding this Cape do 
not close the land nearer than half a mile, for within that distance 
there are Hght baffling airs caused by the eddy wind round the island ; 
by getting among which you would be more delayed than if you 
gave the island a good berth, and should have to make an additional 
tack to fetch the anchorage. 

This is the usual route ; but there is another which, with common 
precaution, may be used to great advantage, by vessels coming 
from the southward. This is the Boqueron, formed by the Island of 
San Lorenzo and CaUao Point. After making San Lorenzo and 
Fronton, steer so as to keep the south extreme of the latter about a 
point open on the bow port ; and keep on this course until Callao 
Castle is seen, which has two marteUo towers on it, and is situated 
on the inner part of the shingle spit, that forms the point : then steer 
for it till Horadada Island (with a hole through it) comes on with 
the middle of the southern sandy bay of the Morro Solar, and with 
the inner declivity of the hill on Solar Point bearing S. 66° E. : with 
these marks on, and steering N. 66° W., for the furthest point of 



254 



APPENDIX. 



Lorenzo you can see, you will be clear of all danger ; and when the 
west marteUo tower in the castle comes on with the northern part of 
CaUao spit, bearing N. 49° E., you may haul gradually round, till 
the same tower is seen to the northward of the breakers on a shoal 
lying oiF the spit ; when a direct course may be shaped for the ancho- 
rage. There is no regular tide in this passage, but generally a little 
setting directly through, sometimes to the N.W. and at others 
the contrary ; shovdd the stream be adverse, and it fall calm while in 
the channel, there is good anchorage in eight or nine fathoms, with 
the leading marks on. 

Callao is well known as the sea-port of Lima, which is seven 
miles inland, situated five hundred feet above the level of the sea, 
and at the foot of a range of mountains : when seen from the an- 
chorage on a fine day, it has an imposing appearance. 

Trade was in a flourishing condition in 1 836, and when the govern- 
ment becomes settled, this may be the first commercial port on the 
west coast of South America. 

SuppHes of all sorts may be obtained for shipping ; fresh provi- 
sions as well as vegetables, with an abundance of fruit : watering 
is also extremely convenient, a well-constructed mole being run out 
into the sea, at which boats can lie and fill from the pipes pro- 
jecting from its side ; wood is the scarcest article, and very dear, 9o 
that vessels likely to remain at this port should husband their fuel 
accordingly. 

From Callao, the coast is a sandy beach, running in a northerly 
direction until you reach Point Vernal ; it there becomes higher and 
clifiy, which character continues as far as Point Mulatas, roimd 
which is the little bay of Ancon. 

To the west and south-west of Ancon lie the Pescador Islands, 
the outer and largest of which bears N. 31° W. from Callao Castle, 
and at the distance of eighteen mUes. There is no danger among 
these islands ; they are steep-to, with from twenty to thirty fathoms 
near them. 

N. 33° W. from Point Mulatas, twelve miles distant, is the Bay 
of Chancay and river of that name ; this bay may be known by the 
bluff" head that forms the point, and has three hills on it, in an eas- 
terly direction ; it is a confined place, and fit only for small coasters. 
From Chancay, the coast runs in a more westerly direction, as far as 
Point Salinas, a shingle beach, with a few broken, clifiy points ; the 



APPENDIX. 255 

hills are near the coast, and from four hundred to five hundred 
feet high. 

The point or head of Salinas is five miles in length, in a north and 
south direction ; off its southern extreme is a reef of rocks, a quarter 
of a mile from the shore ; and at its northern part, called Las Bajas, 
is an islet at a cable's distance ; between these points are two coves 
fit only for boats ; there is a remarkable round hill, called Salinas, 
at a short distance from the coast, and further in shore, is a level, 
sandy plain ; at the south side of this plain is a number of salinas, 
or salt-ponds, from which the headland takes its name. These ponds 
are visited occasionally by people from Huacho. 

Off the south part of Salinas, in a south-west direction, lie the Huara 
Islands, the largest of which is called Mazorque. It is two hun- 
dred feet in height, three-quarters of a mile long, and quite white ; 
sealers occasionally frequent this island ; there is landing on its north 
side. 

The next in size is called Pelade ; it lies S. 49° W. six miles and 
a half from Mazorque, is about one humdred and fifty feet high, and 
apparently quite round ; between these two islands a safe passage 
exists, and may be used without fear in working up to Callao. Be- 
tween Mazorque and SaUnas are several smaller islands, all of which, 
from their appearance, may be approached without danger ; but as 
no advantage could be gained, it would not be prudent to risk going 
between them. Vessels, in working up, sometimes go between the 
inner one and the point ; but what they gain by so doing does 
not appear, for when the current sets to the southward, it runs 
equally as strong between Mazorque and Pelade as it does nearer the 
shore. 

Round the northern point of Salinas Head is the bay of that name, 
of large dimensions, and affording anchorage. From this bay the 
coast is moderately high and cliffy, without any break, until you 
reach the Bay of Huacho. This bay lies round a bluff head, is small ; 
but the anchorage is good in five fathoms, just within the two rocks 
that run off the northern part of the head. The town is built about 
a mile from the coast, in the midst of a fertUe plain, and in coming 
from seaward has a pleasant appcEirance ; it is not a place of much 
trade, but whale-ships find it useful for watering and refreshing their 
crews. Fresh provisions, vegetables, and fruit, are abundant and on 
reasonable terms ; wood is also plentiful, and a stream of fresh water 



256 APPENDIX. 

runs down the side of the clifF into the sea. Landing is tolerably 
good : rafting seems to be the best method of watering. 

In coming from seaward, the best distinguishing marks for this 
place, are the Beagle Mountains, three in number, in the near 
range, each of which has two separate peaks on it ; these lie 
directly over the bay, and on closing the land, the rornid hiU on Sali- 
nas Point and the Island of San Martin to the northward, wUl be 
seen ; about midway between them is the Bay of Huacho, under a 
light brown cliiF, the top of which is covered with brushwood : to the 
southward the coast is a dark, rocky cMfF. 

N. 29° W., three miles and two-thirds from Huacho, are the Head 
and Bat of Carquin, scarcely as large as Huacho, and apparently 
shoal and useless to shipping ; off the Head, which is a steep cliff, 
with a sharp-topped hiU on it, are some rocks above water, and an islet 
about three-quarters of a mile distant. N. 31° W. three miles from 
this islet is the island of San Martin, and round to the northward of 
the point abreast of it, is the Bay of Bequeta. 

This is no place for a vessel, being full of rocks and breakers, and 
having nothing to induce one to go there. From this bay the coast is 
moderately high, with sandy outline, until you reach Point Atahuan- 
qui. This is a steep point, with two mounds on it, and is partly white 
on its south side : there is a small bay on its north side, fit only for 
boats. Between this point and the south part of Point Thomas 
the coast forms a sandy bay, low and shrubby ; with the town of 
Supe about a mile from the sea. 

Point Thomas is similar in appearance to Atahuanqui, without the 
white on the south side. To the northward of this Point is a snug 
little bay, capable of containing four or five saU; it is called the 
Bay of Supe, and is the port of that place and Barranca. 

There is a fishing village at the south part of it, which is used 
by the inhabitants of Barranca during the bathing- season. Hitherto 
it had been a forbidden port by the government : in consequence of 
which it is little known, and has had few opportunities of exchanging 
its produce for the goods of other countries. When we were there, 
little information could be gained as to the size of the neighbouring 
towns, and number of inhabitants they contain ; but from their appear- 
ance we thought they might be of considerable extent. These places 
produce chiefly sugar and com, cargoes of which are taken in the 
various little vessels that trade along the coast. Refreshments may 



APPENDIX. 257 

be obtained ; but water is scarce, tlae greater part of which is brought 
from Supe, for the use of the inhabitants of the village. 

The best anchorage is in four fathoms, with Point Thomas shut in 
by the inner point, about a cable's length from the rocks running 
off that point, and rather more than a quarter of a mile from the 
village. There is good anchorage further out, in six or seven fathoms, 
but little sheltered from the swell. In entering, there is no danger ; 
Point Thomas is bold, with regular soundings, from ten to fifteen 
fathoms three-quarters of a mile off it. Off Inner Point there are a 
few rocks to a short distance ; but there is no necessity for hugging 
the shore so close, as you can always fetch the anchorage, by keeping 
at a moderate distance in standing in. 

To distinguish this port, the best guide at a distance is the Bell 
Mountain, the highest and most remarkable mountain in the second 
range ; it bears from the anchorage E. 39° N. ; may be distinguished 
by its shape like a bell, and has three distinct rises on its summit — 
the highest at the north end ; on that side it shews very distinctly, 
there being no other hiUs near it for a considerable distance. On 
approaching the coast, the island of San Martin to the southward, 
and Mount Darwin and Cerro Horca (a small round hill on the beach, 
with a steep, chffy side to it, facing the sea, with apparently an islet 
off it), will be seen, nearly four leagues to the northward. The har- 
bour itself has a white rock at its north extreme, and cannot be 
mistaken, for there is no other like it near this part of the coast. 

From Supe the coast is a clay cHff, about a hundred feet Ln height, 
to the distance of a league and a half; it then becomes low and 
covered with brushwood, until you reach Cerro Horca already men- 
tioned ; here it again becomes hUly near the sea, with alternate rocky 
points and small sandy bays, which continue to the distance of six 
leagues ; where is the bay called Gramadel. 

This is a vnld-looking place, with a heavy swell roUing in ; it is 
visited occasionally for the hair seal, with which it abounds : there is 
anchorage in six or seven fathoms, sandy bottom, with the bluff that 
forms the bay bearing S.S.E. about half a mUe from the shore ; 
but landing is scarcely practicable. 

The coast maintains its rocky character, vdth deep water off it, as 
far as the Buffadero, a high, steep cliff, vidth a hill having two paps 
on it, a little in-shore. From this bluff is a rocky cliff, from two 
hundred to three hundred feet high, and more level country, as far as 
Point Leganto, round which is the Port of Guarmey. 



268 APPENDIX. 

This is a tolerable harbour, with good anchorage any where in 
from three and a half to ten fathoms, over a fine sandy bottom. 

Fire-wood is the principal commodity, for which it is the best and 
cheapest place on the whole coast. Vessels of considerable burthen 
touch here for that article, which they carry up to CaUao, and derive 
great profit from its sale. There are also some saltpetre works, 
established by a Frenchman, but httle business is done in that line. 
The town Hes in a north-easterly direction, about two miles from the 
anchorage, but is hid by the surrounding trees, which grow to the 
height of thirty feet. It has only one street, and cannot contain more 
than five or six hundred inhabitants. At the anchorage there is a 
small house, used to transact business, but no other building, which 
is unusual, as at most of these places there is a small village near 
the sea. Large stacks of wood are piled up on the beach, ready for 
embarking. 

Fresh provisions, vegetables, and fruit, are plentiful and moderate ; 
but water is not to be depended on. It is true, there is a river, and 
for several months after March there is a plentiful supply ; but in 
the summer season there is sometimes great drought. At the time 
we were there, a whale-ship put in to supply her wants, and had to 
remain several days, waiting for the water to come down from the 
mountains. 

Legarto Head is a steep cliff, with the land faUing immediately 
inside it and rising again to about the same height. In saUing in, 
after having passed the head, a small, white islet will be seen in the 
middle of the bay ; steer for it, that you may not border on the 
southern shore, for there are many straggling rocks running off the 
points ; and when sufficiently far to the northward to shape a mid- 
channel course between the white islet and the point opposite it, to 
the southward, do so, and it will lead to the anchorage. In standing 
in, in this direction, the water shoals gradually to the beach ; but 
the southern shore must on no account be approached nearer than a 
quarter of a mUe. 

The best anchorage is in four fathoms, with Harbour Islet bearing 
N. 26° W., and the ruins of a fort on a hUl in-shore E. 5° N. about 
a quarter of a mile from the landing-place on the beach. This land- 
ing-place does not seem to be so good a one as a steep rock on the 
outer side of the bluff, where the sand beach commences ; but pro- 
bably it is the most convenient for loading boats. 

The rise and faU of tide is irregular, and the time of high water 



APPENDIX, 259 

uncertain; but, generally speaking, three feet may be considered 
about the extent to which it ranges. The sea breeze sets in so 
strongly occasionally, that it is difficult for boats to pull ao-ainst it ; 
this is particularly the case under the high land, whence it comes 
in sudden gusts and squalls. 

In coming from seaward, the best way to make this port is to 
stand in on a parallel of 10° 06', and when within a few leagues of 
the coast, a sharp -peaked hill, with a large white mark on it, will be 
seen standing alone a little north of the port : the break in the 
hills through which the river runs, is high and clifiy on each side. 
The land is also much lower to the northward of Legarto Head; 
and there is a large white islet at the north end of Guarmey Bay. 

N. 34° W., seven miles and a half from the white islet at the 
north extreme of Guarmey Bay, is Point Culebras, a level project- 
ing point, similar in appearance to Legarto Head, as seen from the 
northward ; the coast between is a mass of broken cliffs and innu- 
merable detached rocks, with moderately high land near the coast. 

On the north side of Point Culebras, there is anchorage off the 
valley of that name. From this point the coast is rocky, with small 
sandy bays, and some rocks lying off it about three quarters of a 
mile ; there is also a white clifiy islet, five miles to the northward of 
Culebras ; whence the coast takes a bend inwards, forming^a bay, 
and then runs out towards the Colina Redonda ; a point with two 
hummocks on it, and as seen from the southward, appearing Hke an 
island. On the north side of this point is the Caleta (only fit for 
boats) ; and immediately over it, the Cerro Mongon. 

The Cerro Mongon is the highest and most conspicuous object on 
this part of the coast ; when seen from the westward it has the ap- 
pearance of being round, with rather a sharp summit ; but from the 
southward, it shows as a long hUl with a peak at each end. It is 
said there is a lake of fresh water on its summit, and that its valleys 
abound with deer ; but the truth of this cannot be vouched for, as 
our examination did not extend so far. 

From Mongon there is a range of hills running parallel to the 
coast (which is high and rocky, with some white islets lying off it) 
as far as Casma, where they terminate in a steep rocky bluff, that 
forms the southern head of the port of that name. 

The Bay of Casma is a snug anchorage, something in the form of 
a horse-shoe ; at its entrance it is a mile and three quarters in a 



260 



APPENDIX. 



N.W. and S.E. direction, and a mile and a half deep from the outer 
part of the cheek, with regular soundings from fifteen to ten, and 
three fathoms near the beach. ^, 

The best anchorage is with the inner part of the south cheek, bear- 
ing about S.S.E. a quarter of a mile off shore, in seven fathoms water ; 
by not going farther in you escape, in a great measure, the sudden 
gusts of wind that at times come do^^m the valley with great vio- 
lence. Captain Ferguson, of H.M.S. Mersey, mentions a rock with 
nine feet water on it, on the south side, half a mUe from the shore, 
that sometimes breaks : we saw nothing of it while we were there, 
but doubtless it exists. 

This place seemed quite deserted ; the only things that indicated 
its ever having been visited, were a few stacks of wood piled up on 
the beach. 

The best distinguishing mark for Casma, is the sandy beach in the 
bay, with the sand hdlls in-shore of it contrasting strongly with the 
hard dark rocks, of which the heads at the entrance are formed : 
there is also a small black islet lying a Httle to the westward of it. 

From Casma the coast takes rather a more westerly direction, but 
continues bold and rocky. 

N. 44° W., five leagues from Casma, is the Harbour of Samanco, 
or Hu/^MBACHo ; midway between them is a bay, almost hidden by 
two islands that lie across the entrance : this bay is four miles long 
and two miles deep ; but as the Bay of Samanco is so near at hand, 
it was not examined by us as to its capabUities. 

The Bay of Samanco is the most extensive on the coast to the 
northward of Callao ; it is two leagues in length, in a N.W. and 
S.E. direction, and a league and a half wide : at its entrance it is 
two miles wide, formed by Point Samanco on the south, and Seal 
Island on the north, and has regular soundings all over it. 

At the S.E. comer, in a sandy bay, is a small \illage (the resi- 
dence of some fishermen), situated at the termination of the River 
Nepena. This river, like most on the coast, has not sufficient 
strength to force a passage for itself through the beach, but termi- 
nates in a lagoon within a few yards of the sea. 

The tovra of Huambacho is the nearest place to this bay ; it lies 
about a league distant, at the east extreme of the valley. Nepena, 
which is the principal town, lies to the north-east about five leagues 
off. Tliere is very little trade at this place ; small coasting vessels 



APPENDIX. 261 

from Payta sometimes call here with a mixed cargo, and they get in 
exchange sugar and a Httle grain. 

Refreshment may be obtained from the neighbouring towns, but 
wood is scarce. The water of the river is brackish and unfit for use ; 
but there are wells on the left bank, a short distance from the huts. 
When taken on board, this water is not good ; but, contrary to the 
general ride, after it has been some time confined on board, it becomes 
wholesome and pleasant tasted. 

When at a distance, the best mark to distinguish this bay, is Mount 
Division, a hill with three sharp peaks, situated on the peninsula be- 
tween Samanco and the Bay of Ferrol. There is also a bell- shaped 
hiU on the south side of the bay that shows very distinctly. 

Mount Tortuga, a short distance inland to the N.N.E., wiU also 
be seen : it is higher, and similar in appearance to the Bell Mount. 
The south entrance point is a steep bluff, with some rocks lying off 
it to a cable's length ; on opening the bay. Leading Bluff will be seen, 
a large lump of rock on the sandy beach at the N.E. side, that looks 
like an island. In going in, give Samanco Head a berth in passing ; 
you may then stand in as close as convenient to the weather shore, 
and anchor off the village in four, five, or six fathoms, sandy bottom : 
when rounding the inner points, take care of your small spars ; for 
the wind comes off the BeU Mount in sudden and variable puffs. 

N. 43° W., three leagues from Samanco, is the entrance to the 
Bay of Ferrol, nearly equal in size to Samanco, and separated from 
it by a low sandy isthmus ; it is an excellent place for a vessel to 
careen, being entirely free from the swell that sets into most of the 
ports. On its N.E. side is the Indian village of Chimbote, where, 
we were told, refreshment of any kind might be had, but no water. 
The entrance is clear ; but there is a reef of rocks off Blanca Island, 
half a mile to the northward, which must be avoided. 

N. 40° W., two leagues from the entrance of Ferrol, is Santa 
Island : about a mile and a half in length ; lying N.N.E. and 
S.S.W., and of a very white colour ; just without it are two sharp- 
pointed rocks, twenty feet above the sea. Two miles N.N.E. from 
the island is Santa Head, on the north side of which is the harbour 
of that name. This, although small, is a tolerable harbour ; the best 
anchorage is in four or five fathoms, with the extreme of the head 
bearing S.W. Fresh provisions and vegetables may be obtained on 
moderate terms. It is also a tolerable place for watering. 



262 APPENDIX. 

The town lies west from the anchorage, about two miles distant ; 
and the mouth of the river is a mUe and a half along the beach. 
This is the largest and most rapid river on the coast of Peru : from 
Santa Head it is seen to wind its way down the valley, with several 
islets interrupting its course ; but at its termination it branches off 
and becomes shallow, with only sufficient strength to make a narrow 
outlet for itself, through the sandy beach that forms the coast line : 
a heavy and dangerous surf lies off it ; so that no boat could approach 
vdth any degree of safety. 

This part of the coast may be known by the wide spreading valley 
down which the river runs, bounded on each side by ranges of sharp- 
topped hiUs ; and as you approach, Santa Island will be plainly seen ; 
with the Head of the same name ; there is also a small but remark- 
able white island, called Corcovado, to the N.W. of the harbour. 
There is no danger in entering ; the soundings are regular for some 
distance outside ; and you may anchor any where between the islands 
in a moderate depth of water, but of course exposed to the swell. 

N. 39° W., five leagues from Santa, lie the Chao Islands, one mile 
and three quarters off the point and hill of that name. The largest 
is a mUe in circumference, about one hundred and twenty feet high, 
and, like most of these islands, quite white ; there are regular sound- 
ings from ten to twenty fathoms, at the distance of a mile off shore. 

Between Santa and Chao the coast is a low sandy beach, which 
continues and forms a shallow bay, as far as the hill of Guanape, 
with moderately high land a few miles in-shore. 

The hill of Guanape is about three hundred feet high ; rather 
sharp at its summit, and when seen from the southward, appears like 
an island ; on the north side of it is a small cove, with tolerable 
landing just inside the rock that hes off the point. 

S. 8° W. from this point, between six and seven miles from the 
coast, lie the Guanape Islands, with a safe passage between them 
and the shore ; they may be said to be two, with some islets and 
rocks lying about them ; the southern is the highest and most con- 
spicuous. 

From the hiU of Guanape the coast continues a sandy beach, with 
regular soundings ; and ranges of high sharp-topped hills, about 
two leagues from the sea, until you near the little hiU of Carretas, 
which is on the beach, and has Morro Garita de Mocha overlooking 
it. Here commences the valley of Chimu, about the middle of which 



APPENDIX. 263 

is situated the city of Truxillo, and at the northern extreme, the 
village and road of Huanchaco. This is a bad place for shipping, 
and seems to have been badly chosen : the north side of the hUl of 
Carretas is a much better place for landing and embarking goods ; and 
might be farther improved by sinking some small craft laden with 
stones, plenty of which the hill would aiFord. 

The road of Huanchaco is on the north side of a few rocks that 
run out from a chffy projection ; sheltering the land in a slight de- 
gree, but affording no protection to shipping. The village is under 
the cliff, and not distinguishable till to the northward of the point ; 
but the church, which is on the rising ground, shows very distinctly, 
and is a good guide when near the coast. 

The usual anchorage is with the church and a tree that stands 
in the village in one, bearing about east, a mile and a quarter from 
the shore, in seven fathoms dark sand and mud. Vessels often have 
to weigh or slip and stand off, owdng to the heavy swell that sets 
in : it is also customary to sight your anchor once in the twenty- 
four hours, to prevent its being imbedded so firmly as to require 
much time to weigh it when required. 

Landing cannot be effected in ship's boats ; there are launches con- 
structed for the purpose, manned by Indians of the village, who are 
skilful in the management of them : they come off on your arrival, 
and will land you safely, for which they charge six dollars, equal to 
one pound four shillings sterhng : it is to be remembered that no 
more is charged for a cargo of goods ; their having to risk the surf 
being that for which you pay. 

Fresh provisions may be had from Truxillo, but watering is out of 
the question. The city is said to contain 4,000 inhabitants. Rice is 
the principal production of the valley ; for that article and specie 
it is that vessels call here. 

If bound for this road, you should stand in on a parallel of 8°, 
(which is a mile to vdndward), and you vrill see Mount Campana, a 
bell-shaped mount, standing alone, about two leagues to the north- 
ward : and Huanchaco Peak, which is very sharp, and the first hUl 
in the range on the north side of the valley. Shortly after the 
church vtdU come in sight, and the shipping in the road. 

The coast is cliffy for a few miles to the northward of Huanchaco ; 
the low sandy soil with bushes on it then commences, with regular 
soundings off it, and continues as far as Malabrigo Road. This bay 



264 APPENDIX. 

although bad, is considerably preferable to Huanchaco ; it is formed 
by a cluster of hiUs, projecting beyond the general trend of the 
coast, which at a distance appear like an island ; there is a fishing 
village at the S.E. side, but no trade is carried on. The town 
of Paysan lies some leagues to the S.E., and, by the account they 
gave of it at Malabrigo, must be of considerable extent. 

The best anchorage here is vidth the \dllage bearing about E.S.E., 
three-quarters of a mile from the shore, in four fathoms sandy bot- 
tom : landing is bad, but the fishermen have what they call ' cabal- 
Htos,' bunches of reed fastened together, turned up at the bow like 
a balsa of ChUe, but much higher. These are so light that they 
are thro-WTi on the top of the surf to the beach, when they jump off 
and carry them on their shoulders to the huts. It seems that each 
different bay or road has its peculiarly-constructed vessel, adapted to 
the surf which it has to go through. The small island of Macabi, 
lies S. by E. two leagues from Malabrigo, with a safe channel 
of ten fathoms between it and the main land. 

N. 35° W., six leagues and a half from Malabrigo, is the road of 
Pacasmayo ; between the two the coast is low and cliffy, with a 
sandy beach at the foot of the cHff, and soundings of nine and ten 
fathoms two miles off shore. Pacasmayo is a sufficiently good road- 
stead, under a projecting sandy point, with a flat running off it to 
the distance of a quarter of a mile. The best anchorage is with the 
point bearing about S. by E., and the village east ; you will there 
have five fathoms, sand and mud : there is no danger in standing 
in ; the soundings are regular, shoaling gradually towards the shore. 
Landing is difficult : laimches are used as at Huanchaco. The prin- 
cipal export is rice, which is brought from the town of San Pedro 
de Yoco, two leagues inland. Fresh provisions may also be obtained 
from the same place ; wood and water may be had at the village on 
the beach, which is principally inhabited by Indians, employed by 
the merchants of San Pedro. 

To distinguish this road from seaward, the best guide is to stand 
in on a parallel of 7° 25' to 30', and when vdthin six leagues, the 
hill of Malabrigo wUl be seen, which appears like an island sloping 
gradually on each side ; and a little to the northward. Arcana HiU, 
rugged with sharp peaks. As you approach, the low yeUow cliffs 
win appear (those north of the road the liighest), on the summit of 
which, on the north side of the point, is a dark square buUding that 



APPENDIX. 265 

shews very distinctly. The best mark for the anchorage is the ship- 
ping, when any are there. From this road the coast continues low, 
with broken cliiF, until you reach Point Eten, which is a double hiU 
(the southern one the highest), with a steep cliff facing the sea. 
The north side of this cliff is white, and shews conspicuously. 

N. 43° W., a Httle more than four leagues, is the road of Lam- 
BAYEQUE, the worst anchorage on the coast of Peru. There is a 
small village on the rising ground, with a church that shews white 
towards the sea ; off which vessels anchor in five fathoms, a mile 
and a quarter from the shore. The bottom is a hard sand, and bad 
holding ground, it is always necessary to have two anchors ready, 
for the heavy swell that sets on this beach renders it almost im- 
possible to bring up with one, particularly after the sea breeze 
sets in. 

Rice is the chief commoditj^ for which vessels touch here : the 
only method of discharging or taking in a cargo (or in fact landing 
at all), is by means of the balsa. This is a raft of nine logs of the 
cabbage palm, secured together by lashings, with a platform raised 
about two feet, on which the goods are placed. Tliey have a large 
lug sail which is used in landing, the wind being along the shore 
enables them to run through the surf and on the beach with ease and 
safety ; and it seldom happens that any damage is sustained by this 
peculiar mode of proceeding. Supplies of fresh provisions, fruit, 
and vegetables may be obtained, but neither wood nor water. 

The coast continues low and sandy, similar in appearance to that 
of Lambayeque, to the distance of twenty-five leagues : an extensive 
range of table-land of considerable height, with broken rocky points, 
then commences, and continues to Point Aguja or the Needle. 
Fifteen leagues from Lambayeque in an E.S.E. direction, lies a small 
group of islands called Lobos de Afuera. These islands are a 
league in length north and south, and a mile and a half broad ; are 
about a hundred feet high, of a mixed brown and white colour, and 
may be seen several leagues off ; they are quite barren, affording 
neither wood nor water. There is a cove on the north side formed by 
the two principal islands, but with deep water and rocky bottom ; 
within this cove are several nooks, in which a small vessel might 
careen, without being interrupted by the swell. 

These islands are resorted to by fishermen from Lambayeque on 
their balsas ; they carry all their necessaries with them, and remain 

a a 



SG(j APPExnix. 

about a month salting fish, M'hich fetch a high price at Lambayeque. 
ITiere is no danger round these islands, at the distance of a mile ; 
regular soundings will be found between them and the shore, from 
fifty fathoms abreast of the islands. 

N. 26° W., ten leagues from Lobos de Afuera, lies the Island of 
LoBo's DE TiEEEA, nearly two leagues in length, north and south, 
and little more than two miles wide ; when seen from seaward it has 
a similar appearance to the former islands, and many rocks and 
blind breakers lie round it, particularly on the west side. There is 
tolerable anchorage on the N.E. side, in eleven or t^velve fathoms, 
sand and broken shells. A safe passage is said to exist between 
this island and the main, which is distant ten miles, but as no advan- 
tage could be gained by going between, it was not thoroughly exa- 
mined by us. 

Point Aguja is long and level, terminating in a steep bluff 150 
feet high, and has a finger rock a short distance off it, with several 
detached rocks round the point. 

Three miles and a half N.N.E. of this is Point Noniira, and five 
miles farther in the same direction is Point Pisura, the south point 
of the Baj' of Sechura ; between Aguja and Point Pisura are two 
small bays, where anchorage may be obtained, if required. The land 
about this part is much higher, and has deeper water oflf it, than on 
either side, and may be readily known by its regularity and table- 
top. The bay of Sechura is twelve leagues in length, formed by the 
little Lobos Island of Payta and Point Pisura, and is six leagues 
deep ; on the S.E. side the coast shows low sand hills, but as you 
go northward it becomes chffy and considerably higher. 

Near the centre of the bay is the entrance to the River Piura, and 
the tovra of Sechura situated on the banks of it. This town is inha- 
bited chiefly by Indians, who carry on a considerable trade in salt, 
which they take to Payta on their balsas, and sell to the shipping. 
The river is small, but of sufficient size to admit the balsas when laden. 
There is anchorage any where off the town, in from twelve to five 
fathoms, coarse sand ; in the latter depth you will be better than a 
mile from the shore. This place may easily be distinguished by the 
church, which has two high steeples on it, and shows conspicuously 
above the surrounding sand hills ; one of these steeples has a con- 
siderable inchnation to the northward, which at a distance £rives it 
more the appearance of a cocoa-nut tree than a stone building. 



APPENDIX. 267 

From Lobos Island Point the coast is cliffy, about 120 feet high, 
and continues so as far as Payta Point, which is three leagues distant ; 
between these two, a mile and a half from the coast, is a cluster of 
hills called the saddle of Payta ; accurately described by Captain 
Basil Hall. The Silla or Saddle of Payta is sufficiently remark- 
able, it is high and peaked, forming three clusters of peaks joined 
together at the base, the middle being the highest ; the two northern 
ones are of a dark brown colour ; the southern is the lowest, and of a 
lighter browTi. These peaks rise out of a level plain, and are an 
excellent guide to vessels boimd for the Port of Payta from the south- 
ward. 

A few leagues to the northward, as already mentioned, is Payta 
Point, round which is the port of that name. This is without excep- 
tion the best harbour on the coast, and considerable trade is carried 
on. Vessels of all nations touch here for cargoes, principally cotton, 
bark, hides, and drugs, in return for which they bring the manu- 
factures of their several countries. In the year 1835 upwards of 
forty thousand tons of shipping anchored in this port. Communi- 
cation with Europe (via Panama) is more expeditious than at any of 
the other ports. 

The town is built on the slope and at the foot of the hill, on the 
south-east side of the bay ; at a distance it is scarcely visible, the 
houses being of the same colour with the surrounding cliff. It is 
said to contain 5,000 inhabitants, and is the sea port of the province 
of Piura, the population of which is estimated at 75,000 souls. 

The City of San Miguel de Piura is situated on the banks of 
the River Piura, in an easterly direction from Payta, between nuie 
and ten leagues distant. Fresh provisions may be had at Payta on 
reasonable terms, but neither wood nor water, except at a high 
price, the latter being brought from Colan (a distance of four miles) 
for the inhabitants of the place. When we were there hopes were 
entertained of a supply of water from the west side of the bay ; an 
American having commenced boring with an apparatus proper for the 
purpose. 

There is no danger in entering this excellent harbour : after 
rounding the point which has a signal station on it, you will open 
False Bay : this must be passed, as the true bay is romid Inner 
Point. That point ought not to be hugged closely, for there are some 
rocks to the distance of a cable's length, and the wind baffles off it. 

a a 2 



QG8 



API'KXDIX. 



After rounding Inner Point you may anchor where convenient, in 
quiet still water, with from four to seven fathoms, over a muddy bot- 
tom. The landing jDlace is at the mole about the centre of the town. 

N. 41°. W., nine leagues and a half from the town of Payta, is 
Point Paeina, a bluff, about eighty feet high, with a reef to the 
distance of half a mile on its west side ; between this point and 
Payta the coast is low and sandy, with table land of a moderate 
height, a short distance from the beach ; and the mountain of Ama- 
tape five leagues in the interior. 

After rounding Point Parina (which is the western extreme of 
South America), the coast trends abruptly to the northward, and 
becomes higher and more chiij^ until you reach Point Talara. This 
is a double point, the southern part of which is cliffy ; about eighty 
feet high, with a smaU black rock lying off it ; the northern part is 
much lower, and has few breakers near. On the north side of this 
point is a shallow bay, in the depth of which the high cliffy coast 
again commences, and runs in a line towards Cape Blanco. 

Cape Blanco is high and bold (apparently the corner of a long 
range of table-land), sloping gradually toward the sea ; near the 
extreme of the cape there aie two shaq> topped hillocks.; and midway 
between them and the commencement of the table land, is another 
rise with a sharp top. There are some rocks that shew themselves 
about a quarter of a mile off^, but no danger exists without that dis- 
tance. From Cape Blanco the general trend of the coast is more 
easterly, in nearly a direct hne to Point Malpelo, which is twenty- 
one leagues distant. 

N. 34° E., seven leagues and a half from the former is Point 
Sal, a brown cliff", one hundred and twenty feet high ; along the 
coast is a sandy beach, with high cliff as far as the valley of Mancora, 
where it is low with brush wood near the sea ; the hills being- at a dis- 
tance inland. 

Northward of Point Sal the coast is cliffy, to about midway 
between It and Point Picos ; it then becomes lower, and similar to 
Mancora. 

Point Picos is a sloping bluff, with a sandy beach outside it, and 
another point, exactly similar, a little to the northward : at the back 
of it is a cluster of hills with sharp peaks, hence arises, probably, 
the name given by the Spaniards to this point. From Point Picos 
the coast is a sandy beach, with a mixture of hill and cliff of a 



APPENDIX. 269 

light brown colour and well wooded. There are seveial small bays 
between it and Point Malpelo, which bears N. 41° E., seven and a 
half leagues distant. 

Point Malpelo, the southern point of the entrance of Guayaquil 
River, may be readily known by the marked diiference between it 
and the coast to the southward : it is very low and covered wibh 
bushes to its extreme ; a short distance in-shore, is a clump of bushes 
higher and more conspicuous than the rest, which shews plainly on 
approaching. At the extremity of the point is the River Tumbes 
off which a reef extends, to the distance of a quarter of»a mile. 
This place is much frequented by whalers, for fresh- water, which is 
found about a mile from the entrance, where they fill their boats from 
alongside ; great care is necessary in crossing the bar, as a heavy 
and dangerous* surf beats on it, rendering it at all times difficult to 
cross. 1 

The entrance to the river may be distinguished by a hut on the 
port hand going in, which is perceived immediately you round the 
point. About two leagues up the river stood the old town of 
Tumbes, now scarcely more thah a few huts, barely sufficient to 
supply the whalers with fruit and vegetables. This is the boundary 
line, between Peru and the State of the Equator. You may anchor 
any where off the point in six or seven fathoms. 



Winds. 

The prevailing winds on the coast of Peru blow from S.S.E. to 
S.W. ; seldom stronger than a fresh breeze, and often in particular 
parts scarcely sufficient to enable shipping to make their passages 
from one port to another. This is especially the case on the south 
and south-western coast, between Cobija and Callao. 

Sometimes during the summer, for three or four successive days, 
there is not a breath of vdnd ; the sky is beautifully clear, with a 
nearly vertical sun. 

On the days that the sea-breeze sets in, it generally commences 
about ten in the morning ; then light and variable, but gradually 
increasing till one or two in the afternoon. From that time, a steady 
breeze prevails till near sunset, when it begins to die away ; and 
soon after the sun is down there is a calm. About eight or nine 



270 APPENDIX. 

in the evening light winds come off the land, and continue till sun- 
rise; when it again becomes calm until the sea-breeze sets in as 
before. 

During winter (from April to August) light northerly winds may 
be frequently expected, accompanied by thick fogs, or dark lowering 
weather ; but this seldom occurs in the summer months, although 
even then the tops of hiUs are frequently enveloped in mist. 

To the northward of Callao, the winds are more to be depended 
on ; the sea-breeze sets in with greater regularity, and fresher than 
on the southern parts ; and near the limit of the Peruvian territory 
(about Payta and off Cape Blanco), a double-reefed topsail breeze is 
not uncommon. 

It is to be remarked, and may be laid doMia as a general rule, that 
although such moderate winds blow on the coast of Peru, yet sudden 
and heavy gusts come over high land after the sea-breeze sets in, 
which, from the smallness of the ports, may be attended with some 
inconvenience, if precautions are not taken in shortening sail previous 
to entering them. 

The only difference between winter and summer, as far as regards 
the winds, is the frequency of light northerly airs during the former 
months ; but in the state of the weather, the difference is far greater 
than one would imagine in so low a latitude. In the summer the 
weather is dehghtfully line, with the thermometer (Fahrenheit's) 
seldom below 70°, and often as high as 80°, in a vessel's cabin ; but 
during winter the air is raw and damp, with thick fogs and a cloudy 
overcast sky. Cloth clothing is then necessary for the security of 
health ; whereas in summer the lighter you are clad, the more con- 
ducive to comfort and health. 

The general set of the Current on the coast of Peru is along the 
shore to the northward, from half a knot to one knot an hour ; but 
occasionally it sets to the southward, with equal or even greater 
strength. 

The period at which these southerly sets take place cannot be ascer- 
tained with any degree of certainty. Neither seasons, the state of 
the moon, nor other causes common on almost every coast, seem to 
have an influence here. The oldest navigators, and men accus- 
tomed to the coasting trade, can assign no reason for these changes — 
they only know that they do take place, and endeavour to profit by 
them accordingly. 



APPKNUIX. 271 

During our stay on the coast, we frequently experienced these 
southerly sets, immediately preceding and during northerly winds ; 
but as this was not always the case, no general rule can be laid 
douTi, although it certainly appears a natural inference to draw. "We 
also remarked, that at times the current was setting to the south- 
ward, when a fresh wind was, and for days previous, had been blow- 
ing from that quarter. And as no inequalities or irregularities in 
the coast Hne could have occasioned this, it only served to heighten 
our curiosity, without affording any clue to discover how the peculia- 
rity was caused. 



On Passages. 

With regard to making passages on this coast — little difficult)^ is 
found in going northward ; a fair offing is all that is requisite to 
ensure your making a certain port in a given number of days ; but in 
working to windward, some degree of skill, and constant attention 
are necessary. 

Much difference of opinion exists as to whether the in -shore or 
off-shore route should be preferred ; but from the experience we had 
ourselves, and from information gained from those who were said to 
understand the coast, we were led to suppose the following the best 
line to foUow. 

On leaving Guayaquil or Payta, if bound to CaUao, work close in- 
shore to about the island of Lobos de Afuera. All agree in this. 
Endeavour always to be in with the land soon after the sun has 
set, that advantage may be taken of the land wind, which begins 
about that time ; this will frequently enable a ship to make her way 
nearly along shore throughout the night, and place her in a good 
situation for the first of the sea-breeze. 

After having passed the before-named islands, it would be advisable 
to work up on their meridian, until you approach the latitude of 
Callao ; then stand in, and if it is not fetched, work up along shore, 
as above directed. 

Some people have attempted to make this passage, by standing 
off for Jveveral days, hoping to fetch in on the other tack, but have 
invariably found it a fruitless effort, owing to the northerly set that 
is experienced on apjDroaching the equator. 

If from Callao and bound to \^alparaiso, there is no question but 



272 APPENDIX. 

that by running off with a full sail the passage will be made in much 
less time than by working in-shore, for you run quite through the 
trade-wind, and fall in with the westerly winds which are always 
found beyond the trades. But for the intermediate ports (except- 
ing Coquimbo) the case is different, as they lie considerably within 
the trade-wind, and must be worked for by that alone.* It may, 
however, be recommended to work along shore as bfefore stated, to 
about the island of San Gallan. Whence the coast trends more to 
the eastward, so that a long leg and a short one may be made (with 
the land just in sight) as far as Arica, or to any of the ports between 
Pisco and that place. 

From Arica, the coast being nearly north and south, vessels 
bound to the southward should make an offing of about fifteen or 
twenty leagues (to ensure keeping the sea-breeze), and work up on 
that meridian till in the parallel of the place to which they are bound. 
On no account is it advisable to make a long stretch off; for as you 
approach the limit of the trade-wind it gradually hauls to the east- 
ward, and great difficulty will be found in even fetching the port 
from which you started. 

The average passage in a well-conditioned merchant-vessel from 
Guayaquil to Callao is from fifteen to twenty days ; and from Callao 
to Valparaiso about three weeks ; fast-sailing schooners have made 
these passages in much less time ; and there is an instance of two 
men-of-war, in company, having gone from Callao to Valparaiso, 
remained there two days, and re-anchored at Callao on the twenty- 
first day. But these are rare occurrences, and only to be done under 
most favourable circumstances, such as taking a " norther" soon 
after leaving Callao. 



N.B. These remarks and notices, relating to Peru, are the work 
of Mr. Usborne. Those referring to Northern Chile are by Lieut. 
Sulivan. Mr. Stokes and I have added a few words, 

* A dull sailer might do better by running through the trade, making 
easting with westerly winds, and then steering northward' along the coast, 
than by attempting to work to windward against a trade-wirtfi, which 
varies but a few points. 



APPENDIX. 273 

No. 42. 
Al Snr. Comandante de la barca de S.M.B. Beagle, D°. R. FitzRoy. 

Buenos Ayres, Nov. 8 de 1832. 
Ano 22 de la Libertad, y 17 de la Yndependencia. 

El Ministro de Relaciones Esteriores que subscribe ha recibido eon 
la mayor satisfaccion la Carta del Puerto de Bahia Blanca, que se ha 
servido remitu'le fel Snr. Fitz Roy, Comandante de la Barca Beagle 
de S.M.B. 

El Ministro agradece al Snr. Fitz Roy este presente que considera 
de mucha importancia, y en su consecuencia tiene el placer de incluirle 
las ordenes que por el Ministerio de la Guerra se libran a los Coman- 
dantes politicos y militares de los Puertos de la RepubHca, para que no 
le pongan impedimento en sus operaciones facultativas sobre la Costa 
y si le faciliten los auxilios que puedan serle precisos para este desem- 
peno. 

Dios guarde muchos Anos al Snr. Com". D". Roberto Fitz Roy. 

Manuel V. E. Maza. 



Nc. 43. 

Sir, Lima, 21st June 1836. 

We, the undersigned British merchants, residing in this capital, 
have just learned with much satisfaction from his Majesty's Consul- 
General, Mr. Wilson, that the survey of the sea-coast from Cape 
Horn to Guayaquil has been completed. This important work exe- 
cuted by you and under your orders, wiU, doubtless, prove of great 
value to British commerce in the Pacific ; and we should be wanting 
in gratitude if we did not avail ourselves of the earliest opportunity 
of returning you our sincere thanks, not only for the skill and zeal 
you displayed in this arduous undertaking, but for the pecuniary 
sacrifices you made to insure its complete and speedy accompHsh- 
ment. To Mr. Usborne we also feel much indebted, for the energy 
and perseverance manifested by him in the fulfilment of his duty, 
under circumstances not a little embarrassing and difficult ; and we 
hope that his conduct, being made known in the proper quarter, will 
meet the reward it deserves. That you may long live to serve your 



274 APPENDIX. 

country, and establish fresh claims to the gratitude of your coun- 
trymen, is the sincere wish of. 

Sir, 
Your obUged and faithful servants, 

For Dickson, Price, and Co. — W. Hodgson. 

Natlor, Kendall, and Co. 
For Laylem, Read, arid Co. — Valentine 
Smith. 
SwAYN, Reid, and Co. 
Lang, Pearce, and Co. 
Fredk. Huth, Gruning, and Co. 
For GiBBs, Crawley, and Co. — H. Witt. 

J. W. Leadlet. 
For Hegan, Hall, and Co. — J. Farmer. 
John Mackie. 
J. Sutherland. 
For Christopher Briggs. — H. N, Briggs. 
Templeman and Bergman. 
Frederick Pfeiffer. 



No. 44. 



Description of a Quadrant, the power of which is increased by 
means of an additional Horizon Glass. 

Let CAB, in the figure, represent a common quadrant, having 
the angle A C B equal to forty-five degrees : let C be the index-glass ; 
C A the zero hne, or the plane of the glass produced ; D the hori- 
zon-glass, and E the sight-vane. 

Suppose C and D to be parallel, and that a ray coming from an 
object H, is reflected from C, along the line C D, and from D along 
the line D E to the eye. 

A ray of light from h may be supposed to come from H, if the 
two, H h, are more than half a mile from the instrument, and the 
object H vnH be seen directly, as well as by reflection, in the Une D E. 

The angle D C E being equal to the angle DEC, D C is equal 
to D E. With the centre D describe the circle C E F. Place a 
glass at F, similar to that at D, but making an angle with C B, 
which will reflect a ray passing along C F, in the line F E, to E. 



CttlKiaTITS. 



STJRAOnUS. 




'FHLMlB.llT S. 




/tFz£:Jic/ 



CTUMlUJL.TDSo 



?U)lisl)ed by Henry CollD-Lim.Ja.Great l-IarIbarougli5Lreci..l839 



APJ-ENDIX. 275 

C F E is an angle at the circumference of a circle, and therefore half 
C D E, at the centre ; and equal to D E F, or forty-five degrees. 

An object at H being reflected from F along the line FE, will 
appear in contact with an object at K, which we may here suppose to 
be the horizon of the sea. But, by looking through the glass F, 
and bringing an object into contact with the horizon, which is really 
forty-five degrees above it, the index of the quadrant will be at zero ; 
and by looking through F, and bringing an object into contact with 
K, or the horizon, which is reaUy one hundred and thirty-five degrees 
from it, the index of the quadrant wiU be at ninety degrees. 

The principle being thus shown, it is unnecessary to go farther in 
this place ; either in explaining how it applies equally well to a quin- 
tant or sextant, or in describing Mr. Worthington's ingenious method 
of taking advantage of it, in the sextants he has lately made with 
power to measure 160°. 

In adjusting or verifying the adjustment of the additional glass, I 
found that by measiu-ing the angular distance of two fixed stars more 
than forty degrees apart — ^first carefully by the ordinaiy method, and 
then using the extra or additional glass — it was practicable to ascer- 
tain its exact error : the only difficulty I had foreseen in the efficient 
use of this auxiliary. 

I may add, that the telescope moves parallel to the plane of the 
instrument, and that there are two sets of numbers referring to one 
gi-aduation. 



No. 45. 
On Clouds. 

Clouds may be divided into four classes, called — 
CiERUs, Stratus, Nimbus, Cumulus. 

Cirrus is the first light cloud that forms in the sky after fine clear 
weather. It is very Ught and delicate in its appearance ; and gene- 
rally curling or waving, like feathers, hair, or horses' tails. It may 
also be called the ' Curl Cloud.' 

Stratus is the shapeless smoke-hke cloud that is most common, 
and of all sizes : sometimes it is small, and at a distance, like spots of 
inky or dirty water ; its edges appearing faint or' ill-defined ; some- 
times it rises in fog-banks from water, or land ; sometimes it over- 
spreads and hides the sky. Rain does not fall from it. Its exact 



276 APPENDIX. 

resemblance cannot be traced upon paper, because the edges are so 
ill-defined. It may also be called the ' Flat Cloud.' 

Nimbus is the heavy-looking, soft, shapeless cloud, from which 
rain is falling. Whatever shape a cloud may have retained previous 
to rain falling from it — at the moment of its change from vapour to 
water, it softens in appearance, and becomes the ' Nimbus,' or 
' Rain Cloud.' 

Cumulus is the hard-edged cloud, or cloud with well-defined 
edges ; whose resemblance can be accurately traced on paper. This 
cloud is not, generally speaking, so large as the Stratus or Nimbus, 
aud appears to be a compact mass of either the former or latter, or 
of both. It may also be called the ' Heap Cloud.' 

These four classifications of clouds will not, however, suffice to 
describe exactly the appearance of the sky at all times. More minute 
distinctions are required, for which the following may be used : — 
Cirro-stratus — signifying a mixture of Cirrus and Stratus. 
Cirro-cumulus- — Cirrus and Cumulus. 

Cumulo-stratus — signifying a mixture of Cumulus and Stratus. 
Which terms may be rendered more explanatory of the precise 
kind of cloud, by using the augmentative termination onus, or the 
diminutive, itus. Thus: — Cirronus, Cirritus ; C irrono- stratus ; 
Cirrito-stratus ; Cirrono-cumulus, Cirrito- cumulus ; Stratonus, Stra- 
titus ; Cumulonus, Cumulitus ; Cumulono-stratus, Cumulito-stratus. 
Should these be found insufficient to convey distinct ideas of every 
variety of clouds, the second word may be augmented or diminished, 
thus : Cirrono-stratitus, &c. 

These terms may be abbreviated for common use by MTiting only 
the first letters of each word ; allowing one letter to represent the 
diminutive, two letters the ordinary, or middle degree, and three 
letters the augmentative. As Cirrus and Cumulus begin with the 
same letter, it will be necessary to make a distinction between them 
by taking two, three, and four letters, respectively, of Cumulus ; 
thus, C, Ci., Cir. ; S., St., Str. ; N., Ni, Nim. : Cu., Cum., Cumu. 
Suppose it were desired to express Cumulito-stratoni, C.-Str. would 
be sufficient, &c. 



c sua IK o zmra . 



cmamJiTiD'S. 



C HH ]R O ly d - S IT Jai.!ir TITS - 



TtFUzKcy 



Cimtianc'O-S'irmA'anrTS * 



PutlisheilyHanry Calbum, 13. Great Marlborough Sar«etlB.'^9 



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APPKXDIX. - 277 

No. 46. 

WlXDS. 

Much notice has lately been taken of the theory respecting storms ; 
suggested by Colonel Capper in 1801, discussed by Mr. Redfield in 
1831, and carried out in much detail by Colonel Reid. I have neither 
ability, nor at present space, to make more than a few brief remarks 
on this subject. 

Are not storms exceptions to the general winds, or, atmospheric 
cvirrents ; not the causes of them ? * Variable winds are almost con- 
tinual, except during short intervals of calm ; but hurricanes, or 
even ordinary storms, are rare. May not opposing or passing cur- 
rents cause eddies, or whirls, on an immense scale in the air, not 
only horizontal, but inclined to the horizon, or vertical ? 

In laying a ship to, during a storm, there are other points to con- 
sider besides the veering of the wind ; such as the direction of the 
sea, with or against a current, &c. I cannot agree with Colonel 
Reid, in his remarks (page 425) about the " problem to be solved," 
or in his " Rule for laying ships to in hurricanes." 

I never myself witnessed a storm that blew from more than fifteen 
points of the compass, either successively, or by sudden changes. 

In most, if not all of the stcJrms to which 1 can bear any testi- 
mony, currents of air arriving from diiFerent directions appeared to 
succeed each other, or combine together. One usually brought ' the 
dirt,' to use a sailor's phrase, and another cleared it away, after 
driving much of it back again, often Math redoubled fury. One of 
these currents was warm and moist — another cold and dry, compa- 
ratively speaking. While one lasted, the barometer feU, or was sta- 
tionary ; with another it rose. At ■ all places I have ^•isited, or of 
which I have obtained notices on the subject, the barometer stands 
high with easterly, and comparatively low with westerly winds, on 
an average. Northerly winds in the northern hemisphere affect the 
barometer, like southerly winds in the southern hemisphere. 



No. 47. 

Tides. 
At the end of the year 1833, I received from Mr. Whewell a copy 
of a work for which seamen in general are deeply indebted to him. It 
* Reid's Law of Storms, p, 120, &c. 



278 APPENDIX. 

bore the unpretending title of an " Essay towards a first approxima- 
tion to a Map of Cotidal Lines;" but however Hghtly the author 
might esteem it, there can be no doubt that it tended to remove a 
cloud which hung over numerous difficulties ; and to enable us not 
only to take a general view of them, but to see how we should direct 
our course in order to attain some knowledge of their intricacies. 

In 1831 Mr. Lubbock called the attention of mathematicians, as 
well as of practical seamen, to the subject of Tides : but it was Mr. 
WheweU who aroused general interest ; and, assisted by the Admi- 
ralty, engaged the co-operation of observers in all quarters of the 
globe. 

At the first perusal of Mr. Whewell's essay, I was particularly 
struck by the following passages : " But in the meantime no one 
appears to have attempted to trace the nature of the connexion 
among the tides of the different parts of the world. We are, per- 
haps, not even yet able to answer decisively the inquiry which 
Bacon suggests to the philosophers of his time, whether the high 
water extends across the Atlantic so as to affect, contemporaneously, 
the shores of America and Africa ? or, whether it is high on one side 
of this ocean when it is low on the other .' at any rate, such obser- 
vations have not' been extended and generalized." * Also : f 

" If the time of high water at Plymouth be five, and at the Eddy- 
stone eight (as formerly stated), the water must be falling for three 
hours on the shore, while it is rising at the same time at ten or 
twelve miles distance ; and this through a height of several feet. We 
can hardly imagine that any elevation in one of the situations, should 
not be transferred to the other in a much shorter time than this. 

" There is, in fact, no doubt that most, or all the statements of such 
discrepancies, are founded in a mistake arising from the comparison 
of two different phenomena ; namely, the time of high- water, and 
the time of the change from the flow to the ebb current. In some 
cases the one, and in some the other of these times, has been 
observed as the time of the lide ; and in this manner have arisen 
such anomalies as have been mentioned." And again : I 

" The persuasion that, in waters affected by tides, the water rises 
while it runs one way, and falls while it runs the opposite way, though 
wholly erroneous, is very general." 

These, and other valuable remarks, showed me what indistinct or 
erroneous ideas I had entertained ; and that many other seamen had" 

-^ Philosophical Transactions, 1833, p. 148. t Ibid. 157. I Ibid. 



APPENDIX. 279 

been siinilarl}^ perplexed, I could have little doubt, having often 
talked to experienced practical men on the subject. Probably the 
expressions ' tide and half-tide,' ' tide and quarter-tide,' &c., con- 
veyed more distinct ideas to their minds, than to mine : for to me 
they were unsatisfactory, and although quite aware of their meaning, 
I never liked them. From 1833, I and my companions on board 
the Beagle paid more attention to the subject, and made obser- 
vations in the manner suggested by Mr. Whewell, as often as our 
other avocations allowed. It was, however, impossible to take interest 
in the subject, and discover difficulties, facts irreconcileable to theory, 
without trying to think how to account for them — unquaHfied even 
as I knew myself to be for such a task.* Perhaps I was encouraged 
to meditate by Mr. Whewell's concluding paragraph ; f and, sepa- 
rated from assistance, I tried to reason my way out of the dilemma, 
by the help of such few data as I could dwell upon vpith certaint}^ 

* Among the points which I could not establish in my own mind, by 
appeal to facts, were — " the tides of the Atlantic are, at least in their 
main features, of a derivative kind, and are propagated from south to 
north." (p. 164.) "That the tide. wave travels from the Cape of Good 
Hope to the bottom of the Gulf of Guinea, in something less than four 
hours." (p. 167.) " That the tide-wave travels along this coast (American) 
from north to south, employing about twelve hours in its motion from 
Acapulco to the Strait of Magalhaens." (p. 194.) " From the compara- 
tive narrowness of the passage to the north (of Australia), it is almost 
certain that these tides must come from the southern side of the conti- 
nent." (p. 200.) " The derivative tide which enters such oceans (North 
and South Pacific) from the south-east, is diffused over so wide a space, 
that its amount is also greatly reduced." (p. 217.) &c. 

t " I cannot conclude this memoir without again expressing my entire 
conviction of its very imperfect character. I should regret its publication, 
if I supposed it likely that any intelligent person could consider it other- 
wise than as an attempt to combine such information as we have, and to 
point out the want and the use of more. I shall neither be surprised nor 
mortified, if the lines which I have drawn shall turn out to be, in many in- 
stances, widely erroneous : I offer them only as the simplest mode which 
I can now discover of grouping the facts which we possess. The lines 
which occupy the Atlantic, and those which are near the coasts of Eu- 
rope, appear to have the greatest degree of probability. The tides on the 
coasts of New Zealand and New Holland, have also a consistency which 
makes them very probable. The Indian Ocean is less certain ; thougli 
it is not easy to see how the course of the lines can be very widely diffe- 
rent 



280 APPExnix. 

Some of the facts which seem to stand most in opposition to the 
theory that deduces tides in the northern Atlantic from the move- 
ment of a tide-wave originated in the great southern ocean are : 
• — the comparative narrowoiess of the space between Africa and Ame- 
rica ; with the certainty that the sea is neither uniformly nor exces- 
sively deep in that space,* and the trifling rise of tide ; not only 
upon either nearest shore (where it does not exceed four or five feet 
at the utmost), but at Ascension Island, where the highest rise is not 
two feet.f Secondly, the absence of any regular tide about the wide 
estuary of the river Plata, the situation and shape of which seems so 
well disposed for recei%ing an immense tide.i Thirdly, the flood- 
tide moving towards the west and south along the coast of Brazil, 

rent from that which we have taken. The course of these lines in the 
Pacific appears to be altogether problematical ; and though those which 
are drawn in the neighbourhood of the west coast of America connect 
most of the best observations, they can hardly be considered as more than 
conjecture : in the middle of the Pacific I have not even ventured to con- 
jecture. Tt only remains to add, that 1 shall be most glad to profit by 
every opportunity of improving this map, and will endeavour to em- 
ploy for this pui-pose any information with which I may be supplied." — 
pp. 234-5. 

• Besides the ' Roccas', Fernando de Noronha, and St. Paul rocks, 
various accounts have been received, from time to time, of shoals near the 
equator, between the meridians of fifteen and twenty.four degrees west. 
There can be no doubt, from the descriptions, that many alarms have been 
caused in that neighbourhood by earthquakes; which are, to my appre- 
hension, indications of no very great depth of water. In 1761, a small 
sandy island was said to have been seen by Captain Bouvet, of Le Vail- 
lant. This, if seen, has probably sunk down since. Krusenstern saw a 
volcanic eruption thereabouts in 1806. In 1816, Captain Proudfoot, in 
the ship Triton, fiom Calcutta to Gibraltar, passed over a bank, in lati- 
tude 0° 32' S. and longitude 17" 46' \V. It appeared to extend in an east 
and west direction three miles, and in a north and south direction one 
mile. They sounded in twenty-three fathoms, brown sand ; but saw no 
appearance of breakers. 

t At St. Helena it is not three feet : while at Tristan d'Acunha there 
is a rise of eight or nine feet under ordinary circumstances. 

{ I have passed months in that river without being able to detect any 
periodical rise of water, which I could attribute to tide ; though it is said, 
that when the weather is very settled, some indications of a tide may be 
perceived. 



appi-:ndix. 281 

from near Pernambuco to the vicinity of the river Plata ; and lastly^ 
the ahnost uniformity of the time of high \A'ater along that extent of 
-the coast of Africa which reaches from near the Cape of Good Hope 
to the neighbourhood of the Congo. 

Against the supposition that a tide-wave travels along the west 
coast of America, from north to south, are the facts — that the flood- 
tide impinges upon Chiloe and the adjacent outer coast, from the 
southward of west ; that it is high water at Cape Pillar and at Chiloe, 
inclucUng the intermediate coast, almost at one time ; * that from 
Valdivia to the Bay of Mexillones (differing eighteen degrees in lati- 
tude), there is not an hour's difference in the time of high- water ; 
that from Arica to Payta the times vary gradually as the coast 
trends westward ; that from Panama to California, the times also 
change gradually as the coast trends westward ; and that from forty 
to sixty north, high water takes place at one time. 

Having thus stated a few of the difficulties to be encountered by a 
theory which supposes such important tide -waves to move in the di- 
rection of a meridian, rather than in that of a parallel, I will venture 
to bring forward the results of much anxious meditation on the 
subject, trusting that they will be received by the reader — not as 
assertions — not as conclusions to which assent is asked without a 
reason for acquiescence being given — ^but as the veiy^ fallible opinion 
of one indi\'idual, who is anxious to contribute a mite, however small, 
towards the information of those for whom this work is more parti- 
cularly vmtten — namely, seafaring men ; and who, if his ideas are 
fallacious, will rejoice at their refutation by the voice of truth. 

Resting in confidence upon the Nevrtonian theory — which assigns 
as the primary causes of tides the attractions of the moon and sun — 
I win make a few remarks, and then state some facts from which 
to reason. 

Some persons seem to view the tidal phenomena more in con- 
nection with what would have happened had the globe been covered 
with water, than with reference to what actually happens, now 
that the oceans are nearly separated by tracts of land. They appear to 
consider that the effects of the moon's attraction (leaving the sun's out 
of the question at present, as it is similar though smaller) are felt 
only in vertical hues ; and they do not allow for the lateral action of 

* Within about half an hour; an irregularity easily accounted for, and 
to which any one place is subject. 

bb 



282 APPENDIX. 

the moon upon a body of water, by which any portion is attracted 
towards her before she is vertically over it, as well as after she has 
passed to the westward of the meridian of that portion. 

But little attention appears to have been paid to a consideration 
of the momentum acquired by any great body of water moved from 
the position it M'ould occupy if undisturbed, and to the consequences 
of that momentum, when the water returns from a temporary displace- 
ment. And there seems to be a difficulty in altogether reconciling the 
statement that " tides are diminished by diffusion,* with the manner 
in which the great tides of the Northern Atlantic are supposed to 
be caused — a supposition which is mainly dependent upon theprinciple 
of " forced vibrations or oscillations. "f 

In consequence of similar ideas, excited by the facts previously 
mentioned, the following questions were inserted in the Geographical 
Journal for 1836 : — 

" It may appear presumption in a plain sailor attempting to oiFer 
an idea or two on the difficult subject of ' Tides ;' yet, with the 
utmost deference to those who are competent to reason upon the 
subject, I will venture to ask whether the supposition of Atlantic 
tides being principally caused by a great tide-wave coming from the 
Southern Ocean, is not a little difficult to reconcile with the facts that 
there is very little tide upon the coasts of Brazil, Ascension, and 
Guinea, and that in the mouth of the great river Plata there is little 
or no tide .' 

" Can each ocean have its own tides, though affecting, and being 
affected by the neighbouring waters ? 

" Can the mass of an ocean have a tendency to move westward as 
well as upward, after and towards the moon as she passes ? If so, 
after the moon has passed, will not the mass of that ocean have an 
easterly inclination to regain that equilibrium (with respect to the 
earth alone) from which the moon disturbed it (sun's action not 
here considered) ? 

" In regaining its equilibrium, would not its owa momentum carry 
it too far eastward ; and would not the moon's action be again 
approaching ? 

" Can one part of an ocean have a M'estward tendency, while another 
part, which is wider or narrower, from east to west, has an eastward 

• Whewell's Essay, p. 217. 

+ Herscliel's Astronomy, Cab. Cyo. p. 334. 



APPENDIX. 283 

movement ? If so, many difficulties would vanish ; among them those 
which were first mentioned, and those perplexing anomalies on the 
south coast of New Holland." — (Jour. R. Geog. Soc. vol. vi. part II. 
p. 336.) 

It might have been concluded that these questions had scarcely- 
been noticed, as I heard nothing on the subject, had I not lately read 
the following remarks in a work pubhshed in 1837. Whether their 
author ever saw the questions, I do not know ; but as his observations 
bear strongly upon the subject, and are those of an eminent mathe- 
matician, I quote them verbatim :— 

" Suppose several high, narrow strips of land were now to encircle 
the globe, passing through the opposite poles, and dividing the 
earth's surface into several great, unequal oceans ; a separate tide 
would be raised in each. When the tidal wave had reached the far- 
thest shore of one of them, conceive the causes that produced it to 
cease ; then the wave thus raised would recede to the opposite 
shore, and continue to oscillate until destroyed by the friction of its 
bed. But if instead of ceasing to act, the causes which produced 
the tide were to re-appear at the opposite shore of the ocean, at the 
very moment when the reflected tide had returned to the place of its 
origin, then the second tide would act in augmentation of the first ; 
and if this continued, tides of great height might be produced for 
ages. The result might be, that the narrow ridge dividing the adja- 
cent oceans would be broken through, and the tidal wave traverse a 
broader tract than in the former ocean. Let us imagine the new 
ocean to be just so much broader than the old, that the reflected tide 
would return to the origin of the tidal movement half a tide later 
than before ; then instead of those two super-imposed tides, we should 
have a tide arising from the subtraction of one from the other. Tlie 
alterations of the height of the tides on shores so circumstanced might 
be very small, and this might again continue for ages, thus causing 
beaches to be raised at very diiFerent elevations, without any real 
alteration in the level, either of the sea or land." — (Babbage's Ninth 
Bridgewater Treatise, pp. 248, 249.) 

Additional data, and leisure to reflect upon them, have tended to 
confirm the view taken previously to asking those questions in the 
Geographical Journal ; but before stating this view more expUcitly, 
it is necessary to lay facts before my readers, from which they may 
judge for themselves. 

bb2 



284 



APPENDIX. 



In the greatest expanse of ocean, that which meets with only par- 
tial interruption to free tidal movements — the zone, if it maj"- be so 
called, near fifty-five degrees of south latitude — there Is high water at 
opposite sides, and low water at opposite sides of the globe nearl}'^ 
at the same time. 

At the eastern part of the Falkland Islands, exposed to the tide of 
this zone, it is high water, or full sea, at about nine o'clock on the 
day of new, or full moon, by Greenwich time ;* and on the southern 
shore of Van Diemen's Land it is high-water at about ten. This is 
not a point exactly opposite, it is true, but it is the nearest so at 
which we have yet observed. 

At each of tliese places the tide rises six hours and falls six hours, 
alternately ; therefore when it is low water at one, it is also low water 
at the other. There is no intermediate place in this zone, rather 
distant from these points, at which I know of a tide observation 
deserving confidence ; but those above-mentioned are certain, and 
corroborate the Newtonian theory in a satisfactory manner. 

This is, however, the only zone of ocean, which is at all able to 
follow the law which would govern its undulations if the globe were 
covered with water. In other zones (taking about ten degrees 
in latitude as a zone) it is high water, generally speaking, at one 
side of an ocean near the time that it is low on the other. 

In oceans about ninety degrees wide, this happens very nearly ; 
but as the width diminishes, so do the times of high water at each 
side approach ; and as the viidth increases beyond ninetj' degrees, as 
in the case of zones of the Pacific, the times of high water still 
approach (in consequence of the tendency to high M'ater at opposite 
points), and farther confirm the Newtonian theory. 

For examples (on the day of full moon) : — In the Pacific, at Port 
Henry, in 50° S. it is high water at 5h. at M'hich time it is near low 
water at Auckland Island, where the time of high tide is 12h. 30m. 
In this case, the interval between one high water, and the other on 
the opposite side of the ocean, is 7h. 30m. or 4.30 ; and the ^vidth of 
that ocean is nearly eight hours (measured in time.) 

At Valdivia, in lat. 4C° S. it is high water at 3h. 30m. and at New 
Zealand, on that parallel, at 9h. 50m. The space of ocean between 
is seven hours nearly : the diflTerences are 6.20 and 5.40. 

* Towhicli all tlio tinips are iiere reduced for easy comparison. 



APPENDIX. 285 

In 30° S. at Coquimbo, it is high water at '2h. and at Norfolk 
Island it is high at about 9h. The intermediate space of ocean is 
nearly eight hours wide.* 

In 20° S., at Iquique, it is high water at Ih. 30m., and at New 
Caledonia, in the same parallel, it is high water at Sh. lom. The 
space between is about eight hours wide : the least diiference 4.15. 

Near 10°, or 12°, at Callao, it is high water at about ten ; but 
as on this parallel a multitude of islands spread across half tlie 
Pacific, no comparison of times can be trusted. 

On the equator — at the Galapagos Islands — it is high water at 
8h. 20m. ; and at New Ireland it is high water at 3h. 00m. — a dif- 
ference of seven hours nearly. The ocean is here eight hours ^\^[de ; 
but at New Ireland there is only- one tide m tM'ent}'-four hours — an 
anomaly to be considered presently. 

The parallel of 10° N. is similar to that of the equator — however, 
we may as well examine it. At the little Isle of Cocos, and at Nicoya, 
on the main, it is high water at aljout 81i. ; and at the Philippine 
Islands, in the same latitude, at 4h. ; the difference, eight hours, ia 
not far from the meridian distance, which is about ten hours ; but the 
Phihppines also feel the effects of catises which influence the tides 
at New Ireland, and, generally, those of the Indian Archipelago. 

In 20° N. at San Bias, it is high water at 3h ; and at Loo-choo, 
the nearest know^l point of comparison at the other sic? o fthe ocean, 
at lOh. The difference, 7 hours, is about an hour less than the 
meridian distance. In 30° N. on the Coast of Cahfornia, it is high 
water at 4h., and at Nangasaky, in Japan, in lat. 32° 44', at 11.12. 
The difference, 7.12, is nearly half an hour less than the meridian 
distance. In 40° N. it is high water at about 8h. on the American 
coast, but for the opposite shore I have no data. In 50° N. it is high 
water on Vancouver Island at 9h., and at the south extreme of Kam- 
schatka it is said to be high water at about 6h. ; the difference, 9 or 
3 hours, is anomalous — made so probably by a derivative tide. 

Havmg examined the Pacific, let us proceed in a similar manner 
with the Atlantic, and the Indian Ocean : — 

In 40° S. off Blanco Bay, the time of high water is 9h. ; the 
same as at the Falklands. 

At Amsterdam Island, one authority says 6h., another I2h, for the 

* A derivative tide (p. 28'J) may act here. 



286 



APPENDIX. 



time of high water. Both cannot be right : but thinking the latter 
correct, I have preferred it. In Bass Strait it is high water at about 
ten. Between the two extremes there are thirteen hours, and between 
the times of tide there are eleven, or thirteen hours. At Amsterdam 
Island, high water is taken as two hours after that of Bass Strait, 
but the difference of meridians is about four hours. The difference 
between the high water of Amsterdam, and Blanco Bay, is nine hours, 
and their difference of meridians is about nine hours. 

In 30° S. it is high water on the African coast at two, and on the 
American coast at six. There are about four hours difference of 
meridian between them in that parallel. 

In 20° S. it is high water at 3h. on the African shore, and 6h. on 
the Brazilian ; the meridian distance is about three hours and three 
quarters. 

In 10° S. at 3h. 15m. on the east side and 7h. on the west: the 
distance is about three hours and a quarter. 

On the equator we have 4h. 30m. at the eastern limit, and nearly 
8h. at the western ; the distance being about three hours and a half. 

In 10° N. 7h. and lOh. the distance being three hours. 

In 20° N. at Cape Blanco, at about Ih. ; and on the north coast 
of San Domingo, nearly at 11 h. The interval is about 3.40 : but 
there are interfering derivative tides, probably, as well as local pecu- 
liarities, among the West-India Islands. 

In 30° N. about 4h. on the east and Ih. 30m. on the west. The 
distance is nearly five hours. This seems anomalous. 

In 40° N. 3h. on the coast of Spain, and at about Ih. on the coast 
of America. This is another anomaly : but easy of explanation. 

In 50° N. it is high water at 4h. 36m., in the mouth of the chan- 
nel ; and at lOh. 45m. on the coast of Newfoundland. Their meridian 
distance is about 3.20. 

On the west coasts of Ireland and Scotland, from 5h. to 6h. is the 
hour of high water ; on the coast of Labrador, it is from lOh. to 
llh., in the same parallels. The meridian distances are from three 
to four hours : but as we approach the parallel of 60° N. the North 
Sea and Davis Strait open, which probably affect the tide between 
Ireland and Labrador. 

The Indian Ocean appears to have high water on all sides at once, 
though not in the central parts at the same time. Thus, it is liigh 
water at the north-west extremity of Australia ; on the coast of 



1 



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"^"Diiahfid oy Hezay Ccuijuro.].'^ Great Maxtbororu^ Soresi.. 1339. 



APPENDIX. 287 

Java ; on that of Sumatra ; at Ceylon ; at the Laccadiva Islands ; 
at the Seychelles ; on the coast of Madagascar ; and at Amsterdam 
Island, at twelve : but at the Chagos Islands and Mauritius it is 
high water at about nine, and at the Keeling Isles about eleven. 
Here, then, it would seem that there is cause for much perplexity. 

Having now stated the principal facts which occur to my mind, I 
will mention the conclusions drawn from them, and then attempt to 
explain the anomalies. 

Let E G (fig. 1.) represent a section of our globe, of which A B 
C D is supposed to be land, and E F G H water. Let H M show 
the direction in which the moon's attraction would operate. The 
effect of her attraction, according to Newton's demonstration, would 
be to raise the water at F by positive attraction of the water, and at 
H by attracting the earth more than the water : — let the dotted line 
represent the consequent figure of the ocean. 

In fig. 2, let the ocean be supposed 90° or six hours wide ; let the 
moon act in the direction M F ; and let the dotted line represent the 
altered position of the water when moved out of its natural position 
(with respect to the earth) by the moon's attraction. 

Again, in fig. 3, suppose the moon acting in the line M K, and 
the dotted line representing the figure taken in that case by the 
ocean. 

It will occur to the reader that but little water can rise at F 
and H (fig. 1), at F (fig. 2), or at K (fig. 3), unless water falls or 
sinks, at E and G (fig. 1), G (fig. 2), F and G (fig. 3). because 
water is but slightly compressible, except under extraordinary pressure, 
and because it is incapable of being stretched ; therefore, if at any 
place the sea is raised above its natural level, the excess must be 
supplied by a sinking taking place elsewhere. There cannot be a 
void space left under the sea between the water and its bed ; and 
there is no lateral movement of the particles at the surface only 
of the ocean sufficient to cause high tides on either shore : — 
therefore the conclusion may be drawTi, that the whole mass librates 
or oscillates. 

By librating I mean such a movement as that which a large jelly 
would have, if its upper part were pushed on one side,, and then 
allo-wed to vibrate while the base remained fixed : and by oscillating 
I mean a movement like that of water in a basin, after the basin is 
gently tilted and let down again : and that such a motion would be 



288 APl'ENDIX. 

imperceptible, except l)y its effects, there can be little doubt after 
reflecting how small a lateral movement of an ocean would cause 
immense commotion at its boundary, in consequence of the slight 
elasticity of water, when free to move. 

Now let the moon be supposed to move from M in fig. 2 to M in 
fig. 3. Tlie highest point of the water would then be transferred 
from F to K, during which transfer the water must fall at F and 
rise at G : and so of other points. In this manner when the moon 
causes a tide by her direct attraction, a wave or swelling, whose 
crest is above the natural level of the sea, moves westward, until 
it is stopped by a barrier of land. But when it recedes from that 
barrier, how is the excess of the wave above the height of the sea 
(when uninfluenced by the moon) transferred to the other side of 
the same ocean ? There is no return wave : if there were, islands 
intermediate would have an ebb, and a flood tide, every six hours ; 
four floods in twenty-four hours ; but they have, on the contrary, 
six hour tides, alternate ebb and flow, twice in twenty-four hours, 
like those of the shores of continents, though generally smaller in 
amount. Water cannot rise in one place unless it falls in another 
■^it does fall on one side of an ocean, while it rises on the other 
— how then is the fluid transferred .'' There is only one way — 
which is by the mass oscillating. In the former case when the 
moon passed over, it was a libratory movement, in this latter it is an 
oscillation. 

If it is shoviTi, as I believe, that the ocean oscillates, we see that 
there are two principal causes of tides — one the direct raising of 
water by the moon : and the other, oscillation excited by that tem- 
porary derangement of the natural level of the sea. 

From the preceding facts and deductions combined with the com- 
monly received laws of fluids and gravitation, the following conclu- 
sions may be drawn : — 

1 . Every large body of water is affected by the attraction of the 
moon, and sun, and has tides caused by their action. 

2. Bodies of water are not only raised, or accumulated, vertically, 
by the attraction of the moon and sun ; but they are also drawn 
laterally by them. 

3. When a large body of water is prevented from continuing a 
horizontal movement, it rises until whatever momentum it had 
acquired ceases ; and then it sinks gradually. 



APPENDIX. 289 

4. The momentum acquired by a body of water in thus sinking 
back to the position it should occupy, with reference to the earth's 
attraction only, carries it beyond that position to one from which it 
has a tendency to recoil again — and so to keep up an oscillation 
until brought to rest by the friction of its bed. (Attraction of the 
moon and sun not considered.) 

5. The recurring influences of the moon and sun are checks on 
these oscillations, and prevent their taking place more than once 
between each separate raising of the water in consequence of their 
attractions. 

6. Different zones (or widths measured by latitude) of an ocean, 
may move differently, each having waves and oscillations at times 
differing from those of an adjoining zone, in consequence of one 
having more or less longitude, depth, or freedom from obstacles than 
another. 

7. Original waves and oscillations combine with, and modify one 
another, according to their relative magnitude, momentum, and 
direction. 

8. The natural tendency of tide-waves, and oceanic librations, is 
from east to west ; and of oscillations, from west to east, and east 
to west also : but derivative waves or oscillations move in various 
directions according to primary impulse, and local configuration of 
the bed of rn ocean. 

Conformably to these conclusions, I will now try to explain a few 
of the more remarkable anomalies of tides, in various parts of the 
world : taking it for granted that the reader is acquainted vfith 
existing works on the subject, especially those of Mr. Whewell,* 
and the brief but comprehensive and explanatory view taken by Sir 
J. Herschel in his treatise on astronomy. •}■ 

I mentioned that between Callao and the western shores of the 
Pacific, in the parallel of about 12° south, no comparison of times 
can be trusted ? Why not ? may be asked. Four or five hours west 
of Callao, there is a multitude of islands which checks the libratiou of 
the ocean. Another tide wave forms westward of them, on a small 
scale, and it is by this second tide, altered by derivative tides 

* Published in the Philosophical Transactions. 

+ Cabinet Cyclopaedia. A Treatise on Astronomy, chap, xi., pp. 334, 
5, 6, 7, 8, 9. 



290 APPENDIX. 

from each side, that the western portion of this zone is affected. 
Otaheite is thus at the edge, or Umit, of four tides — one east, ano- 
ther west, a third to the north, and a fourth to the south, and as 
these tides are moving with different impulses, and at different 
times, it is not at all surprising that they should almost neutralize 
each other at Otaheite. As we go west or east of that island, we 
find the tides augmenting gradually in height. At the Friendly 
Islands they rise five feet, and at the Gambier Islands three feet. 

Respecting the twelve hour tide at New Ireland, and at other 
places in the Indian archipelago — appeal to facts, so far as we can 
trace the tides at present, tends to confirm the explanation of Sir 
Isaac Newton, which consisted in supposing that such tides are com- 
pounded of two tides, which arrive by different paths, one six hours 
later than the other. " When the moon is in the equator, the 
morning and evening tides of each component tide arc equal, and 
the tides obhterate each other by interference, which takes place 
about the equinoxes. At other periods the higher tides of each com- 
ponent daily pair, are compounded into a tide which takes place at 
the intermediate time, that is, once a day ; and this time will be 
after noon or before, according to the time of year." — Whewell, in 
Phil. Trans. 1833, p. 224. 

At New Ireland, the time of high water is about 3 ; but at New 
Caledonia it is 9. Again, at the north-west coast of Australia, it is 
12 ; and at the eastern approach to Torres Strait, 10 : at the Philip- 
pine Islands it is 4 ; and at Loo Choo, 10. Now here are various 
times of tide, and different impulses, crowded together into a com- 
paratively small space, sufficient to perplex any theorist of the pre- 
sent day. Owing to local configurations, and a variety of inci- 
dental circumstances, we find every kind of tide in this region, in 
a space sixty degrees square. Although tidal impulses, waves, 
and resulting currents are checked and altered by the broken land 
of the Indian archipelago, they cannot be suddenly destroyed, or 
prevented from influencing each other, while communications, more 
or less open, exist in so many directions. 

At the Sandwich Islands there is said to be very little tide. As it 
is high water in 40° N., on the American coast, at 8 ; at which time 
it is also high water at the Galapagos, it appears that the two 
zones of the ocean — one about the equator, and the other near 40° N. 
— have liigh water, in the mericUan of the Sandwich Islands, at two 



APPENDIX. 291 

very different times ; and that the high water of the northern zone 
will have passed that meridian about three hours before the equato- 
torial wave. Impulses derived from them might succeed one 
another at an intermediate point, such as the Sandwich Islands. 
Besides which, there is the tide of their own zone to be considered ; 
in consequence of which alone it might be high water at about 6 : 
thus these islands are so situated as to receive at least three tides — 
one primary and two derivative — whose respective times of high water 
are 1, 6, and 10, a succession which may well be supposed to neu- 
tralise any ebb, and maintain the water thereabout above its natural 
level, independent of tide. 

About the Strait of Magalhaens, and along the eastern coast of 
Patagonia, there are very high tides ; apparently complicated, but 
perhaps less so than is usually beheved. 

A powerful tide arrives at the Falklands, and at the east end of 
Staten Land, at about 9 ; which is opposed by another powerful 
tide arriving from the west. The union of these two accumulates 
the water between Tierra del Fuego and the Falldands, and on the 
east coast of Patagonia. 

Within the Strait of Magalhaens, westward of the Second Nar- 
row, it is high water at about 4.40, and the tide rises six feet : 
but eastward of the First Narrow it is high at 1.30, and the tide rises 
forty feet. 

Now, as in one case the sea only rises three feet, and in the other 
twenty, above its mean level, every one would expect to find a rush 
of water through the Narrows, from the high sea to the low, and 
such is the fact. From ten to four the water runs westward with 
great velocity, and from four till ten it rushes eastward. During the 
first interval, from ten to four, the eastern body of water, between 
Tierra del Fuego and the Falldands, is above the mean level ; and 
during the latter interval, from four till ten, it is below the mean 
level — that which it would have if there were no tides. 

From 50° S. to near Blanco Bay in 40° S. the tide-wave certainly 
travels along the coast to the north ; but this is a derivative from the 
meeting of tides above-mentioned, combined with the primary tides 
on the coast traversed. In this way principally may we account 
for a high tide in one place on this coast, and a low one on another 
(similarly situated, though differing in latitude) ; and, again, a high 
tide at another place. During the twenty-four hours that the deri- 



292 



Al'PKNDIX. 



vative wave occupies in moving from Cape Virgins to the Colorado, it 
alternately augments or diminishes two floods and two ebbs of the 
great ocean. Perhaps, indeed, it reaches farther and affects the water 
about the Plata. 

The extraordinary ' races' about the Peninsula of San Jose, and 
the apparent absence of currents about the straight coast extending 
eastward from Blanco Bay, may be attributed to conflicting tidal im- 
pulses. 

Why there should be no tide in the River Plata, situated and 
shaped as it is, seems extraordinary ; but as it is high water at 6h. on 
the coast of Brazil, and at Sh. about Blanco Bay; and as a derivative 
wave from this neighbourhood must move eastward and northward, 
there is a filling up, from the southward, as an ebbing takes place in 
consequence of a regular six-hour tide ; and vice versa. 

Tristan d'Acunha has a considerable rise of tide, about eight feet, 
though Ascension and St. Helena have only about two feet. The 
former place is aff'ected by a great southern tide ; the two latter are 
influenced by the comparatively small tide which traverses the space 
between Africa and Brazil. 

In the West Indies there are varieties of tides, caused by primary 
and derivative impulses, exceedingly modified by local circumstances : 
none however are large, while some are as small as those of Ota- 
lieite — scarcely a foot at the utmost. There are places also in that 
archipelago where there is only one tide in twenty-four hours. In 
considering the West-India tides, those of the east coast of North 
America, and the exceedingly high ones of Fundy Bay, the gulf stream 
ought not to be overlooked, as it may aff'ect the tides on the coasts 
it traverses even more than those on the Patagonian coast are altered 
by the current driven along it from near Tierra del Fuego. 

I may here remark that Mr. WheweU was misled by inaccurate data 
respecting several times of high water, of material consequence to his 
cotidal lines. At the Western Islands he had 1|^ and 2j, where there 
ought to have been 4}, according to Mendoza Rios' tables, confirmed 
by the Beagle's observations ; at Madeira he used l^, the time of the 
stream changing, instead of 4, the time of high water ; at the Cape 
Verde Islands he took the time of low tide, instead of that of high 
water ; his 5h. line is near Ascension, whei'e the time of high water 
is 6.20 ; and his 2h. line is close to St. Helena, where the time is 
about five. The deficiency of data is so great, owing to mistaking 



APPKNDIX. 298 

the turn of stream for the time of high water, and registering 
or calculating observations erroneously, that little dependence can be 
placed in at least one-third of those hitherto recorded. On this 
account chiefly, though partly to simplify the question, I have not 
hoped to be much nearer the mark than half an hour in this dis- 
cussion, discarding fractions as much as possible, and attempting 
only to avoid errors of material consequence. 

Looking at the Atlantic, as represented on a globe, we see that 
Newfoundland and the adjacent coasts are so placed as to receive 
tidal impulses from the Arctic Sea, North Atlantic Ocean, the 
tropical part of the North Atlantic and the gulf stream : besides 
which, no doubt, a derivative from the equatorial zone is felt there. 

It is high water at the east side of the Atlantic, from the 
Canary Islands to Scotland, within an hour or two of the same time, 
on the salient points of the coast, namely, at about 4h. ; and if the 
opposite coast were straight, like that of Chile, and uninfluenced by 
derivative tides or by currents, we might expect that it would be high 
water there at about 7h., allowing that the tide-wave moved as it is 
found to do generally. But it is high water at about Ih., from 
30° to 40,° the times increasing northward from 40° N. to the Bay 
of Fundy, and also increasing southward from 50° N. to that bay, 
where, as every sailor knows, the tides rise higher than in any 
other part of the world. Tliis sequence of times, each ending in 
about 43° N., the adjacent gulf stream, (an immense river in the 
ocean), and an accumulation of water in that corner higher than is 
known any where else, show that we cannot there expect to find data 
for tidal niles. In that quarter is evidently a marked exception, 
caused by the conflux of at least two primary tides, two derivatives, 
and a poweiful current, aided by the peculiar configuration of the 
land. 

In the Mediterranean it is supposed by many persons that there is 
no ebb and flow ; but Captain Smyth, who surveyed so much of its 
shores, informs me that he found a tide, small certainly and appa- 
rently not governed by the moon, but regular. I have myself noticed 
a small rise and fall there ; and the cun-ent, caused by tide, in the 
Faro of Messina, is well known. 

As the moon passes over the Indian Ocean, the natural eff^ect of 
her attraction must be to accumulate the waters, and draw the wave 
so caused after her, as in other places ; but while that ocean is obey- 



294 AFPliXDIX. 

ing her power, and the wave is travelling toward the west, another 
wave is approaching from the Pacific — a wave which has been retarded 
in its passage— and its crest passes through the Indian archipelago, 
while the water would otherwise be falling at the western part of 
Torres Strait. At the same time, a derivative* wave moving north- 
ward along the west Australian coast, combines vdth the Pacific wave 
to raise a high tide about the north-west coast of Australia, where, 
if it were not for these auxiharies, there would be low water at that 
time. Six hours afterguards, one body has ebbed toward the 
Pacific — the other southward, toward the then comparatively low 
ocean, south of Australia, and what — if Torres Straits were blocked 
up ; and the water prevented from falling away toward the south — 
would be a high tide, is, in fact, low water. The tides in the two 
northern bays are derivatives, and move northward. 

High water taking place at one time — within an hour — all along 
the east coast of Africa, shows that the rise of sea, or tide-wave, 
there moves westward or eastward, and the times of high water at 
the islands are farther confirmations ; for the wave is at Chagos and 
at the Mauritius three or four hours before it is high water on the 
African coast. The KeeUng time shows that there the water rises 
longer, in consequence of that part of the ocean being affected by 
the advancing swell of the Pacific. 

The only remaining particular case which I now recollect is that 
of the south coast of Australia — from King George Sound to Spencer 
Gulf — a large space of sea, in which there is very little rise of tide — 
and even that little very irregular. 

As the high water moves westward from the meridians of that 
great bay, a tide moves southward from the Indian archipelago, 
where it is high water just as it should be low in the bay men- 
tioned : hence there is a filling, or flowing, from one wave, while an- 
other is retreating. In this wide expanse, affected by derivative tides 
from three adjoining oceans, we cannot but expect irregularities ; either 
very high tides, caused by combination — or httle or no tide, in conse- 
quence of mutual destruction — one tide ebbing from, whUe another is 
flowing toward the same place. 

Throughout these remarks I have intentionally omitted to say 
much of the sun's action, because, though very inferior, it is simi- 

• Derived from a great southern wave passing westward. 



APPENDIX. 295 

lar to that of the moon. Perhaps the Otaheite tide may be purely- 
solar; this, however, is not at all certain. 

It appears to me probable, that many important currents are caused 
by the tidal libration or oscillation of the sea. As the earth turns 
only one way, the moon is continually puUing, as it were, in one 
direction, and to this cause, I think, most of the greater currents 
may be traced. Wind, evaporation, and the variable weight of the 
atmosphere may each have a share in moving the waters horizontally ; 
but there are many facts which lead to a conclusion that the moon 
and sun are principal agents in causing currents.* 

Having alluded to the effect of atmospheric pressure on the ocean, 
I will take this opportunity of mentioning that the chief cause of 
water rising on the shore before hurricanes, or gales of wind, may 
be the lightened pressure on the surface of the sea, indicated by the 
mercury being low in a barometer. This is very remarkable at the 
Mauritius and in the river Plata, at both which places the water 
rises unusually before a storm, while at the same time the mercury 
falls. As the column rises, so the water falls again. I have in- 
stanced those places as being well known, and alFected very little by 
tide : but the fact has been observed by me in many places during 
the Beagle's voyage, and I have besides collected the testimony of 
others respecting it. 

These causes may materially affect the height of tides and the 
strength of currents. In the wide but shallow Plata, the depth of 
water and nature of current varies in extraordinary accordance with 
the barometer. 

Another cause of the water rising before a high wind, or storm, 
as well as of a ground swell, of rollers, or of that disturbed tumul- 
tuous heaving of the sea, sometimes observed while there is little or 
no wind at the place, may be the action of wind on a remote part 
of that sea ; an action, or pressure, which is rapidly transmitted, 
through a fluid but slightly elastic, to regions at a distance. 

I have collected many instances of rollers, or a heavy swell, or a 
confused ground swell being felt at places, where not only there was 
no wind at the time, but to which the wind that caused the move- 

• A continued stream may be produced by a succession of impulses, 
as a rotatory system of waves may " be kept in constant circulation by 
impulses received from the adjacent tides." — See Whewell in Phil. 
Trans. 1836, p. 299. 



296 APPENDIX. 

ments of water never reached, lliat they were caused by %nnd I 
proved by the logs of ships, which were in the respective gales at 
the time their eiFects on the sea were thus felt at a great distance. 
ITie places to wliich I particularly allude are the Cape "\"erde Islands, 
Ascension, St. Helena, Tristan d'Acunha, Cape Frio, Tierra del 
Fuego, Chiloe, the coast of Chile, the Galapagos Islands, Otaheite, 
the Keehng Islands, Mauritius, and the Cape of Good Hope. 

Waves, or rollers, caused by earthquakes, or volcanic eruptions, 
are, of course, unconnected with wind or atmospheric pressure. 

But in accounting for currents, as occasioned in some if not many 
instances by tidal pressure, or a succession of tidal impulses, we 
must not overlook the well known power of wind in giving horizon- 
tal motion to water, as well as in elevating or depressing it. 

Wind blowing almost always in one direction is knowTi to com- 
municate a movement to waters, and it is remarkable that the gene- 
ral movements of the North Pacific as well as the North Atlantic 
are from west by the north to east, or, as a sailor would say, ' with 
the sun ;' while in the southern oceans. Pacific, Atlantic, and Indian, 
they are generally ' against the sun,' or from west to east by the 
south — both corresponding to the general turn of the winds in the 
respective hemispheres. The Chile current after coasting Peru, 
presen'es a temperatiu-e of about 60° up to the Galapagos, and there 
it meets a warm stream out of the Gulf of Panama, at a tempera- 
ture of about 80°. The two unite together and turn westward 
along the equatorial zone. There is a remarkable exception on the 
east coast of Patagonia, where the current sets northward, owing, 
probably to tides. 

I cannot end this imperfect attempt to sketch out some of the 
movements of ocean, without reminding young readers to whom 
the subject may not be so familiar as it is to others, that there may 
be circidations of water in a vertical direction, or in a plane inclined 
to the horizon, as weU as horizontally : and that bodies of water 
differing in temperature, as well as in chemical composition, do not 
hastily blend together. Their reluctance to mix is observable at sea, 
when we sail out of one current, or body of water, into another — 
differing perhaps in temperature, chemical composition, and colour. 
At the meeting, or edge, of such bodies there is usucJly a well 
defined line, often considerable ripplings, which indicate some degree 
of mutual horizontal pressure — as of separate masses. 



APPENDIX. 207 

At the mouths of hvrge rivers it sometimes happens that salt water 
is actualty running up the river, underneath a stream of fresh water 
which still continues to run down. This I have witnessed in the 
river Santa Cruz. Of course intermixture takes place gradually, 
though by slow degrees. 

The height of waves may be here mentioned, with reference to 
rollers or other undulations of water however caused. Large waves 
are seldom seen except where the sea is deep and extensive. The 
highest I have ever -witnessed myself were not less than sixty feet 
in height, reckoning from the hollow between, perpendicularly to 
the level of two adjacent waves : but from twenty to thirty feet is a 
common height in the open ocean during a storm. 

I am quite aware of, and have long been amused by the assertion 
of some persons, whose good fortune it has been not to witness 
really large waves — that the sea never rises above twelve or fifteen 
feet — or, that no wave exceeds thirty feet in height, reckoning in 
a vertical line from the level of the hollow to that of the crest. 

In H. M. S. Thetis, during an unusually heavy gale of wind in the 
Atlantic, not far from the Bay of Biscay, while between two waves, 
her storm try-sails were totally becalmed, the crest of each wave 
being above the level of the centre of her main-yard, when she was 
upright between the two seas. Her main-yard was sLxty feet from 
the water-line. I was standing near her tafFrail, holding by a rope. 
I never saw such seas before, and have never seen any equal to 
them since, either off Cape Horn or the Cape of Good Hope. 



Calculations of tides, applicable to the method of following- out New- 
ton's general principles, adopted by Mr. Whewell and most persons 
whose opinions on this subject all men respect — are equally applicable 
to the view here taken. In either case the time of high water, and rise 
of tide on a certain day, is ascertained at a given place exjierimentally : 
and as the causes of that tide are the moon and the sun ; changes in 
their position with respect to the earth will operate changes in the tides, 
which, as to time and quantity, will depend upon the above data, and 
the positions of earth, moon, and sun. 

The variation of tide is what we liave to deal with in ordinary calcu- 
lation, not the original movement. 



c c 



^98 APrENBIX 

No. 48. 

Previous to sailing from England in 1831, the Beagle was fitted 
with the permanent lightning conductors invented by Mr. Wm. Snow 
Harris, F.R.S. 

During the five years occupied in her voyage she was frequently 
exposed to lightning, but never received the sHghtest damage, 
although supposed to have been struck by it on at least two occa- 
sions, when — at the instant of a vivid flash of Ughtning, accompa- 
nied by a crashing peal of thunder — a hissing sound was heard on 
the masts ; and a strange, though very slightly tremulous, motion in 
the ship indicated that something unusual had happened. 

The Beagle's masts so fitted, answered weU during the five years' 
voyage above-mentioned, and are stiU in use on board the same ves- 
sel, on foreign service. 

Even in such small spars as her royal masts and flying jib- 
boom, the plates of copper held their places firmly, and increased 
rather than diminished their strength. 

No objection which appears to me valid, has yet been raised against 
them ; and were I allowed to choose between having masts so fitted 
and the contrary, I should not have the slightest hesitation in decid- 
ing on those with Mr. Harris's conductors. 

Whether they might be farther improved, as to position and other 
details, is for their ingenious inventor to consider and determine. He 
has already devoted so many years of valuable time and attention to 
the very important subject of defending ships against the stroke of 
electricity ; and has succeeded so well for the benefit of others — at 
great inconvenience and expense to himself — that it is earnestly to 
be hoped that the Government, on behalf of this great maritime 
country, will, at the least, mdemnify him for time employed and pri- 
vate funds expended in n pubHc service of so useful and necessary a 
character. 



No. 49. 



MEMOEANDUM OF SOME OF THE FRESH PROVISIONS, PROCUREn FOR 
THE beagle's crew, BETWEEN 1831 AND 1835. 

Many other animals and birds were shot at various places (be- 
sides those enumerated in this list), by which every one on board 



APPENDIX. 



299 



profited in turn. Fish were caught frequently, either with nets or 
lines, sometimes with both ; so that, except in long passages, the crew 
of the Beagle were seldom many weeks without a supply of fresh 
and wholesome food; while the provisions carried on hoard were 
always of the best quality that could be procured. 



Number and Weight of the Animals killed with two 


Rifles only. 


Date. 


Animals. 


By WHOM Shot. 


Weight. 


1832. 


Blanco Bay, E 


ASTERN Patagonia. 




Sept. 1 1 


One cavia 


H. Fuller . . 


*22 lbs. 


- 12 


Three deer . . 


Ditto 


122 


— 15 


One cavia 


A.B.Bute 


*19 


— 17 


Two doer 


Mr. Stokes 


81- 


Oct. 16 


Four deer 


H. Fuller .. 


167 


1833. 








August 25 


Two deer 


H. Fuller.. 


96 


.. 


One deer 


Mr. Stokes 


*62 


— 30 


Two deer 


H. Fuller.. 


79 


— - 


Two cavias . . 


Ditto .. 


35 


, . , 


One deer 


A.B.Bute 


43 


— 31 


Ditto 


Mr. Bynoe 


45 


Sept. 1 


Ditto 


Mr. Stokes 


39 


, . 


Ditto 


H. Fuller.. 


46 


—, „ . 


One fawn 


Ditto ,. 


12 


fc-, 


Four cavias . . 


Ditto . . 


73 


— 3 


One cavia 


Capt. FitzRoy .. 


21 




One deer 


]\f r. Stokes 


48 


— 4 


Three cavias . 


H. Fuller.. 


52 




Port Desire, Eastern Patagonia. 




Dec. 28 


Oneguanaco.. H. Fuller .. 


164 


J 834. 


Santa Cruz, Eastern Patagonia. 




April 24 


One guanaco . 


H. Fuller.. 


130 


— 30 


Two guauacoes 


Ditto .. 


220 


May 8 


One guanaco . 


Mr. Bynoe 


150 


J 


Ditto 


H. Fuller.. 


143 


— 9 


Ditto 


Mr. Bynoe 


166 


_ 11 


Ditto 


Ditto .. 


139 




2,174 lbs. 









* The weight of the whole animal. The rest are as served out to the 
ship's company, 

c c 2 



300 



APPENDIX. 



Fresh Provisions purchased in the Pacific and Indian Oceans, for the 
use of the Crew of H.M.S. Beagle. 





Charles Island, Galapagos. 






Date. 


Articles. 


Dlrs. 


Rts. 


1835. 

Sept. 25 

_ 26 


1 Pi? ■] r 

]^\^ > 269 lbs < 

1 Pig f 

3 Pigs J 1. 
13 Barrels Potatoes 
8 Pumpkins . . 

TOTAI- 


4 
4 

4 

7 
26 

1 





4 

6 




47 


2 



I 



Otaheite. 

16th to 28tli November 1 835 :— Dlrs. Rls. Mils. 

706 II). Fresh Beef 35 1 

4 Barrels Potatoes, 3 dlrs. each .. .. 12 

3 Pigs, 5 dlrs. each 16 

25 Heads of Taro Root 2 4 

Dlrs. 64 4 1 

25th November 1835 :— 

Fresh Beef 20 lb. 1 dlr. 

Ditto Pork .. 15 1b. 1 dlr. 

Sweet Potatoes, 3 dollars per barrel. 

New Zealand. 
22d Dec. 1835 to 1st Jan. 1836 :— 

10 Pigs, weighing 840 lbs., at 2Jrf. per lb. .. .£8 15 
8 cwt. Potatoes, at 3s per cwt • . . . 14 

£9 19 

£9 195. equal to 49 dlrs. 6 rls. 

22d December 1835 :— In the Bay of Islands. 
Current Prices : — Pork, 2|rf. per lb. 

Potatoes, OS. per cwt. 

Comed Pork, 4irf. per lb. 

Beef, when procured, 2irf. per lb. 

Keeling Klands. 
12th April 1836:— 

26 Turtle, at 4i. 4rf. each i:5 12 8 

2 large Pigs 200 

.£7 12 8 

In payment— 500 lbs. Bread at 2^(7. ..£5 4 2 
Cash 2 8 G 

7 12 8 



AFEENUIX. 



301 



No. 50. 

A few Observations on the Temperature of the Sea in latitude 
27° 30' S. and longitude 41° E. ; on the loth May 183G.— (Six's 
self-registering Thermometer, Fahrenheit's Scale, used.) 



At the surface 


, ^ 


75,6 


At 200 fathoms 


below 


58",5 


At 5 


fathoms 


below 


74,5 


300 


• • 


55,5 


8 






74,2 


400 


• • 


52,5 


18 






74,0 


420 


.. 


52,0 


20 






74,0 














28 






73,0 


A few repeated • 


— 




40 






72,5 


At 5 fathoms 


below 


74,4 


48 






71,0 


20 




74,0 


50 






70,0 


48 




71,0 


75 






68,0 


50 


• ■ 


70,0 


100 






64,5 


100 


• • 


64,5 



In April 1836, at the Keeling Islands in the Indian Ocean (lat. 
12° S.), the temperature at the bottom, in 363 fathoms, was 45° 
(very carefully observed). 



No. 51. 

TABLE OF REMARKABLE HEIGHTS VISIBLE FROM A SHIP. 

The heights given in this table were ascertained by angular mca> 
surement : they are on the coasts of South America, the Falldand 
Islands, and the Galapagos. 



Summits. Feet. 

Abingdon Island .......... 1,950 

Acari Mount 1 ,650 

Aconcagua 23,200 

Ahuja Point, Height near .. 1,000 
Albemarle Island, S.W. summit 4,700 
Albemarle Island, S.E. ditto 3,720 
Albemarle Island, Middle ditto 3,780 
Albemarle Island, North ditto 3,500 
Albemarle Island, over Cape 

Berkeley 2,360 

Alexander Mount 1,960 

Amatape Mountain 3,270 



Summits. Feet. 

Animas Las, Height south of 1,800 
Aymond Mount 1,000 

Banks Hill, Good Success Bay 1 ,400 
Bell Mount (Tierra del Fuego) 2,600 

Benson Mount 1,780 

Bofjueron Mount 3,000 

BufaderoHill 1,620 

Burney Mount 5,800 

Callao, Height near 3,000 

Campana Mount 3,450 



332 



APPENDIX. 



Summits. Feet. 

Ciirrcta Mount 1,430 

Can- Hill 2,500 

Carrasco Mount 5,520 

Carrasco Heights 3,000 

Carrisal, Herradura de, Height 

near 3,050 

Castro Hill (Peru) 1,160 

Chala Mount 3,7 10 

Chiiueral, Height north of .. 1,100 
Charles Island, Saddle Hill.. 1,780 
Chatham Island, west summit 1,550 
Chathamlsland, middle summit 1,210 
Chatham Island, south summit 1,550 
Chilca, Port, height over .. 1,320 

Chileno Point 1,640 

CliffCoveHill 1,550 

Cobija Range 3,330 

Cocotue Head 1,500 

Coles Point, height near 2,970 

Cone, Port San Andres 1,600 

Corcovado, Rio de Janeiro . . 2,340 

Corcovado (Chiloe) 7,510 

Cruz, Mount 2,260 

Cucao Heights 1 ,800 

Culibras Cove, height near.. 2,390 
Curauma Head 1,830 

Dark Hill 2150 

Darwin Mount (Tierra del 

Fuego) 6,800 

Darwin INIount (Peru) 5,800 

Davis Mount J ,420 

Division Mount 1 ,830 

Dripstone (Galajjagos) 1,500 

Duende Summit 2,580 

Eten, Height inshore, near.. 2,450 

Galera Range, over Point 

Falsa 1,550 

Gallan, San, Island 1,130 

Garita Hill 3 yoO 

Gobernador Hill 1,020 



Summits. Feet. 

Gorda Point 2,520 

Grande Point 1,570 

Graves Mount 1 ,438 

Haddington Mount 3,130 

Herradura Hill (Coquimbo).. 1,000 
Herradura, South distant hill 2,450 

Huacho, Peak 4,220 

Huanaquero Hill 1,850 

Iluanchaco Mount 3,450 

Iluayteea Grande 1,000 

Islay Mount 3,340 

Isquiliac Mount 3,000 

James Island (Galapagos), 

summit 1,700 

Jaron Mountain 3,990 

Juan Fernandes, Yungue.... 3,000 

Juan Soldado , 3,900 

KaterPeak 1,750 

Leehuza Mount 1,300 

Limari Range 2,150 

Lobo Height, south of Victor 3,380 

Lobo Point, Height over 3,090 

Lomas Range, over San An- 
tonio 2,960 

Lorenzo, San 1,050 

Luis, San, range near Cape 
Quedal 2,400 

Main Mount 2,060 

Malacuen 3,000 

Mamilla Height 4,020 

Manzano Hill 1,550 

Maria, Dona, Table of .... 2,160 

Matalqui Heights 1,500 

Matamores, Height near ... . 2,450 

IVFaule, Heights near 1,300 

Maytencillo Range 3,900 

Meilersh Height 3,560 

Mexillones Height 2,650 

Midhurst Island 1 ,760 



AITENDIX. 



303 



Summits. Feet. 

Rlilagro, east liei-lit 2,400 

JMilagro, south height 3,150 

IMincliinmadom 8,000 

Mitford Head 1,220 

Mocha Island 1,240 

Mollendo Peak 3,090 

Mongon Mount 3,900 

Monument Peak 2,850 

Moore's Monument . 3,400 

Moreno IMount 4,160 

Nai'borough Island (Galapa- 
gos) .- 3,720 

Nasca Point 1,020 

NeukeMount 1,800 

Obispo, Height near 2,850 

Oyarvide Mount 5,800 

Osorno Mountain 7, -550 

Pabellon, Pico 1,040 

Payta, Silla de 1,300 

Paul, St., Dome of 2,280 

Paz Islet 1,180 

Pedro, San 3,200 

Peje Peurao, Point 1,900 

Philip Mount (Chonos) 2,760 

Philip, St., Mount 1,31 

Pisagua, Height north of . • 3,220 

Plata Point 1,670 

Pond Mount 2,500 

Pyramid Hill 2,500 

Quilan Ridge 1,180 

Quillota Bell 6,200 

Quemado Mount 2,070 



Summits. Feet. 

Refuge Peak (Ghonos) 3,460 

Rugged Peak 2,840 

SamaHill 3,890 

Sarmiento Mount 6,910 

SerenaHill 1,660 

Silla Hill (Pichidanque) .... 2,000 

Simon Mount 1,600 

Skyring Mount 2,200 

Skyring Peak (Chonos) 2,620 

Solar, Height near 3,420 

Sulivan Mount (Peru) 5,000 

Sulivan Peaks (Chonos) 4,350 

Stokes Mount (Peru) 4,000 

Sugar Loaf, (Rio de Janeiro) 1,270 
Sugar Loaf (Galapagos) .... 1,200 
Sugar Loaf (Chonos) 1,840 

Talinay Mount 2,300 

Tarn Mount 2,850 

Tarapaca Mount 5,780 

Tres Monies, Cape 2,000 

Tres Puntas, Cape 2,000 

Twenty-six degree Range 



2,200 



Raper Cape 

Rees Point, range near 



2,000 
3,500 



Usborne Mountains (Peru) .. 4,000 
Usborne Mount (Falklands) . . 1,630 

Valparaiso, Heights over.... 1,480 
Valparaiso, Signal Post hill 1,070 

Ventana Mountain 3,350 

Villarica Mountain 16,000 

Weddell Mount 1,160 

Wickham Heights (in the Falk- 
lands) 1,700 

Wickham IMount (Peru) .... 4,010 

Williams Island 2,530 

Wilson Mount 8,060 

Yanteles Mount 8,030 



Note. — The heights are given only to the nearest ten feet above the 
mean level of the sea; but they were calculated to the utmost degree of 
accuracy that was attainable. 



304 APPENDIX. 



No. 52. 



In pp. 228-9 of vol. ii, it is stated, "In 1501-2 Americus Vcspucius, 
then employed by the King of Portugal, sailed six hundred leagues 
south, and one hundred and fifty leagues west, from Cape San Agos- 
tinho (lat. 8° 20' S.) along the coast of a country then named Terra 
Sanctfe Crucis. His account of longitude may be very erroneous, 
but how could his latitude have erred thirteen degrees in this his 
southernmost voyage ? " 

Since those pages were printed, I have obtained a perfect copy 
of the four voyages of Americus Vespucius, written in Latin ; and 
I noAv hasten to correct any erroneous impression which might arise 
out of my having asserted that Vespucius " could not have explored 
farther south than the right bank of La Plata." 

By the subjoined extracts from the third voyage of Vespucius, it 
appears that he sailed to about fiftj'-two degrees of south latitude ; 
and near that latitude discovered land : — which I have no doubt 
whatever was Georgia. 

These extracts are not only verbally but literally copied from 
the original : every passage which can throw even the slightest 
light upon dates, times, courses, distances or positions, is here given ; 
the portions of the narrative which are omitted relate solely to what 
Vespucius saw on the land. According to his narrative, he went to 
the Canaries, thence to the coast of Africa near Cape Verde ; from 
which place he sailed to the coast of Brazil, near, but to the west- 
ward of Cape St. Roque ; thence he worked to windward against 
the current, till he reached Cape San Agostinho ; and from that point 
he coasted to about the River Grande, in thirty-two south. From this 
port, whether the River Grande or a place near it, Vespucius steered 
to the south-east (per Seroccum) five hundred leagues ; found the 
south pole elevated fifty-two degrees, the night fifteen hours long, 
the cold excessive, a high sea, a succession of tempestuous weather, 
and land precisely like Georgia, but not at all resembUng any part of 
the Falklands. Georgia lies somewhat farther south than the 
latitude mentioned (being in 54°— 55°) ; but we should take into 
consideration the instruments used at sea in 1502 ; the all but utter 
ignorance of southern stars ; and the succession of bad weather 
encountered by Vespucius about the time of his seeing land near 
52° S. 



APPENDIX. 305 

From this latitude he sailed thirteen hundred leagues towards the 
north and north-east, and arrived at Sierra Leone ; whence he went 
to the Azores and to Lisbon. 

The internal evidence contained in the narrative of this voyage 
affords satisfactorj' proof of its authenticity. Whether the design 
of Vespucius was to seek for southern land, or endeavour to sail 
to ' Cathay' by the shortest line (the arc of a great circle), does not 
appear : but as we know he was skilled in mathematics and of an 
enterprising character, such a conjecture as the latter may be not 
totally improbable. 



Navigatio tertia Americi Vesputii. 

" loitur ab hoc Lisbonse portu cum tribus conservantiae navibus 
die Mali decima MDI abeuntes, cursum nostrum versus magnse Cana- 
rife insulas arripuimus, secundum quas et ad earum prospectum 
instanter enavigantes, idem navigium nostrum coUaterahter secundiim 
Aphricam occidentem versus sequuti fuimus." 

* * * H= * * * 

" Exinde autem ad partem illam ^thiopise, quse Besilicca dicitur, 
devenimus : quae quidem sub torrida zona posita est, et superquam 
quatuordecim gradibus se septentrionalis erigit polus in climate pri- 
mo : ubi diebus undecim nobis de lignis et aqua provisionem parantes 
restitimus, propter id quod Austrum versus per Atlanticum pelagus 
navigandi mihi inesset affectus. Itaque portum J^^thiopise ilium post 
haec reUnquentes, tunc per Lebeccium ventum in tantum navigavimus, 
ut sexaginta et septem infra dies insulse cuidam ajiplicuerimus, quse 
insula septingentis a portu eodem leucis ad Lebeccii partem distaret. 
In quibus quidem diebus pejus perpessi tempus fuimus, qu^m un- 
quam in mari quispiam antea pertulerit, propter ventorum nimbo- 
rumve impetus, qui quamplurimum nobis intulere gravamina, ex eo 
quod navigium nostrum Irneae prsesertim eequinoctiali continue junc- 
tum fuit. Inibique in mense Junio hyems extat, ac dies noctibus 
sequales sunt, atque ipsse umbrae nostrae continue versus meridiem 
erant. Tandem vero omninotanti placuit novam unam nobis osten- 
dere plagam, decima septima, scilicet, Augusti, juxta quam, leuca 
sepositi ab eadem cum media, restitimus, et postea assumptis cymbis 
nonnullis in ipsam visuri si inhabitata esset, profecti fuimus." 

H: * -t H= * * * 



306 



APPENDIX. 



" De qua quidera ora pro ipso serenissimo Castilire rege posses- 
sorium cepimus, invenlmusque illam multum amEenam ac viridem 
esse, et apparentiae bonse. Est autem extra lineam Eequinoctialem 
Austrum versus quinque gradibus : et ita eadem die, ad naves nos- 
tras repeda^dmus." 

* * * * * Jj! * 

" Postquam autem terrain iUam reliquimus, mox inter Levantem et 
Seroccum ventum, secundum quos se continet terra, navigare occe- 
pimus, plurimos ambitus, plurimosque gyros interdum sectantes : 
quibus durantibus gentes non vidimus, quas nobiscum practicare, aut 
ad nos a^ipropinquare voluerint. In tantum vero navigavimus ut 
tellurem unam novam quae secundum Lebeccium se porrigeret, inve- 
nerimus. In qua quum campum unum circuivissemus, cui sancti 
Vincentij campo nomen indidimus, secundum Lebeccium ventum post 
hsec navigare occcepimus : distatque idem sancti Vincentij campus 
a priore terra Ula, centum quinquaginta leuois ad partem levantis : 
qui et quidem campus octo gradibus extra lineam sequinoctialem ver- 
sus Austrum est." 

:(! >(: H< >l^ * * * 

" nos portum ilium linquentes, per Lebeccium ventum, et in visu 
teiTse semper transcurrimus, plures continue faciendo scalas plu- 
resque ambitus, ac interdum cum multis populis loquendo, donee 
tande versus austrum extra Capricorni tropicum fuimus. Ubi super 
horizonta ilium meridionalis polus triginta duobus sese extollebat 
gradibus, atque minorem jam perdideramus ursam, ipsaque major 
ursa multum in fima videbatur, fere in fine horizontis se ostentans, 
et tunc per stellas alterius meridionalis poll nosmetipsos dirigebamus, 
quje multo j^lures, multoque majores ac lucidiores quam nostri jdoH 
steUae existunt : propter quod j^lurimarum iUarum figuras confinxi, 
et praesertim earura quae prioris ac majoris magnitudiiiis erant, ima 
cum declinatione diametrorum, quas circa polum austri efficiunt, et 
una cum denotatione earundem diametrorum, et semidiametrorum 
earmn, prout in meis quatuor diaetis, sive navigationibus iaspici facile 
poterit. Hocce vero navigio nostro, a campo sancti Augustini incei^to, 
septingentas percurrimus laucas (leucas ?) videlicet, versus Ponen- 
tem centum, et versus Lebeccium sexingentas : quas quidem dum 
peragraremus, si quis quae vidimus enumcrare vellet, non totidem ei 
papp-eae chartae suflicerent." 



APPENDIX. 307 

" Et in hac quidem peragratione decern fere raensiljus extitimus." 

* * * :i; :!: IK * 

" edixi, mandavique ubique, ut de lignis et aqua pro sex mensibus 
munitioneiu omnes sibi pararent : nam per navium magistros nos 
cum navibus nostris adhuc tantundem navigare posse judicatum est. 
Qua quidem, quam edixeram, facta provisione, nos cram illam lin- 
quentes, et inde navigationem nostram per Seroccum ventum initi- 
autes, Februarii decima tertia, videlicet, quum sol sequlnoctio jam 
approj^inquaret, et ad hoc Septentrionis liemisphserium nostrum ver- 
geret, in tantam pervagati fuimus, ut meridianum polura super 
horizonta ilium quinquaginta duobus gradibus sublimatum inveneri- 
mus, ita ut nee minoris ursse : nee majoris stellse amodo insplci 
valerent. Nam tunc a portu illo, h quo per Seroccum abieramus, 
quingentis leucis longe jam facti eramus, tertia, videlicet, Aprilis. 
Qua die tempestas ac procella in mari tarn vehemens exorta est, ut 
vela nostra omnia colligere, et cum solo nudo que malo remigare 
compelleremur, perflante vehementissime Lebeccio, ac mari intume- 
scente, et aere turbulentissimo extante. Propter quem turbinis 
violentissimum irapetum nostrates omnes non modico affecti fuerunt 
stupore. Noctes quoque tunc inibi quam-maximBe erant. Etenim 
Aprilis septima, sole circa Arietis finem extante, ipsEE esedem noctes 
horarum quindecim repertte sunt : hyemsque etiam tunc inibi erat, 
tit vestra satis perpendere potest majestas. Nobis autem sub hac 
navigantibus turbulentia, terram unam Aprilis secunda vidimus, 
penes quam viginti circiter leucas navigantes appropiavimus : verum 
ilium omnimodo brutalem et extraneam esse comperimus, in qua 
quidem nee portum quempiam, nee gentes aliquas fore conspeximus, 
ob id, ut arbitror, quod tarn asperum in ea frigus algeret, ut tam 
acerbum vix quisquam perpeti posset. Porro in tanto periculo, in 
tantaque tenq^estatis importunitate nosmet turn reperimus, ut vix 
alteri alteros prsegrandi turbine nos videremus. Quamobrem demum 
cum navium pr?etore pariter concordavimus, ut connavitis nostris 
omnibus, terram illam linquendi, seque ab ea elongandi, et in Portu- 
gallia remeandi signa faceremus. Quod consilium sanum quidem et 
utile fuit, quum si inibi nocte solum adhuc ilia perstitissemus, dis- 
perditi omnes eramus : nempe quum hinc abiissemus, tam grandis die 
sequent! tempestas in mari excitata est, ut penitus obrui perdite 
metueremus. Propter quod plurima peregrinationum vota, necnon 
alias quamplures cseremonias, prout nautis nios esse solet, tiuic feci- 



308 APPENDIX. 

mus. Sub quo tempestatis infortunio quinque navigavimus diebus, 
demissis omnino velis. In quibus quidem quinque diebus ducentas 
et quinquaginta in man penetravlmus leucas, lineee interdum equinoc- 
tiali, necnon mari et aurse temperatlori semper appropinquando, per 
quod nos a prscmissis eripere periculis altissimo Deo placuit. Eratque 
hujuscemodi nostra nav'igatio ad transmontanum ventum et Grsecum, 
ob id quod ad ^thiopise latus pertingere cupiebamus, a quo per maris 
Atlantici fauces eundo, mille tercentum distabamus leucis. Ad illam 
autem per summi tonantis gratiam Maij bis quinta pertigimus die. 
Ubi in plaga una ad latus Austri, quae Serraliona dicitur, quindecim 
diebus nos ipsos refrigerando fuimus. Et post hsec cursum nostrum 
versus insulas Lyazori dictas arripuimus : quK quidem insulse a Ser- 
raliona ipsa septingentis et quinquaginta leucis distabant, ad quas 
sub Julii finem pervenimus, et pariter quindecim inibi nos reficiendo 
perstitimus diebus. Post quos inde exivimus, et ad Lisbonse nostrse 
recursum nos accinximus, a qua ad occidentis partem tercentum sepo- 
siti leucis eramus, et cujus tandem deinde portum MDII cum pros- 
pera salvatione et cunctipotentis nutu rursum subi^imus cum duabus 
duntaxa navibus, ob id quod tertiam in Serraliona, quoniam amplius 
nangare non posset, ignicombusseramus. In hac autem nostra tertio 
cursa na^^gatione, sexdecim circiter menses permansimus : e quibus 
undecim absque transmontanese stellre, necnon et majoris ursse mino- 
risve aspectu na\-iganmus, quo tempore nosmetipsos per aliam meri- 
dionalis poli stellam regebamus : quae superius commemorata sunt, 
qure in eadem nostra teitio facta na^•igatione, relatu magis digna 
conspexi." 

The above is a literal extract from pp. 116 — 126 of the Novus 
Orbis, id est, Navigationes primas in Americam. Roterodami, apud 
Johannes Leonardi Berewout. Anno 1616. — an exceedingly scarce 
work. 



No. 53, 

BAROMETRIC OBSERVATIOXS IN THE RIVER SANTA CRVZ. 

Before leaving the Beagle, to explore part of the river, tAvo 
mountain barometers, afterwards carried in the boats, were suspended 
on shore, close to the sea, and compared with a barometer on board 
the ship, the cistern of wliich instrument was at the level of the sea. 



APPENDIX. 309 

After returning from exploring part of the river, both mountain 
barometers were again similarlj' compared, and the difference between 
the best instrument and that fixed on board was found to be the 
same as before, namely, 0,19 inch. At sunrise on the 5th of May, 
at the westernmost station reached by the boats, the mountain baro- 
meter which was preferred showed 29,81 (/3') ; the thermometers, 
attached, and detached, 44° Fahrenheit ; and the cistern of the instru- 
ment was one foot above the level of the river. At the same time 
(allowing the difference of longitude) the barometer on board the 
Beagle showed 30,07 (/3) ; while the attached thermometer showed 
44°, and the detached 43°. 

The rise of tide that morning at the ship was twenty-one feet, and 
it was high water at thirty minutes past seven, a.m. 

By Baily's rule—* 

B = 0,00000 (subtract 0,19 from 29,81) 

log. H' = 1,47159 

1,47159 
log. H — 1,4781.3 

D = 0,00654 - - - log ='7,81558 

c =:'9",y9980 

Half-tide 10,5 feet. A = 4,79207 

— 2,5 405 = 2,60745 



8 



4-7 



— 1 412 feet. 



Hence the western station appears to be about four hundred and 
twelve feet above the level of the eastern — that of the Beagle : — 
but other pairs of obsen'ations were made durmg the pre\dous and 
following days (May 4th and 6th) of which the results, similarly 
deduced, were 464, 501, 527, 487, 497, 434, and 436;— each con- 
siderably above 400 feet : and as that part of the river (the western 
station) is about two hundred miles from the sea, the fall, on an 
average, cannot be less than two feet in each mile. 

» Pp. 183 and 263 of Astronomical Tables and Formul», by Francis 
Baily, Esq. F.R.S. Pres. A.S. &c. &c. 



310 APPENDIX. 

No. 54. 

A FEW NAUTICAL REMARKS. 

Without extending this work to an unwieldy size, it would he 
impossible to give particular descriptions of, or saiUng directions for, 
half the anchorages surveyed by the Beagle and her consorts. I can 
here only allude to some which are least easy of access ; and for 
details concerning the rest, I must ask the reader to refer to Captain 
King's Sailing Directions, pubHshed by the Admiralty in 1832 ; and, 
hereafter, to a similar work, which I am compiling. 

In approaching or entermg any port between the southern coast 
of Brazil and Tierra del Fuego,* both leads and charts must 
be closely attended to, tides and currents must be well considered, 
and the colour, as well as rippling of the water, narrowly watched. 
Generally speaking, much of this extent of coast is comparatively 
shallow, and beset with insidious dangers in the shape of banks and 
currents. Where rocks occur they are less to be feared, because 
their position is, in most cases,t pointed out by kelp.j. Some of the 
banks are particularly dangerous, being exceecUngly steep-sided and 
hard. Where there is a strong stream or great rise of tide, or where 
both are found, the i"isk of approaching such banks is proportionably 
increased. 

Of the River Plata I have spoken briefly in Chapter IV., and of 
Blanco Bay there is a shght description in Chapter V. of the second 
volume. 

Before entering PortBelgrano (within Blanco Bay), or any similar 
port, such as False Bay, Green Bay, Brightman Inlet, Union Bay, 
&c. I should advise anchoring, and ascertaining the ship's position 
exactly, sending a boat to find the middle of the principal entrance, 
and there dropping a buoy with a good anchor. If the weather is at 
aU hazy, no marks on the distant low land will be made out by a 
stranger, until he has had time to take a few angles, look round 
from the masthead, and examine the chart leisurely. These things 
cannot be so well done while the ship is saiUng fast ; she may, how- 
ever, be brought to for a time. 

* Except at the Falklands. 

+ That in the entrance of Port Desire is a notable exception to the 
general rule 

J Seaweed growing in rocky places. 



APPENDIX. 311 

Tlie Falkland Islands, Tierra del Fuego,* the west part of Pata- 
gonia, the shores of the Chonos Archipelago, and Chil6e,t those of 
Chile and Peru, and the Galapagos Islands, have bold coasts, with 
deep water near them ; — in such places the lead is of less importance. 
Most lurking dangers are buoyed by kelp ; but where they are not 
so distinguished, the lead would hardly warn the seaman of them, 
because rocks usually rise so abruptly. A careful and experienced 
eye at the masthead, another perhaps on the fore-yard or at the jib- 
boom end, a manageable quantity of sail, under which the vessel 
may be instantly brought to the wmd or hove in stays, and a good 
estimation of distances by the commancUng officer will be of more 
consequence in frequenting these coasts, than either lead or directions. 
San Carlos and the Narrow of Chacao are remarkable exceptions. Both 
banks and rocks are thei-e to be guarded against — by chart, eye, and 
lead, however, rather than by lengthy directions, which sometimes 
pei-plex more than they assist. Of these a particular plan is given 
iu the map which accompanies the first volume of this work. 



Remarks upon the winds, weather, and cUmate of each of the 
southern portions of the South American coast have already been 
given in variovis pages of this work ; but I will add some more, refer- 
ring particularly to the outer coast of Tierra del Fuego, previous to 
saying a few words on the passage round Cape Horn. 

Some Observations upon the Ajipearance and Character of the Sea 
Coast of Tierra del Fuego ; a brief Description of the Anchorages ; 
and a few Remarks upon the Seasons, Wmd, and Weather. 

From Cape PiUar to Cape Horn the coast of Tierra del Fuego is 
very irregular and much broken ; being, in fact, composed of an 
immense number of islands. It is generally high, bold, and free 
from shoals or banks ; but there are many rocks nearly level with 
the surface of the water, distant two aiad even three miles from the 
nearest shore, which make it veiy unsafe for a vessel to approach 
nearer than five miles, excepting in daylight and clear weather. Tlie 
coast varies in height from eight to fifteen hundred feet above the sea. 

* Except the northernmost and the eastern shores, 
t Except San Carlos de ChiI6e. 



312 APPENDIX. 

Farther inshore are ranges of mountains always covered with snow, 
whose height is from two to four thousand feet, and in a few instances 
about six or seven thousand. 

With daylight and clear weather a vessel may close the shore with- 
out risk, because the water is invariably deep, and no rock is found, 
which is not so marked by sea- weed (or kelp as it is generally called), 
that by a good look-out at the mast-head, its situation is as clearly 
seen as if it were buoj'ed. By avoiding kelp you are sure of having 
sufficient water for the largest ships on any part of this coast. At 
the same time, it must be remembered that kelp grows in some 
places from a depth of thirty fathoms, and that on many parts of this 
coast you may pass through thick beds of sea-weed without having 
less than six fathoms water ; still it is always a sign of danger, and 
until the spot where it grows has been carefully sounded, it is not 
safe to pass over it with a ship. As an instance ; — after sounding a 
large bed of this weed in one of the Beagle's boats, and thinking it 
might be passed safely, a rock %vas found, not more than four feet in 
diameter, having only one fathom water over it. 

Viewing the coast at a distance, it appears high, rugged, covered 
with snow, and continuous, as if there were no islands. When near 
you see many inlets which intersect the land in every direction, and 
open into large gulfs or sounds, behind the seaward islands : and 
you then lose sight of the higher land, which is covered with snow 
throughout the year, and find the heights close to the sea thicldy 
wooded towards the east, though barren on their western sides, owing 
to the prevailing winds. These heights are seldom covered with 
snow, because the sea winds and the rain melt it soon after it falls. 

Opposite to the eastern valleys, where the land is covered with 
wood, and water is seen faUing down the ravines, good anchorage is 
generally found. But these valleys are exposed to tremendous squalls 
which come from the heights. The best of all anchorages on this 
coast is where you find good ground on the western side of high land, 
and are protected from the sea by low islands. It never blows near 
so hard against high land as from it ; but the sea on the weather side 
is of course very formidable, unless stopped, as I mentioned, by islets. 

Where the land is chiefly composed of sandstone or slate, anchor- 
ages abound ; where of granite, it is difficult to strilce soundings. 

The diiFerence between the granite and slate or sandstone hills, 
can be distinguished by the former being very barren and rugged, 



I 



APPENDIX. 313 

and of a grey or white appearance ; whereas the latter are generall)^ 
covered with vegetation, are dark-coloured, and have smoother out- 
lines. The slate liills shew some sharp peaks, except which, the only- 
bare places are those exposed to wind or sea. 

Soundings extend about thirty miles from the coast. Between ten 
and twenty miles from the land, the depth of water varies from sixty 
to two hundred fathoms ; the bottom almost every where being white 
or speckled sand. From ten to five miles distant, the average depth is 
fifty fathoms ; it varies in general from thirty to one hundred, but 
in some places there is no ground with two hundred fathoms of line. 
Less than five miles from the shore the soundings are very irregular 
indeed, generally less than forty fathoms, though in some places 
deepening suddenly to one hundred or more ; while in others a rock 
rises nearly to, or above the surface of the water. 

After carrying fifty, forty, thirty, or twenty fathoms, towards an 
inlet, which you are desirous of entering, you will perhaps find the 
water deepen to sixty or one hundred fathoms as soon as you enter 
the opening : and in the large sounds, behind the seaward islands, 
the water is often considerably deeper than on the outside. 

There Is a bank of soundings along the whole coast, extending 
from twenty to thirty miles from it, which appears to have been 
formed by the continued action of the sea upon the shore, wearing It 
away, and forming a bank with its remains. 

Between the islands, where there is no swell or surf worth notice, 
the water is deep, and the bottom very irregular. 

A small ship may run among the islands In many places, and find 
good anchorage ; but she will enter a labyrinth, from which her 
retreat may be difficult, and in thick weather very dangerous. 

Fogs are extremely rare on this coast ; but thick, rainy weather, 
and strong winds prevail. The sun shews himself but little; the sky, 
even in fine weather, being generally overcast and cloudy. A clear 
day is a rare occuiTence. 

Gales of wind succeed each other at short intervals, and last several 
days. At times the weather is comparatively fine and settled for 
perhaps a fortnight, but those periods of quiet are few. 

Westerly winds prevail during the greater part of the year. The 
easterly wind blows occasionally in the winter months, and at times 
very hard, but it seldom blows in summer. 

Winds from the eastern quarter invariably rise light, with fine 

dd 



314 APPENDIX. 

weather ; they increase graduall}% the weather changes, and at times 
they end in a determined heavy gale. More frequently they rise to the 
strength of a treble -reefed topsail breeze, then die away gradually, 
or shift to another quarter. 

From the north the wind always begins to blow moderately, but 
with thicker weather and more clouds than when from the eastward : 
it is generally accompanied by small rain. Increasing in strength, it 
draws to the westward gradually, and blows hard from between north 
and north-west, with heavy clouds, thick weather, and much rain. 

When the fury of the north-wester is expended, which varies from 
twelve to fifty hours, or even while it is blowing hard, the wind some- 
times shifts suddenly into the south-west quarter, blowing harder 
than before. This wind soon drives away the clouds, and in a few 
hours causes cleai- weather, though perhaps with heavy squalls pass- 
ing occasionally. 

In the south-west quarter the wind (generally speaking) hangs 
several days, blowing strong, but moderating towards the end, and 
admitting two or three days of fine weather. 

Northerly winds then usually begin again, during the summer 
months ; but all manner of shifts and changes are experienced, from 
north to south by the west, during that season ; which would hardly 
deserve the name of summer, were not the days so much longer, and 
the weather a Httle warmer. Rain and wind prevail during the long, 
much more than in the short days. 

It should be remembered that bad weather never comes on sud- 
denly from the eastward, neither does a south-west or southerly gale 
shift suddenly to the northward. South-west and southerly winds 
rise suddenly as well as violently, and must be well considered in 
choosing anchorages, or preparing for shifts of wind at sea. 

The most usual weather in these regions is a fresh wind between 
north-west and south-west, with a cloudy overcast sky. 

Much difference of opinion has prevailed as to the utHity of a 
barometer in these latitudes. I may remark, that during some 
years' careful trial of a barometer and sympiesometer (Adie's), I 
found their indications of the utmost value. Their variations did not 
of course correspond to those of middle latitudes, but they corres- 
ponded to those of high northern latitudes in a remarkable manner, 
(changing south for north, east and west remaining the same). 

Gales of wind from the southward, and squalls from the south- 



APPENDIX. 315 

west, are preceded, and therefore foretold, by hea^'y banks of large 
white clouds rising in those quarters, having hard edges, and appearing 
very rounded and solid. 

Winds from the northward and "north-westward are preceded and 
accompanied by low scud clouds, with a thickly overcast sky, in 
which other clouds appear to be at a great height. The sun shews 
dimly through them, and has a reddish appearance. For some hours, 
or a day before a gale from the north, or west, it is not possible to 
take an altitude of the sun, although he is visible ; the haziness of 
the atmosphere in the upper regions causing his limbs to be quite 
indistinct. Sometimes, but very rarely, with the wind light between 
N.N.W. and N.N.E. there are a few days of beautiful weather : 
but they are sure to be succeeded by gales from the southward, 
with much rain. 

It may be useful to say a few words regarding the seasons in the 
neighbourhood of Cape Horn, as much question has arisen respecting 
the propriety of making a passage round the Cape in winter rather 
than in summer. 

The equinoctial months are the worst in the year, generally speak- 
ing, as in most parts of the world. Heavy gales prevail about those 
times, though not perhaps exactly at the equinoxes. In August, 
September, and October, there is usually very bad weather ; strong 
vvdnds, snow, hail, and cold, then prevail. 

December, January, and February, are the warmest months ; the 
days are long, and there is some fine weather ; but westerly winds, 
at times very strong gales, with much rain, prevail throughout this 
season, which carries with it less of summer than in almost any part 
of the globe. 

March, as I said, is stormy, and perhaps the worst month in the 
year, with respect to violent winds, though not so rainy as the sum- 
mer months. 

In April, May, and June, the finest weather is experienced ; and 
though the days are short, it is more Uke summer than any other 
time of the year. Easterly winds are frequent, with fine, clear, 
settled weather. But bad weather occurs during these months, 
though not so often as at other times. During this period there is 
some chance of obtaining a few successive and corresponding obser- 
vations. To try to rate chronometers by equal altitudes would l^e a 
fruitless waste of time at other seasons. 

dd2 



316 APPENDIX, 

June and July are much alike, but easterly gales blow more 
during July. The days being so short, and the weather cold, make 
these two months very impleasant, though they are, perhaps, the 
best for making a speedy passage to the westward, as the wind is 
then prevalent from the eastern quarter. 

I should say that December and January are the best for making 
a passage from the Pacific to the Atlantic Ocean, though that passage 
is so short and easily made, that it hardly requires a choice of time. 
For going to the westward, I should prefer April, May, or June, 
and should wait for a wind. 

Lightning and thunder are seldom known : violent squalls come 
from the south or south-west, giving warning of their approach by 
masses of clouds. They are rendered more formidable by snow and 
hail of a large size. 

There is a continual current setting along the south-west coast of 
Tierra del Fuego, from the north- west towards the south-east, as far 
as the Diego Ramirez Islands. From their vicinity the current takes 
a more easterly direction, setting round Cape Horn towards Staten 
Island, or off to seaward to the E.S.E. 

Much has been SEiid of the strength of this current ; some persons 
supposing that it is a serious obstacle in passing to the westward of 
Cape Horn, whUe others almost deny its existence. 

We found it run at the average rate of a nule an hour. Its strength 
is greater during west, — ^less or insensible during easterly winds. It 
is strongest near the land, particularly near the projecting capes or 
detached islands. 

This current sets rather from the land, which diminishes the dan- 
ger of approacliing the south-west parts of the coast : but there is, 
in fact, much less risk in approaching this coast than is generally 
supposed. Being high and bold, without sandbanks or shoals, its 
position accurately determined, and a bank of soundings extending 
twenty or thirty miles from the shore, it need not be much feared. 
Rocks, it is true, abound near the land, but they are very near to 
the shore, and out of a ship's way. 

A Une from point to point along the coast (beginning from the 
outermost Apostle), will clear all danger, excepting the Tower Rocks, 
which are steep to, and high above water. 

The preceding notices were written by me in 1 830, and I have not 
found it necessary to alter them materially. Taken in connection wth 



APPENDIX. 317 

Capt. King's, Chapt. 24, in Vol. 1, and the following brief remarks, 
I hope they may prove useful to a stranger to the passage round 
Cape Horn : but he will doubtless avail himself also of what has been 
written on this subject by other persons, especially Weddell. 

In going westward, Captain King recommends keeping near the 
eastern coast of Patagonia, and " after passing Staten Island, if the 
wind be westerly, the ship should be kept upon the starboard tack, 
unless it veer to the southward of S.S.W. until she reaches the lati- 
tude of 60° S." — (vol. i. pp. 464-5.) I do not think keeping near 
the eastern coast of Patagonia of importance to a large or strong 
vessel ; smoother water is found near that coast, it is true, but cur- 
rents set to the northward alongshore more strongly than in the 
open sea. Icebergs, however, are never found in sight of that land, 
though they have been met farther eastward, to the north of forty 
degrees south latitude. Instead of going into sixty, south latitude, I 
should prefer working to windward, near the shore of Tierra del 
Fuego ; — through NassauBay ; where anchorages are numerous, and 
easy of access. 

In Orange Bay, or farther south, a ship may await a favourable time 
for making a long stretch to the westward : if foiled in one effort, she 
may return, or seek for anchorage under Noir Island, in Euston 
Bay, or elsewhere, until a better opportunity occurs. To make 
westing ought to be the principal object, in my humble opinion, till 
the meridian of about 82° is reached.* Icebergs are not found near 
the land of Tierra del Fuego, but they are frequently met with at 
a distance from it. 

By adopting this plan of passing through Nassau Bay, or near 
Cape Horn, much labour and dainage may be avoided, because a ship 
may lie quietly at anchor during the worst weather, and be ready to 
profit by any advantageous change. 

* Ei§fhty degrees will be far enough west for a fast-sailing- ship ; but 
eighty-five degrees M'ill not be too westerly for a dull saileh 



318 APPENDIX. 

No. 55. 

Remarks on the Chronometrical Observations made during the Sur- 
veying Vo)'ages of H. M. Ships Adventure and Beagle, between 
the years 1826 and 1836. 

Before I iiroceed to notice the chronometrical observations made 
during the Beagle's latter voyages, fi-om 1831 to 1836, it appears to 
me necessary to give a copy of Captain King's Report of those made 
under his direction between 1826 and 1830. 

Copy of a Report of the Chronometrical Observations made during a 
Voyage for the purpose of surveying the southern extremity of 
America, in H.M. Ships Adventure and Beagle, between the years 
1826 and 1830, under the orders of CaptamP. P. King, by direc- 
tion of the Right Honourable the Lords Commissioners of the 
Admiralty. 

Among the important objects to which my attention was directed 
by the Lord Commissioners of the Admiralty, upon my appointment 
to the command of the Expedition for the survey of the southern part 
of South America, was that of measuring the differences of certain 
meridians in the north and south Atlantic Oceans by means of 
chronometers ; and for this purpose I -was supplied from the Royal 
Obsen'atory at Greenwich with nine chronometers ; eight of which, 
at the suggestion of the Astronomer Royal, were suspended in gim- 
bals, and divided into two boxes ; and the ninth, an eight-day box- 
watch, was fitted in the usual manner. ITae whole were fixed in a 
chest that was firmly secured to the deck as low down as possible, 
and as near to the middle part of the ship as could be managed, in 
order to diminish the eflfect of the ship's motion, and to counteract 
that of the ship's local attraction, which, whatever it might have 
been, always remained the same, as the chronometers were never 
moved from their positions. 

Tlrese nine chronometers were made by Mr. French. Their 
description and number were as follows : — 

Eight-day box chronometer, No. 3233 designated Z 

Two-day 3296 A 

Two-day 3295 B^ ™ 

Two-day 3271 c °"^ ^°'^- 

Two-day 3227 D 



Al^PENDIX. 319 

One-day box chronometer, No. 3290 designated E 

One-day 3291 fI in 

One-day 3292 G [ one box. 

One-day 3293 H, 

Z had been going at the Observatory for many months, and had 
preser\'ed a very regular rate, but all the others Avere quite new, and 
had scarcely settled to a steady rate when I received them. 

In addition to the above I was furnished with a pocket chrono- 
meter. No. 553, by Mr. Murray. This watch had been at the Ob- 
servatory for several months, and had performed remarkably well : and 
before I sailed Messrs. Parkinson andFrodsham intrusted to my care 
for trial a pocket chronometer. No. 1048, that was only completed in 
time to be sent to me two days before the Expedition sailed from Ply- 
mouth. Mr. French also lent me a pocket-watch to use for observ- 
ing with, in order that the rest might not be unnecessarily moved. 

In the Beagle were three excellent box chronometers. Two by 
Messrs. Parldnson and Frodsliam, Nos. 254 and 228, which had 
been used in the Polar Voyages ; and the third, No. 134, made by Mr. 
M'Cabe. 

The means, therefore, that were placed at my command to effect 
this most interesting object were tolerably ample : and the result 
will prove how admirably these machines are adapted to measure 
such differences when a great number are emjiloyed ; because the 
irregularities and errors of individual watches are compensated for 
by employing the mean of the whole. 

In the observations for the determination of time, a sextant by 
Troughton, No. 1140, and an artificial horizon, were the instruments 
used : and the mode, whenever it could be adopted, was that of cor- 
responding altitudes. Occasionally, however, absolute altitudes were 
used, but only in those places where the latitude was correctly 
ascertained ; — and in some instances the chronometers were rated 
by a transit instrument. 

The chronometers were always compared with the 'journeyman' 
watch before and after the observations, and when corresponding al- 
titudes were observed all the watches were compared at noon. Their 
rates were carefully observed before sailing from one port, as well as 
after the arrival at another ; and in calculating the acceleration or re- 
tardation of their rate of going, the correction was obtained by inter- 
polation, upon the supposition of their having changed gradually. 
Whenever it appeared, by comparing the watches with each other. 



320 APPENDIX. 

that any one had suddenly varied from its rate, its result was omitted 
in the determination. 

The method of interpolating for the alteration of the rates which I 
have adopted, is one that was successfully employed by Captain 
Flinders in his survey of New Holland ; and one that I have been 
for many years in the habit of using with most satisfactory results. 
In cases where chronometers alter their rates suddenly, the rule 
cannot be applied ; but, in general, the alterations are caused by 
changes of temperature ; and as these changes are "gradual, so the 
rates alter in the same progressive manner. 

The correction has, therefore, been obtained by an arithmetical 
progression ; in which the first term, the number of terms, and the 
common difference, are given to find the sum of the terms. 

The difference between the two rates divided by the number of 
days that have intervened, called the daily variation of rate, is the first 
term F ; as well as the common difference D : the interval between 
the determination of the errors of the watches, in mean time, of the 
place left and arrived at, is the number of terms N : and the sum of 
the terms is the correction required, S. The formula, when reduced 
to its simplest form, is F (N-fl) ^=S. 

The places which I was instructed to visit for the purpose of mea- 
suring their respective meridional differences were Madeira, Santa 
Cruz in the island of Teneriffe, the north-east end of San Antonio, 
and Port Praya in the island of St. Jago, in the North Atlantic ; 
and the island of Trinidada, Rio de Janeiro, and Monte Video, in 
the South Atlantic Ocean. 

After the chronometers had been carefuUy rated at the Observa- 
tory, they were embarked on board H.M.S. Adventure, on the 23rd 
April, 1826 ; but as the ship was detained at Deptford and North- 
fleet until the 4th May, an opportunity was offered of ascertaining 
what change had been produced by the alteration of the place ; and 
it turned out to be by no means inconsiderable. Five of the watches 
had accelerated, and the remaining four had retarded rates. It 
would be difficult to assign any other reason for this change than 
the effect of the ship's local attraction. 

With this newly found rate we sailed for Plymouth ; and, after 
five days' passage, arrived in the Sound ; and, on the 9th May, ob- 
tained a set of corresponding altitudes upon the Breakwater, upon a 
stone marked ^ ; which, by the Ordnance map, is 0' 31 "-5 in longi- 



APPENDIX. 321 

tude to the eastward of the flag-staff of Drake's Island ; 10" 2 to the 
westward of Plymouth old church, and 0' 25"- 1 to the westward of 
the new church. Tlie longitude, therefore, of the station, by the 
Ordnance survey, would be 4° 7' 41"-7, but by applying a proportion 
of the error detected by Dr. Tiarks, in liis chronometrical observa- 
tions between Greenwich and Falmouth, viz., 4'"09 or 1' 11""3, the 
corrected longitude of the station will be 4° 8' 43". Our chrono- 
meters made it 0' 40"' 2 to the eastward of the corrected longitude, 
and 0' 19"'6 to the westward of the original determination by the 
Ordnance survey. 

The Breakwater being the point from whence all my differences are 
measured, I have considered its longitude west of Green^vich to be 
as above stated, namely, 4° 8' 43". 

It now remains to record the results, the details of which are 
given in another form.* 

Madeira. — The obsen'ations were made at Mr. Veitch's garden* 
house, that being the spot used by Dr. Tiarks with ten chrono- 
meters. The difference between it and the Breakwater is 12" 45' 45" 

west : the longitude will therefore be 1 6° 54' 28" W. 

which is 0' 1 7'''4 to the eastward of Dr. Tiarks's determination. 

Teneriffe (Fort San Pedro) — by eleven chronometers is 0° 40' 6" 
to the eastward of Madeira, and will therefore be ...16°14'22""W. 

St. Jago (landing place at Port Praya) — by ten chronometers 
it was found to be 7° 15' 55" w^est of Teneriffe, and there- 
fore.,.. 23° 30' 17" 

Rio DE Janeiro (VUlegagnon Island) — by fourteen chronometers the 
difference was found between it and Port Praya to be 19° 34' 46" 
which will make its longitude 43° 05' 03" 

St. Antonio (Terrafal Bay at the south-west end). — Inconsequence 
of unfavourable weather we were unable to land at the north-east 
end, and, therefore, made our observations at Terrafal Bay ; the lon- 
gitude of which was found by eleven chronometers to be 9° 05' 39" 
to the westward of Teneriffe which makes it 25° 20' 1 " 

Tkinidada. — On account of the south-east trade being scant, we were, 
prevented from making this island. 

Monte Video (Rat Island). — The difference of longitude between 
this place and Rio de Janeiro was measured, on various occasions, 

* These details are lodged in the Hydrographical Officct R. F; 



*Jf^. 



APPENDIX. 



between the years 1826 and 1830 ; and in the whole 62 different 
results were obtained, the mean of which makes it 13° 4' 27" 
west of Villegagnon Island, or 56° 9' 30" 

GoRRiTi (well at the north-east end) is 1 15' 51", by twenty-four 
chronometrical results, to the eastward of Rat Island, Montevideo, 
or... 54° 53' 38" 

Cape St. Mary is 54° 5' 58" 

Buenos Ayres (Cathedral). — By three chronometers is 2° 8' 24" west 
of Rat Island, Monte Video, or 58° 17' 53" 

Port Famine (Observatory at the west side of the bay). — The me- 
ridional difference between this place and Rat Island at Monte 
Video was also found on the several occasions of the ships passing 
to and fi'o. In aU, 54 chronometrical results were obtained, the 
mean of which makes the Observatory 14° 44' 31" to the west- 
ward, or 70° 54' 01" 

Port Desire (Ruins of the Spanish colony).— Fifteen chronometri- 
cal results make it 9° 42' 15" to the west of Rat Island, Monte 
Video, or 65° 51' 45'J 

Sea Bear Bay (Sandy beach on the south side of the bay) — is 7'44" 
east of Port Desire, and therefore 65° 44' 01" 

St. Martin Cove, near Cape Horn (the head of the cove). — 
Twelve chronometers made its longitude 11° 19' 33" west of Rat 
Island, Monte Video, or 67° 29' 03" 

Valparaiso (Cerro Alegre). — Tliis place was found by seven chro- 
nometers to be 4° 3' 48" to the westward of St. Martin Cove, 
or 71° 32' 51" west of Greenwich, but between it and Port 
Famine the difference being by ten chronometers 0° 41' 8" or 
71° 35' 9" west, the mean has been taken, viz 71° 34' 12" 

Juan Fernandez (Cumberland Bay, the fort). — This place was 
found by nine chronometers to be 7° 11' 52" west of Valparaiso, 
which makes it 78° 46' 04" 

Talcahuano Bay (Fort Galvez). — By eleven chronometers the dif- 
ference between it and Valparaiso is...l° 28' 53" or 73° 03' 05" 

San Carlos de Chiloe (Sandy Point). — ^The point which is opposite 
to the town is, by twenty chronometrical results, 2° 16' 13" west 

of Valparaiso, or 73° 5^ 25" 

The above are the principal chronometrical determinations that 

were made : the following are dependant on them : — 



APPENDIX. 3S3 

Santos (the Arsenal). — By twelve chronometers this place is 
3° ir 31" west of Rio de Janeiro, or 4G° 16' 33" 

St. Catherine (Flag Staff of S*''.Cruz D'Anhatomirim) is, by- 
fifteen chronometrical results, 5° 24' 38" to the west of Rio de 
Janeiro, or 48° 29' 41" 

Port Sta. Elena (the spot marked " Observatory" on the plan). — 
Eleven chronometers made it 10° 23' 4G" west of the Island of 
Gorriti, or 65° 17' 25" 

Cape Virgins (extremity of the cliff). — By ten chronometers is 
13" 24' 8" to the west of Gorriti, or 68° 17' 46" west of Green- 
wich ; but by comparing ft with Port Famine, from which ten chro- 
nometers make it 2° 36' 0" to the eastward, the result is 68° 18' 01"; 
the mean of the two determinations makes it 68° 17' 53" 

Port Gallant (Wigwam Point). — By twenty-one chronometers 
is 1° 2' 55" west of Port Famine, or 71° 56' 57" 

Harbour of Mercy (Observation Islet) at the western end of the 
Strait of Magalhaens is 3° 40' 55" west of Port Famine, or 
74° 34' 56" west of Greenwich. By the survey, however, it is 
laid down in 74° 35' 31" 



During the voyage various astronomical observations were made 
for the longitude, the summary of which is as follows : 



Period. 


Place, 


Between 
the 

a 

and 


No. of Series. 


Longitude 

by 
Observation. 


Longitude 
Chronometer. 


On each 

side. 


In all. 


Sept, 1826 
Oct. 1828 
Nov. 1829 
Jan. 1830 


Rio de Janeiro 

Gorriti* 

Chiloe 

Valparaiso. . . . 



© 
© 
© 


8 

9 

8 

16 


16 
18 
16 
32 


/ // 
43 8 18 

54 53 40 

73 48 42 

71 35 10 


o / // 
43 5 3 

54 53 38 

73 50 25 

71 34 12 



* The longitude of Gorriti by Captain Stokes's luttars was 54° 57' W ; 
that of Monte Video (Rat Island) 56° 14'; of Port Famine old observa- 
tory (at the west side of the bay) 70° 57'; and of Villegagnon Island, at 
Rio de Janeiro, 43° 9' W. (each to the nearest minute only). 

Captain Stokes M'as an excellent observer, and used one of Troughton's 
best repeating reflecting circles. His lunar observations, which were 

very 



324 APPENDIX. 

By referring these several observations to Port Famine by chrono- 
metrical differences, its longitude by observation will be 70° 54' 1 1" 
which is nearly identical with that produced by the chronometric 
chain from Plymouth, viz. 70° 54' 01" west. The last has, there- 
fore, been taken for its longitude, and all the meridians of the coast, 
surveyed by the expedition under my command, depend upon that 
determination. Phillip Parker King. 



After ha\-ing perused Captain King's Report of the chronometrical 
observations made under his direction, I would ask the reader to turn 
to Dr. Tiarks's Report on Captain Foster's chronometrical observa- 
tions in H.M.S. Chanticleer, published in the Appendix* to a 
" Narrative of a Voyage to the Southern Atlantic Ocean, in the years 
1828, 29, 30, performed in H.M.S. Chanticleer, under the command 
of the late Captain Henry Foster, F.R.S.--By W. H. B. Webster, 
surgeon of the sloop." 

It ^^^ll also be useful to refer to a work on " Chronometers and 
Longitudes," by Captain Owen ; and to the " Pilote du Bresil," by 
the Baron Roussin ; as weU as other works, before forming an opi- 

very numerous, were cliiefly computed by Lieutenant Skyring. Duriiig 
the years 1826 and 182/ Captain King considered the longitude of 
Villegagnon to be about 43° 9', but afterwards he thought 43** 5' more 
correct. 

There is a striking accordance between the results of Captain Stokes's 
numerous lunar observations, and the late measurements by the Beagle's 
chronometers. 

I was informed by Lieutenant Skyring, and by Mr. John L. Stokes, 
that the longitude of Villegagnon, by the Beagle's chronometers only, in 
1826, was 43° 9' (to the nearest minute). 

In 1829, Mr. L. Stokes, a good observer even at that time, took many 
sets of lunar observations at San Carlos, in Chiloe ; the mean result of 
which gave 73° 56' for the longitude of Point Arena. 

Now, these results are so close to those lately obtained in the Beagle — 
being within a mile in each case — that I should hesitate to give them 
without all their data, did I not know that the officers employed on board 
the Adventure and Beagle were aware of these determinations, and often 
discussed them, before the year 1836. Captain King and Lieutenant 
Stokes are more particularly acquainted with them. 

Robert FitzRoy; 
• Voli II. pp. 233-254. 



APPENDIX. 



325 



nion upon the degree of value that may be attached to the following 
remarks and results. 



•Remarks on the Beagle's Chronometrical Measurements between 
18.31 and 1836 ; with their principal Results. 
On the 14th of Nov., 1831, the following chronometers were 
embarked on board the Beagle, and placed in their permanent situ- 
ations : — * 



Letters. 


Descrip- 
tion. 


Days. 


Maker. 


No. 


Owner. 


Remarks. 


A 


Box 


8 


Molyneux . . 


1415 


Fitz-Roy 


Good. 


tB 


Do. 


1 


Gardner 


24 


Government.. 


Bad. 


C 


Do. 


1 


Molyneux . . 


1081 


Molyneux 


Rather good. 


D 


Do. 


8 


Murray 


542 


Murray 


Do. 


E 


Do. 


1 


Eiflfe 


E 


Government . . 


Do. 


F 


Do. 


2 


Arnold & Dent 


661 


Arnold & Dent 


Do. 


G 


Do. 


1 


Do. 


6.33 


Fitz-Roy 


Do. 


H 


Pocket 


1 


Do. 


261 


Do. 


Do. 


K 


Do. 


1 


Parkinson &\ 
Frodsham J 


1042 


Government . . 


Good. 


L 


Box 


2 


Arnold 


634 


Fitz-Roy 


Rather good. 


M 


Do. 


1 


Frodsham 


2 


Government • . 


Do. 


N 


Do. 


2 


Molyneux . . 


1175 


Fitz-Roy 


Do. 


O 


Do. 


1 


Earnshaw 


705 


Government . . 


Do. 


tP 


Do. 


1 


Frodsham 


1 


Do. 


Bad. 


R 


Do. 


1 


Murray . . 


584 


Murray 


Very good. 


S 


Do. 


1 


Arnold 


465 


Government • • 


Rather good. 


T 


Pocket 


1 


Molyneux 


1326 


Fitz-Roy 


Indifferent. 


V 


Do. 


1 


Pennington .. 


426 


L"*. Ashburnham 


Rather good. 


w 


Box 


2 


Molyneux . . 


971 


Government . . 


Good. 


X 


Do. 


1 


Earnshaw 


509 


Do. 


Rather good. 


Y 


Pocket 


1 


Morrice 


6144 


Do. 


Do. 


Z 


Box 


8 


French 


4214 


Do. 


Good. 



These chronometers being embarked, and permanently fixed, more 
than a month previous to the Beagle's departure from England, 
sufficient time elapsed to ascertain their rates satisfactorily. 

Suspended in gimbals, as usual, within a wooden box, each was 
placed in sawdust, divided and retained by partitions, upon one of 
two wide shelves. The sawdust was about three inches thick below, 
as well as at the sides of each box, and formed a bed for it which 

* The 12 hour mark of each chronometer was invariably kept in one 
direction with respect to the ship. 
+ Never used after Feb. 1835. \ Never used after Sept. 1835. 



326 APPENDIX. 

rose ratlier above the centre of gravity of the box and watch ; so that 
they could not be displaced unless the ship were upset. The shelves, 
on which the sawdust and boxes were thus secured, were between 
decks, low down, and as near the vessel's centre of motion as could 
be contrived. Placed in this manner, neither the running of men 
upon deck, nor firing guns,* nor the running out of chain-cables, 
caused the slightest vibration in the chronometers, as I often proved 
by scattering powder upon their glasses and watching it with a 
mao-nifying glass, while the vessel herself was %'ibrating to some 
jar or shock. 

All the watches were in one small cabin, into which no person 
entered, except to compare or wind them, and in which nothing else 
was kept. The greater number were never moved fi-om their first 
places, after being secured there in 1831, until finally landed at 
Greenwich in 1836. 

Durino- eight years' observation of the movements of chronometers, 
I have become gradually convinced that the ordinary motions of a 
ship, such as pitching and rollmg moderately, do not affect tolerably 
good timekeepers, which are fixed in one place, and defended from 
vibration as well as concussion. Frequently employing chronometers 
in boats, and in very small vessels, has strengthened my conviction 
that temperature is the chief, if not the only cause (generally speak- 
ing) of marked changes of rate. ITie balances of but few watches 
are so well compensated as to be proof against a long continuance of 
higher or lower temperature. It often happens that the air in port, 
or near the land, is at a temperature very different from that over 
the open sea — in the vicinity ; and hence the difference sometimes 
found between harbour and sea rates. The changes so frequently 
noticed to take place in the rates of chronometers moved from the 
shore to the ship, and the reverse, are well known to be caused partly 
by change of temperature and partly by change of situation.! In 
the Beagle we never found the watches go better than when their 
boxes were bedded in saw-dust, and they themselves were moving 
freely in good gimbals. 

Suspending chronometers, as on board the Chanticleer, not only 
alters their rate, but makes them go less regularly ; and when fixed 

» The Beagle's guns were long six and long nine pounders, of brass : 
tbey were only fired from the foremost ports, 
t This may be connected with magnetism. 



'' APPENDIX. 327 

to a solid substance, as on board the Adventure, they feel the vi- 
brations caused by people running on the decks, by shocks, or by 
a chain cable running out. Cushions, hair, wool, or any such sub- 
stance, is preferable to a solid bed ; but, perhaps, there is nothing' 
better than coarse dry savs^-dust. 

Some chronometrical measurements have erred, and caused much 
perplexity, in the following manner. The chronometers were rated 
in air whose average temperature was — let us suppose, for example, 
'70. They were then carried through air either considerably hotter, 
or considerably colder, and again rated in a temperature nearly 
equal to that specified. The rates were not found to differ much, 
and it was supposed that the chronometers had been going extremely 
well ; though, in truth, the rates of most of the watches had differed 
extremely (from those found in port) during the voyage ; but they 
had returned nearly to the old rates upon reaching nearly equal tem- 
perature. And this has happened, more or less, to every ship carry- 
ing chronometers across the Equator ; especially when going to Rio 
de Janeiro with the sun to the northward of the Line. 

How far, or in what manner, magnetism, or electrical influence, 
may affect chronometers, is hitherto unknown : but there is sufficient 
reason for suspecting considerable effects, under certain conditions, 
from one or both of these causes. 

The Beagle's chronometers were all wound daily, at nine (except 
the eight-day watches, which were wound every Sunday morning), 
and compared at noon. Whatever other comparisons might be made, 
for equal or corresponding altitudes, sights for time, &c., the noon 
comparison was regularly made and forthwith examined, in order 
that any change might be at once detected. Whether at sea, or in har- 
bour, this same method was punctually and accurately executed by 
one person only, under the inspection of Mr. Stokes and myself. 
This person, Mr. G. J. Stebbing, of Portsmouth — who was en- 
gaged for the purpose, as well as to keep our instruments in repair, 
take care of our collection of books,* assist in magnetic, and other 
observations, and write for me — was of invaluable assistance ; and, I 
may well say, contributed largely to whatever was obtained by the 
Beagle's voyage. 

In Images 74 and 75 of the second volume, I have mentioned a few 

* Our books, which were not a few, considering the small size of the 
vessel, were collected in one cabin, under Mr. Stebbing's charge, and lent 
to the officers, without reserve, under certain regulations. 



328 APPENDIX. 

reasons for preferring to give undivided attention to an unbroken 
series of chronometrical observations, rather than allot any portion of 
time to independent astronomical observations ; which, to be really- 
valuable, required what I could not command, namely — time ; a well- 
placed and good transit instrument ; sldll in its use ; and habits of 
obsen'ing, which are neither readily nor easily acquired. Besides 
which, there is always a degree of uncertainty involving the deduc- 
tions from observations of any celestial phenomena, at a great dis- 
tance from well-known obsen'atories ; even when the observer and 
his means are unexceptionable. The causes of this uncertainty are 
familiar to many, but, as these pages may meet the eye of a reader 
who is not aware of them, I will mention that the figure of the earth 
is not yet quite accurately known, that parallax and refraction cannot 
be allowed for with absolute certainty, that levels and plumb-lines 
are not everj'where exactly at right angles to, or coincident with, a 
line di'awn from them to the earth's centre ; and that tables, how- 
ever excellent, are not perfect. 

That able and indefatigable astronomer, Mr. Fallows, was along 
time at the Cape of Good Hope before he could determine its longi- 
tude ; and, after all his exertions, his successors have adopted a 
result differing from it half a mile.* There is reason to doubt 
whether Paramatta Observatory is well determined in longitude. To 
fix that of St. Helena, and that of the Mauritius, occupied much 
time and talent, aided by excellent instruments in well-built observa- 
tories. A great deal of time and pains, and ability, have been 
employed at Madras ; yet, as far as chronometers can tell, there 
is a great discordance between the hitherto published longitudes of 
Madras, the Mauritius, and Paramatta, when \iewed in connection 
Avith their respective meridian distances ; such, at least, as have yet 
been measured. 

Even on the coast of the Baltic, what differences were found by 
Lieutenant- General Schubert, in 1833, between the received posi- 
tions of various observatories, and those which he deduced from the 
results of fifty-six chronometers ; — placed at his disposal, with a 
steam-boat, by the Emperor of Russia.f 

But, to return from this digression : — In the Beagle's measure- 

• Mr. Fallows considered the longitude of the Cape observatory to be 
Ih. 13m. 53s. E. Mr. Henderson Ih. 13m. 55s. E. 

t Journal of the Royal Geographical Society. Vol. VI. Part II. ] 836, 
pp. 413-6. 



APPENDIX. 329 

ments of meridian distances, time was invariably obtained by series 
of equal, or corresponding altitudes of the sun ; observed by one 
and the same person with the same sextant, and the same artificial 
horizon, placed in the same manner, both before and after noon. 

A very good pocket chronometer, carried by hand, in a box, was 
always used for taking time. In every instance, it was compared 
with the standard chronometers (the two supposed to be the best) 
immediately before the morning observation, and again immediately 
aftei-wards. It was also compared at noon, and before, as well as 
after the afternoon, observations. This watch* was so well con- 
structed, that the intervals shown by it betv>^een morning and after- 
noon observations always agreed with those shown by the standards, 
(allowmg for their respective rates). 

Generally speaking, seven altitudes of one limb of the sun were 
taken, and then the same seven altitudes of the other hmb, for one 
set of sights, or observations. Three such sets were usually taken, 
at short intervals, and the mean result used, unless any marked dif- 
ference occ'-irred, in which case the result of each separate pair of equal 
altitudes (morning and afternoon) was computed, and the erroneous 
ones were rejected. Those were considered erroneous which differed 
much from the majority. Generally, however, there was the closest 
agreement between the results of single pairs of sights, as well as 
between those of entire sets. 

When clouds intervened the series was unavoidably irregular, but 
the pairs of equal altitudes were always numerous. In a very few in- 
stances the chronometers were rated by the results of absolute or 
independent altitudes, taken with every precaution at similar times 
of day with the same instruments, and by the same observer. In 
such cases the rates were obtained by comparing together the times 
obtained by morning observations, or those deduced from afternoon 
sights ; not by morning and afternoon, or afternoon and morning 
observations. But the time, considered to be correct, was invaria- 
bly deduced from equal altitudes, by the method of Professor Inman. 
At Paramatta, at the Cape of Good Hope, and under the walls of the 
Royal Observatory at Greenvvdch, we had opportunities of trying 
whether there was any difference between our time, thus obtained, and 
that of the respective astronomers ; and I feel gratified in being able 

* K. Parkinson and Frodsham. No. 1041 
e e 



330 APPENDIX. 

to state, that in no one instance did it differ a quarter of a second 
from theirs ; indeed the figures would bear me out in saying, 
that it did not differ even a tenth of a second ! These facts are well 
known to Lieut. Stokes, Lieut. Suhvan, and Mr. Usborne. 

The sextant used throughout the voyage for this purpose, and this 
alone, was a particularly good one, made expressly for me by Wor- 
thington and Allan. Its index error never varied, nor was it ever the 
least out of adjustment. Between morning and afternoon observa- 
tions it was more than usually guarded, and on no accotmt handled, 
or exposed to a change of temperature. 

Latitudes were obtained by other sextants, and by circles. I was 
always anxious to get many results, not only by one observer, or in- 
strument, but by several observers, and different instruments. It 
sometimes happened that there were six observers seated on the 
ground, with as many different instruments and horizons, taking the 
sun's circum-meridian altitudes, or observing stars at night. Where 
so many were working against one another, errors were soon de- 
tected, either in observation or in computing. I have already men- 
tioned that Dr. Inman's method of calculation was followed ; but it 
remains to be shown what mode of interpolation was adopted when, 
as was usually the case, most of the watches were found to be going 
at rates different from those ascertained at the preceding place of 
rating. 

With very few exceptions, the method used by Dr. Tiarks* was 
practised ; and, in the excepted cases, that used by FHnders, Owen, 
Foster, King, and others, was employed. The following are the 
princi])al results upon which all others obtained during the Beagle's 
last voyage (1831-6) depend. Want of room alone prevents my giv- 
ing the minutest details upon which they depend ; it would be of 
little use to give comjDutations without comparisons, or comparisons 
without rates, or rates without the calculations and observations on 
which they depend ; or any part of these without the whole, which 
constitutes a mass of figures filling several thick folio books. All these, 
however, will be deposited at the Hydrographical Office, so that any 
one who will take the trouble may, after obtaining the Hydrographer's 
permission, examine them to the fullest extent. 

Our first station was at the Devonport Baths, exactly in the meri- 

* Chanticleer's Voyage — Appendix, p. 226-8. 



APPENDIX. 



331 



dian of the centre of Government House. By the pubHshed survey of 
Plymouth and Devonport,* the Government- House at Devonport 
is 0° 1' 48" west of Plymouth old church, the longitude of which is 
given by Captain King in the preceding copy of his report. 

This longitude, however, differs slightly from that obtained by the 
Beagle's chronometers carried from Devonport to Greenwich ; and 
as the longitude of Falmouth, by her chronometers, agrees with that 
determined by Dr. Tiarks, I have used in the construction of the 
table of positions (pp. 65-85) the result obtained directly by these 
chronometers, because so confirmed. 



Principal Results of the Beagle's chronometrical measurements 
between 1831 and 1836; forming a connected chain of meridian 
distances around the globe, the first that has ever been completed, 
or even attempted, by means of chronometers alone. 

Devonport to Port Praya. 



Twenty Chronometers. Twenty-three Days. 



A 
B 
C 
D 
E 
F 
G 
H 
K 
L 



S. H. M. S. 

21,68 

21, 8o 

20,69 20,69 

17,03 

20,33 20,33 

23.03 

21,43 21,43 

17,16 

23,90 

21,12 21,12 



H. M. S. H. M. S. 

M 1 17 20,47 20,47 

N 24,42 

p 17,73 

R 19,90 19.90 

S 20,52 20,52 

V 22,23 

W 20,93 20,93 

X 21,08 

Y 20,58 20,58 

Z 21,43 21,43 



Preferred. 



Mean ... 20.87 
Ih. 17 m. 20,7s. 



20,74 



Places of observation : 

The Baths, in the meridian of Government-house, at Devonport. 

The landing-place at the west side of Quail Island, Port Praya, in 
the Cape Verde Islands. 

• In the above-mentioned plan, published by the Admiralty, on a scale 
of 5,03 inches to a mile, the departure between Devonport Baths and 
Plymouth Old Church is .5,8 inches ; which in latitude 50° 22' represents 
0° 1' 48"1 of longitude. 

e e 2 



332 



APPENDIX. 



Port Pkaya to Bahia. 



Twenty-one Chronometers. Twenty-six Days. 





H. M. 


s. 


H. M. 


s. 


H. JI. 


s. 


H. 


M. 


s. 


A 


1 00 


04,67 


1 00 


04,67 


59 


49.87 








B 


59 


59,41 






P 1 00 


03,58 


1 


00 


03.58 


C 


1 00 


01,85 


1 00 


01,85 


R 1 00 


03,48 


1 


00 


03,48 


D 


59 


40,68 






S 59 


43,47 








E 


59 


52,21 






T 59 


41.47 








t' 


1 oo 


04,06 


1 00 


04,06 


V 1 00 


11,17 








G 


I 00 


06,00 






W 1 00 


03,91 


1 


00 


03,91 


K 


1 00 


17,99 






X 1 00 


02,19 


1 


00 


02,19 


L 


I 00 


01,60 


1 00 


01,60 


Y 1 00 


02,47 


1 


00 


02,47 


M 


59 


59,56 


59 


59,56 


Z 1 00 


04,69 


1 


00 


04,69 


N 


1 00 


03,95 


1 00 


03,95 






— 






















Mean ... i 00 


00,16 


1 


00 


03,00 








Preferred 


. Ih. 00m. 03,0s. 









Places of observation : 
At Port Praya, as before. 
At Bahia, in Fort San Pedro, Gamboa. 



Bahia to Rio de Janeiro. 
Twenty Chronometers. Twenty-two Days. 



H. 


M. 


s. 


H. 


M. 


S. 


H. 


M. 


s. 


H. M. 


S. 


A 


18 


32,50 





18 


32,50 





18 


31,35 




31,35 


C .. 




28,98 








P ... 




32,06 


18 


32,06 


D .. 




30,47 




... 


30,47 


R ... 




33.42 




33,42 


if' .. 




35,52 








S ... 


... 


27,13 






G .. 




33,90 








T .. 


... 


29,43 






H .. 




31,59 


.. 


... 


31,59 


V .. 


■ .• 


26,70 






K .. 




31,25 


.. 


... 


31,25 


W ... 




27,88 






L .. 




29,76 








X ... 




30,63 




30,63 


M .. 




38,23 








Y ... 




38,79 






N .. 




30,98 






30,98 


Z ... 

Mean 




31,51 




31,51 




31,60 


31,58 








Preferred 


. Oh. ISm 


.3 


1,6s. 







Places of observation : 
At Bahia, as before stated. 
At Rio de Janeiro, close to the well on ViUegagnon Island. 



APPENDIX. 



333 



Rio de Janeiro to Bahia. 
Twenty Chronometers. Six Days. 



H. M. s. 

A o 18 29,58 

C 31,50 

D 31,46 

E 27,79 

F 31,87 

G 30,89 

H 29,92 

K 30,09 

L 30,22 

M 29,68 



31,50 
31,46 

31,87 
30,89 



T 31,44 

29,71 



Preferred. 



H. M. S. H. M. S. 

N o 18 29,60 

o 31,17 31,17 

P 31,37 31,37 

R 31,61 31,61 

.. 31,44 

.. 31,83 

.. 31,18 

Mean ... 30,82 31,43 

Oh. 18m. 31,4s. 



W 33,02 

X 31,83 

Y 32,57 

Z 31,18 



Places of observation, as before stated. 



Bahia to Rio de Janeiro. 
Twenty Chronometers. Fourteen Days. 



H. SI. 


S. H. M. S. 




H. 


M. S. H. 


M. S. 


A 18 


31,17 18 31,17 







18 29,49 




B 


42,45 




P ... 


... 33,34 ... 


... 33,34 


C ...... 


28,02 




R ... 


... 33,09 ... 


... 33,09 


D 


28,65 




S ... 


... 39,47 




E 


34,16 




T ... 


... 31,33 




F 


31,79 31,79 




V ... 


... 31,21 ... 


... 31,21 


G 


30,42 30,42 




W ... 


... 32,13 ... 


... 32,13 


K 


28,02 




X ... 


... 29,96 ... 


... 29,96 


L 


31,13 3i>i3 




Y ... 


... 27,55 




N 


33,41 




Z ... 

Mea 


... 30,91 ... 


... 30,91 




n... 31,89 ... 


... 31.52 




Preferred 


. Oh. 18m 


. 31,5s. 






First 


. 


18 


31,6 






Second 

Mean of all 


. 


18 


31,4 






. 


18 


31,5 





Places of observation, as before stated. 



334 



AIM'ENDIX. 



Rio de Janeiro to Monte Video. 
Twenty Chronometers. Twenty-four Days. 



H. M. s. 

A o 52 16,19 

B 08,57 

C 09,75 



H. M. 



S. 
16,19 



D 
E 
F 
G 
H 
K 
L 



16,11 16,11 

i4>98 14.98 

i4>57 14,57 

17,57 17,57 

11,28 

27,36 

22,89 22,89 



H. M. S. H. M. S. 

N o 52 19,79 19,79 

O 14,14 

P 13,06 

R 20,83 20,83 

S 12,35 

T 09,89 

W 14,08 

X 14,42 14,4a 

Y 40,60 

Z 18,60 18,60 



Mean ... 16,85 17,60 

Preferred Oh. 52m. 17,6s. 



Places of observation 

At Rio de Janeiro, as before stated. 
At Monte Video, on Rat Island. 



Monte Video to Port Desire. 
Seventeen Chronometers. Nineteen Days. 



H. M. 

A o 38 

C 

D 

E 

F 

G 

H 

K 

L 



S. H. M. S. 

46,88 46,88 

44,08 

50,17 50,17 

50,30 50,30 



46,01 
48,37 

43,01 
56,56 
48,04 



46,01 
48,37 



48,04 



H. M. S. H. M. S. 

M o 38 40,01 

N 42,75 

R 45,65 45,65 

S 51,49 51,49 

W 45,45 45,45 

X 39,95 

Y 27,14 

z 47,32 47,32 



Mean... 45,48 47,97 



Preferred Oh. 38m. 48,0s. 



Places of observation : 

Monte Video, as before. 

Port Desire, at the Spanish Ruins. 



APPENDIX. 



S25 



Port Desire to Port Famine 



Sixteen Chronometers. 



H. M. S. H. M. S. 

A o 20 10,57 io>57 

B o 20 09,39 09,39 

C o 20 10,65 10,65 

D o 20 09,03 09,03 

F o 20 10,70 10,70 

G o 20 05,07 

H o 20 09,71 09,71 

K o 20 02,10 



Preferred Oh. 20m. 10,7s. 

Places of observation : 

Port Desire, as before. 

Port Famine, old Observatory at the west side of the port. 



Sixteen 


Days. 




H. M. 


S. H. 


M. S. 


L 20 


10,35 ... 


.. 10,35 


M 20 


15,«4 




R 20 


12,20 ... 


... 12,20 


S 19 


51,63 




T 20 


39,07 




W 20 


14,22 ... 


... 14,22 


X 20 


07,31 




Z 20 


10,29 ... 


... 10,29 


an 20 


10,51 ... 


... 10.71 



Port Famine to San Carlos. 
Twenty Clironometers. Twenty-seven Days. 



A 





12 


08,12 


12 


08,12 




B 





12 


37,16 








C 





11 


52,62 


11 


52,62 




D 





1 1 


54-60 


11 


54,60 




E 





11 


57,52 


11 


57,52 




G 





12 


10,02 








H 





1 1 


47>95 








K 





12 


10,99 








L 





12 


03,68 


12 


03,68 




M 





11 


58,40 


11 


58,40 












Preferred 







H. 


M. 


S. 


H. 


M. 


S- 


N 





12 


06,37 





12 


06,37 


P 





12 


18,26 








R 





12 


09,42 








S 





1 1 


51,87 








T 





11 


51,00 








V 





1 1 


42,42 








W 





11 


55>93 





11 


55,93 


X 





11 


34.26 








Y 





1 1 


55,13 





11 


55,13 


Z 





12 


01,42 





12 


01,42 



Mean o 12 00,36 o 11 59,38 
0h. 11m. 59,48. 



Places of observation : 

This measurement is made from a spot 5,9s. east of that used in 
the measure from Port Desire to Port Faminie, this being the new 
and that the old Observatory. 

San Carlos, at Point Arena. 



S38 



APPENDIX. 



San Carlos to Valparaiso. 
Eighteen Clironometers. Twelve Days. 





H. JI. 


s. 


H. JI. 


s. 


H. JI. 


s. 


K. M. 


s. 


A 


08 


55,69 


oB 


55.69 


L 09 


00,17 


09 


00,17 


B 


08 


44,51 






N 08 


59.17 


08 


59.17 


C 


09 


02,07 


09 


02,07 


P 08 


47,60 






D 


09 


06,01 






R 08 


55,64 


08 


55,«4 


E 


og 


06,72 






. V 09 


09,05 






F 


08 


42,77 






W 09 


03.39 


09 


03,39 


G 


08 


53.90 


08 


53.90 


X 09 


10,39 






II 


09 


08,10 






Y 09 


01,49 


09 


01,49 


K 


09 


02,60 


09 


02,60 


Z 08 


58,34 


08 


5R.34 



Mean o 08 59,31 o 08 59,25 

Preferred Oh. 8m. 59,2s. 

Places of observation : 
San Carlos, Chil6e, Point Arena. Valparaiso, Fort San Antonio. 



Valparaiso to Callao. 
Fourteen Chronometers. Twenty- five Days. 



H. M. 

o 22 



07.74 



s. 

07,74 



.. 00,51 

.. 07,31 07,31 

.. 06,86 o6,06 

.. 04,42 

F 16,60 

G 05,90 05,90 



H. M. S. . H. M. S. 

O O 22 08,66 0B,66 

P 08,97 08,97 

K 11,33 '1.33 

S n,39 11,39 

W 12,28 12,28 

X 03.30 

Z 09,36 09,36 



Mean... 08,19 08,98 

Preferred Oh. 22m. 09,0s. 

Places of observation : 
Valparaiso, as before. Callao, the Arsenal. 



Callao to the Galapagos Islands (Chatham Island). 
Twelve Chronometers. Twelve Days. 

H. M. S. H. M. S. 

A o 49 31,80 31,80 

B 32,30 32,30 

c 33,90 33,90 

D 33,49 33.49 

K 30,39 30,39 

N 36,74 



H. M. 


S. H. J 


s. 


49 


33,15 


• 33,15 


R 


32.16 


• 32,16 


S 


32,56 


. 32.56 


w 


35,21 


. 35.21 


X 


29,44 




z 


32,90 


. 32,90 



Mean ... 32,84 32,79 

Preferred- Oh. 49m. .32,8s. 

Places of observation : 
Callao, as before. 
Chatham Island, Stephens Bay — landing-place at south-west side. 



APPENDIX. 



337 



Galapagos Islaxds (Chatham) to Charles Island. 
Fourteen Chronometers. Four Days. 



H. M. 


s. 


H. 


M. 


S. 




H. M. 


S- H. 


M. S. 


A 03 


39,49 


.. 


... 


39.49 


N 


03 


41,69 ... 


... 41,69 


B 


37,29 













39.36 ... 


... 39.36 


C 


39,11 


.. 


... 


39,11 


R 




39.40 ... 


— .39,40 


D 


39,23 


,. 


... 


39.23 


S 




39.44 ... 


- 39.44 


G 


44,81 








w 




39.19 




ts. 


36,67 








X 




39,28 ... 


... 39,i28 


L 


38,23 




... 


38,23 


z 

Mean. 


39.52 ... 


• •• 39,52 




. 39.48 ... 


... 39,48 






Preferred 


.. Oh. 


03m. 


39,5s. 





Places of obser\'ation : 

Chatham Island, as before. 

Charles Island, landing-place at the south-east part of Post Office 
Bay.. 



Charles Island (Galapagos) to Otaheite. 
, Thirteen Chronometers. Thirty-one Days. 



H. M. 


s. 


H. 


M. 


s. 


H. M. 


S. H. 


M. S. 


A 3 56 


11,67 


.. 


... 


11,67 


3 56 


14,19 ••• 


... 14,19 


B 


07,07 








R 


14,91 ... 


... 14,91 


C 


07,53 


.. 




07,53 


S 


11,35 ... 


... 11,35 


D 


05,43 








W 


08,27 ... 


... 08,27 


H 


14,04 


.. 




14,04 


X 


09,35 ... 


... op,35 


L 


20,65 








z 


16,74 ... 


... 16,74 


N 


14,57 




.... 


14.57 






















Mean . 


. 11,98 ... 


... 12,26 






Preferred 


. 3h. 56m. 


12,3s. 





Places of obser\'ation : 
Charles Island, as before. Otaheite, Point Venus. 



Otaheite to Bay of Islands, in New Zealand. 
Sixteen Chronometers. Twenty-eight days. 



H. SI. 


s. 


H. 


M. 


S. 


H. M. 


S. H. 


M. S. 


A 2 25 


38,69 






38,69 


N 2 25 


40,78 




B 


37,50 






37,50 





34.97 ••• 


... 34,97 


C 


32,87 






32,87 


R 


36,68 ... 


... 36,68 


D 


35,11 






35,11 


S 


28,83 




G 


33,99 






33,99 


V 


27.99 




H 


35,66 






35,66 


w 


32,83 .. 


... 32,83 


K 


38,20 




... 


38,20 


X 


28,89 




L 


27,70 








z 

Mean .. 


40,48 






. 34,44 ••• 


... 35,65 






Preferred 


. 2h. 25m. 35,6s. 





Places of observ'ation : 
Otaheite, as before. Bay of Islands, Paihia Islet. 



S38 



APPENDIX. 



Bay of Islands in New Zealand to Sydney. 
Fifteen Chronometers. Nineteen Days. 



H. M. S. H. M. S. 

A 1 31 33,50 33,50 

B 27,63 

C 33.64 33,64 

D 31,84 31,84 

G 27,41 

H 23,94 

K 44,60 

L 32,09 32,09 



H. M. 
1 31 



Preferred. 



N 
O 
R 

S 

w 

X 

z 



Mean 
Hi. 31m. 31,5s 



S. H. 


M. S. 


32,52 ... 


... 32,52 


29,29 ... 


... 29,29 


30,69 ... 


... 30,69 


30,17 ... 


... 30,17 


28,52 ... 


... 28,52 


26,82 




32,36 ... 


... 32,36 


. 31,00 ... 


... 31.46 



Places of observation : 

New Zealand, as before. 
Sydney, Fort Macquarrie. 

From Macquarrie Fort to the Observatory at Paramatta, by three 
Chronometers,* Oh. 00m. 52,0s. (Paramatta west of Fort). 



Sydney to Hobart Town. 
Fifteen Chronometers. Eleven Days. 



H. 

o 



M. S. H. M. S. 

15 29,40 29,40 

... 26,30 



A 

B 26,30 

C 34,31 



D 
G 
K 
L 

N 



35,28 
30,96 
29,86 



30,96 
29,86 



30,91 30,91 

30,83 30,83 



M. 
15 



o 

R 
S 
V 

w 

X 30,41 

z 32,31 



S. H. M. S. 

29,25 29,25 

26,17 

32,01 32,01 

38,84 

25,48 

30,41 

32,31 



Preferred. 



Mean ... 30,82 
Oh. 15m. 30,2s. 



30,22 



Places of observation : 
Sydney, as before. 

Hobart Town, east side of Sullivan Cove, in a small battery close 

to the water. 



* These three Chronometers were carried by water to and from the 
Observatory on the same day. 



APPENDIX. 



339 



HoBART Town to King George Sound. 
Fifteen Chronometers. Twenty days. 



H. M. S. H. M. S. 

A 1 57 48,75 48,75 

B 26,50 

C 59.28 

D 63,90 

G 54,^5 54,15 

H 54,31 54,31 

K 42,94 

L 55)21 .. 



55,21 



H. M. 


S. H. 


M. S. 


N 1 57 


57,77 ... 


... 57,77 





51,26 ... 


... 51,26 


R 


42,67 ... 


... 42,67 


S 


52,67 ... 


... 52,67 


W 


36,04 




X 


47,47 - 


... 47,47 


z 


50,96 ... 


... 50,96 


Mean.. 


. 49,59 ... 


... 51,53 



Preferred Ih. 57m. 51,5s. 

Places of observation : 
Hobart Town, as before. 

King George Sound, new Government BuUdings, at the east side 
of Princess Royal Harbour, near the water. 



King George Sound to the Keeling Islands. 
Fifteen Chronometers. Twenty Days. 



H, M. 


s. 


H. 


M. 


S. 


H. M. 


S. H. M. S. 


A 1 24 


07,62 


,. 




07,62 


N 1 24 


08,64 


. 08,64 


B 


07,17 


.. 




07,17 





07,72 


. 07,72 


C 


09,15 






09,15 


R 


09,53 


. 09,53 


D 


09,16 


.. 




09,16 


S 


06,55 


• 06,55 


G 


12,50 








W 


00,06 




H 


05,60 


.. 


... 


05,60 


X 23 


43,24 




K 


03.09 








Z 24 


07,44 


. 07,44 


L 


23,16 






























Mean 24 


06,04 


. 07,86 






Preferred 


. Ih. 24.m. 07,9s. 





Places of observation : 
King George Sound, as before. 
Keeling Islands, north-west part of Direction Islet. 



340 



APPEXDIX. 



Keeling Islands to the Mauritius. 





Fifti 


en 


Ch 


ronometers 


Twenty- 


one Days. 




H. M. 


s. 


H. 


M. 


s. 


H. M 


S. H. M. s. 


A 2 37 


38,96 


.. 




38,96 


2 37 


32,54 


. 32,54 


B 


36,30 


• ■ 


... 


36,30 


R 


37,62 


• 37,62 


C 


35,05 




... 


35,05 


S 


31,94 


. 31,94 


D 


31,87 


... 


... 


31,87 


V 


25,55 




G 


17,34 








w 


29,81 


. 29,81 


K 


48,06 








X 


27,70 




L 


43,18 








z 


34,42 


. 34,42 


N 


33,17 






33,17 














Mean 


•• 33,56 


• 34,17 






Preferred 


. 2h. 37m. 


34,2s. 





Places of obsen^ation : 
Keeling Islands, as before. 
Mauritius, Battery on Cooper's Island, Port Louis. 



Mauritius to Simon's Bay. 
Thirteen Chronometers. Twenty-five Days. 



H. M. 


s. 


H. 


M. 


s. 


M. M. 


S. H. 


M. S. 


A 2 36 


25,12 




... 


25,12 


2 36 


23,46 ... 


... 23,46 


C 


18,23 


.. 


... 


18,23 


R 


21,44 ... 


... 21,44 


D 


28, It) 








S 


18,82 ... 


... 18,82 


G 


32,50 








w 


17,74 ... 


". 17,74 


K 


24,85 




... 


24,85 


X 


12,44 




L 


23,62 


.. 


... 


23,62 


z 


19,68 ... 


... 19,68 


N 


24,93 




... 


24,93 






















Mean . 


.22,38 ... 


• •• 21,79 






Preferred 


. 2h. 36m. 


21,8s. 





Places of observation : 
Mauritius, as before. 

Simon's Bay, south-east end of the Dock Yard, near high water 
mark. 

Simon's Bay to the Observatory, by three Chronometers, carried 
to and from it the same day. Oh. 00m. 10,9s. 
Observatory east of Simon's Bay. 



APr-ENDIX. 



341 



H. M. 

A 1 36 

C 

D 

G 

K 43,37 

L 30,34 

N 27,63 



Simon's Bay to St. Helena. 
Thirteen Chronometers. Twenty-one Days. 

S. H. M, 



S. 

38,39 38,39 

31,03 31,03 



29,82 
31,46 



29,82 
31.46 

30,34 



H. M. S. H. M. S. 

O 1 36 32,14 32,14 

R 37.70 37,70 

S 31,00 31,00 

V 29,90 

W 37,24 37,24 

Z 33,96 33,96 



Mean... 33.38 33,3» 

Preferred Ih. 36m. 33,3s. 

Places of observation : 

Simon's Bay, as before. 

St. Helena, James Valley, near high water mark, in the meridian 
of the Observatory on Ladder HiU. 



St. Helena to Ascension. 
Fourteen Chronometers. Seven Days. 



A 
B 
C 
D 
G 



o 34 



45.95 45.95 

44,18 

44.96 44,96 

45,00 45,00 

45.72 45,72 

H -44,15 

K 45,42 45,42 



L 

N 
O 
R 
S 

w 
z 



o 34 



48,23 

46,37 

45,26 45.26 

46,37 46,37 

45,72 45,72 

45.93 45,93 

46,22 46,22 



Mean ... 45,68 
Preferred Oh. 34m. 45,7s. 

Places of obsei'vation : 

St. Helena, as'before. 

Ascension, centre of the Barrack Square. 



45,65 



Ascension to Bahia. 
Fifteen Chronometers. Ten Days. 



H. M. 


s. 


H. 


M. 


S. 


A 1 36 


27,18 


... 


... 


27,18 


B 


20,25 








C 

D 


25,75 
28,31 


•• 


... 


25,75 
28,31 


G 

H 

K 

L 


24,47 
23,48 
22,36 
28,76 






24,47 
28,76 






Preferred 



H 

N 1 

O .. 

R . 

S .. 

w . 



M. 
36 



s. 

29,92 
23,56 
26,65 



s. 

29,92 



.. 26,65 

24,71 2^,71 

26,28 26,28 

X 32,50 

Z 26,12 26,12 



Mean ... 26,02 26,70 

36m. 26,7s. 

Places of observation : 
Ascension, as before. Bahia, as before stated. 



342 



APPENDIX. 



Bahia to Pernambuco. 
Fifteen Chronometers. Seven Days. 



A 
B 
C 
D 
G 
H 
K 
L 



H. M. 

o 14 



S. 
35,82 
37,84 
36,03 
34,89 
36,80 
36.76 
37,41 
34,85 



35,82 

36,03 

36,80 
36,76 
37,41 



H. M. 

N o 14 

O 

R 

S 

V 

w 
z 



s. 
35,02 



36,23 ... 

36,19 - 

36,79 ••• 

37,80 


... 36,23 
... 36,19 
■ •• 36,79 


35,24 ... 

36,97 - 


... 35,24 
... 36,97 


ean ... 36,31 ... 


... 36,42 



Preferred Oh. 14m. 36,4s. 

Places of observation : 
Bahia, as before. 
Pernambuco, the south-west end of the Arsenal. 



Pernambuco to Port Praya. 
Fourteen Chronometers. Fourteen Days. 



H. M. S. H. 


M. S. 




H. 


M. 


S. H. 


M. S. 


A 45 23,77 




L 





45 


30,95 




B 28,32 ... 


... 28,32 


N 


,. 


... 


25,03 ... 


... 25,03 


C 27,40 ... 


... 27.40 





.. 


... 


28,89 - 


... 28,89 


D 27,29 ... 


... 27,29 


S 


.. 


... 


28,38 ... 


... 28,38 


G 28,04 ... 


... 28,04 


V 


,, 


... 


29,40 ... 


... 29,40 


H 28,71 




w 


,, 


... 


27,46 ... 


... 27,46 


K 22,70 




z 






26,24 ... 


... 26,24 



Mean ...27,33 27,64 

Preferred Oh. 45m. 27,6s. 

Places of observation : 
Pernambuco, as before. Port Praya, as before stated. 



Port Praya to Angra. 
Thirteen Chronometers. Fifteen Days, 



H. M. 


s. 


H. 


M. 


S. 




H. 


M. 


S. H. 


M. S. 


A 14 
B 


50,08 
49.39 


... 


... 


50,08 




L 

N .. 


14 


51,43 ••• 
49,26 ... 


... 51,43 

... 49,26 


C 


48,93 


.. 


... 


48,93 




... 




49,88 ... 


... 49,88 


D 


51,46 


.. 


... 


51,46 




S .. 




48,52 ... 


... 48,52 


G 

H 


52,59 
60,39 


•• 


... 


52,59 




z .. 




50,43 ... 
50,88 ... 


... 50,43 
... 50,88 


K 


49,20 


































Mean .. 


. 50,09 ... 


... 50,34 






Preferred 


.Oh 


. 14m 


50,3s. 





Places of observation : 
Port Praya, as before. 
Angra (in Terceira), close to the best landing-place. 



APPENDIX. 



343 



Angra to Falmouth. 





Eleven Chronometers. Eleven Days 




H. M. 


s. 


H. M. S. 


H. M. S. H. 


M. S. 


A 1 28 


38,61 


38,61 


N 1 28 40,07 ... 


... 40,07 


C 


39.92 


39.92 


38,64 ... 


... 38,64 


D 


41,61 


41,61 


s 41.49 ••• 


... 41,49 


G 


37,11 


37,11 


V 40,80 ... 


... 40,80 


H 


42,99 




Z 38,15 ... 


... 38,15 


L 


38,43 


38,43 














Preferred 


Mean ... 39,80 ... 
.. Hi. 28ni. 39,5s. 


... 39,48 



Places of observation : 
Angra, as before. 
Falmouth, Pendennis Castle. 



Angra to Devonport. 
Eleven Chronometers. Fourteen Days. 



H. M. 

A 1 32 

C 

D 


s. 
09,76 
08,60 
10,62 


H. 


M. 


S. 
09,76 
08,60 
10,62 


N 

S 


H. M. 
1 32 


S. H. 
08,95 ... 
07,35 ... 
10,29 ... 


M. S. 
... 08,95 
... 07,35 
... 10,29 


G 

H 

L 


07,15 
13,06 
08,82 


•• 


... 


13,06 
08,82 


V 

z 

Mean . 


10,33 ... 
09,52 ... 


... 10,33 
... 09,52 


..09,50 ... 


... 09,73 






Preferred 


. Ih. 


32m. 


09,7s. 





Places of observation, as before. 



Devonport to the Royal Observatory at Greenwich. 



H. M. 

A 16 

C 

D 

G 

L 


S. 

34,9 
37,8 
42,7 
42,2 

39.7 


Ten Chronomete 

H. M. S. 

34,9 

37,8 

4^,7 

....... 42,2 

3S,7 

Preferred 


rs. Eleven Days. 

H. M. S. H. 

N 16 42,1 

43,4 .. 

S 38,1 .. 

V 45,5 .. 

z 36,3 .. 


M. S. 
.... 42,1 

.... 43,4 
... 38,1 
... 45,5 
... 36,3 




Mean ...40,27 
. Oh. 16m. 40,3s. 


... 40,27 



344 APPENDIX. 

Observatory at the II. N. College at Portsmouth to 
Greenwich. 

Eleven ChronometL-rs. Eight Days. 

H. M. 

L o 04 



H. M. S. 


H. 


M. 


S. 


A 04 22,35 





04 


22,35 


B 24.57 


,, 




24,57 


C 22,63 


.. 




22,63 


D 26,73 


,. 


.... 


26,-3 


G 26,46 


.. 




26,46 


n 29,79 









•N 
O 

s 
z 



s. 


H. 


M. 


S. 


24,07 





04 


24,07 


26,63 


.. 


.... 


26,63 


29,17 


.. 


.... 


29,17 


23,29 


.. 


.... 


23,29 


21,81 


;; 


I 


21,81 


•• 25,23 


24,77 



Mean 
Preferred Oh. 04m. 24.,8s. 

H. M. S. 

Angra to Devonport 1 32 09,7 

Angra to Falmouth 1 28 39,5 

Falmouth to Devonport 03 30,2 

Devonport to Grtenwich 16 40,3 



Falmouth to Greenwicli 20 10,5 



Devonport to Greenwicli 16 40,3 

Portsmouth to Greenwich 04 24,8 



Devonport to Portsmouth 12 15,5 



fO 04 24,8 
<^0 12 



Again ... ... <^ 12 15,5 

to 03 30,2 



Greenwich to Falmouth 20 10 5 



While looking over the preceding results, enquiry may be made 
for those of the other chronometers : I should, therefore, mention 
that the others were useless. Some of the watches stopped ; others 
altered their rates suddenly ; and in one case (R) a mainspring broke 
when the chronometer had been going admirably, till that moment. 
Four chronometers were left with Mr. Usbome, on the coast of 
Peru, and in consequence of these diminutions of our original num- 
ber, there were but eleven watches in tolerably effective condition 
during the last two principal links of the chain, namely, from Port 
Praya to the Azores, and from the Azores to Devonport. 

Five years is a long time for chronometers to preserve their capa- 
bility of going steadily, under various changes of climate, without 
being examined, and perhaps cleaned or fresh oiled, by an expe- 
rienced chronometer maker. 



APPENDIX. 345 

Having given the principal resnlts — those forming hnks of the 
chain of meridian distances carried round the globe — I have to men- 
tion that all others of a similar nature, obtained by the Beagle's 
officers, are based upon them, and that in no one instance do any of 
the longitudes given in the accompanying tables depend upon absolute 
or independent astronomical obser^'ations. 

It ought to be clearly stated, however, that the sum of all the 
parts which form the chain amounts to more than twenty-four hours, 
therefore error must exist somewhere ; but what has principally 
caused the error, or where it may be said to exist, I am unable to 
determine. The whole chain exceeds twenty-four hours, by about 
thirty-three seconds of time. 

It appears very singular, that the more the various links of this 
chain are examined and compared with other authorities, the more 
reason there seems to be for believing them correct, at least to within 
a very small fraction of time ; and even allowing that each link were 
one or two seconds of time wrong, it does not appear probable that 
all the errors would lie in one direction, unless some hitherto unde- 
tected cause affects chronometers when carried westward, which 
might affect them differently when carried eastward. 

It would ill become me to speak of any value which may be at- 
tached to these chronometrical measures ; even erroneous as they 
undoubtedly are in some part, if not to a certain degree almost every 
where. I can only lay the honestly-obtained results before persons 
who are interested in such matters, and request that they may be 
compared with those of the best authorities. 

Callao, Sydney, and the Cape of Good Hope, are three remote 
points which might be selected rather than others, because generally 
supposed to be well determined. If the Beagle's position of CaUao 
be proved incorrect, then must Humboldt's (calculated by Oltmanns), 
adopted by Daussy,* be also incorrect ; and if her position of Sydney 
(reckoning eastward from Greenwich) be materially wrong, then 
must the best authorities for the longitude of that place be also in 
error, for they differ from the Beagle only about eight or ten seconds, 
which is but a mmor part of thirty-three seconds. 

The only idea I can dwell on, with respect to the cause of this 
error of thirty-three seconds, is, that chronometers may be affected by 

* Connaissance des Tems. — 1836. 

f f 



S^6 APPENDIX. 

magnetic action in consequence of a ship's head being for a consider- 
able time towards the east, or west : yet this is but a conjecture. In 
the measures between Bahia and Rio de Janeiro, and in those between 
Rio de Janeiro and Cape Horn, there is no evidence of any permanent 
cause of error ; but the greater part of those measurements were 
made with the ship's head usually near the meridian. 

Were I to select three measurements which I thought less trust- 
worthy than others — I should decide on that from the Galapagos to 
Otaheite, from Otahelte to New Zealand, and from Hobart Town to 
King George Sound ; but I do not think that either one of these can 
be five seconds of time in error, according to regular computation, 
without supposing some unknovsm cause of error to exist. If each 
of the three were five seconds wrong, and each error lay in the same 
direction, still there would only be fifteen seconds out of thirty- 
two accounted for. Such a, supposition as this, however, that each 
of these three measurements is five seconds, or thereabouts, in error 
(referring only to error caused by known means) appears to be ex- 
tremely improbable, I would almost say impossible. 

It will naturally occur to the reader, that as error, undetected as 
to locality, exists, arbitrary correction must be made in order to 
reduce 24h. Om. 33s. to 24h. 

Otaheite has been selected as a point at which such a correction 
might be made vdth the least degree of inconvenience : to that place 
the longitudes in the accompanying tables are given as measured 
westward by Cape Horn, and eastward from Greenwich by the Cape 
of Good Hope ; and there, as the two portions of the chain overlap, 
a mean has been taken between the resulting longitudes. 

I will now recapitulate the principal measurements, and confront 
them with various other determinations. Limited space prevents my 
quoting many ; but I trust that enough will be given to show that 
some weight may be attached to at least a proportion of the results 
obtained by the Beagle's officers. 



APPENDIX. 



347 



Beagle's Chain of Meridian Distances and Resulting 
Longitudes in the Atlantic Ocean. 

1831—1836. 



Plymoutli (Government House, Devonpoit) 

Plymouth to Port Praya* 

Port Praya to Fernando de Noronha 

Feniando de Noronha to Bahia 

Port Praya to Bahia* 

Bahia to Rio de Janeiro 

Rio de Janeiro to Monte Video 





— 







16 


40,3 


1 


17 


•20,0 


I 


34 


00,3 





35 


39.9 


2 


09 


40,2 





24 


23,6 




— 




I 


00 


03,5 


■2 


34 


03,« 





18 


31,4 


3 


52 


35,2 





52 


17,6 


3 


44 


52,8 



Other Determinations. 

Plymouth (or the Government House at Devonport) taken 

from the Ordnance Survey and Dr. Tiarks 
Captain W. F. W. Owen placed Port Praya in 
Dr. Tiarks's longitude of Madeira and Capt. P. 

meridian distance thence to the same spot in 

placed it in 

Beagle— Plymouth to Port Praya 

Beagle — Port Praya to Plymouth 

Beagle — Port Praya to Bahia ... 

Beagle — Bahia to Port Praya 

Beagle — Bahia to Rio de Janeiro 

Beagle — Rio de Janeiro to Bahia 

Beagle — Bahia to Rio de Janeiro 

Captain Foster — Rio de Janeiro to Monte Video 
Captain King — Rio de Janeiro to Monte Video 
M. Barral — Rio de Janeiro to Monte Video ... 
Beagle in 1830— Monte Video to Rio de Janeiro 

The longitude of Rio de Janeiro given in this table is very near the latest 
determinations of the French, and almost identical with that which is stated , 
in the Ephemerides of Coirabra, to have been deduced from upwards of three 
thousand observations. 



... 


... 





16 


41,4 


... 


... 


1 


34 


04,8 


p. King's 
Port Praya 




34 


02,9 


.. 






17 


20,7 


... 






17 


19,4 


... 






00 


03,0 


... 






00 


04,1 


... 







18 


3',6 


... 







18 


3',4 


... 







18 


3',5 


... 







52 


19,0 


.., 







52 


17,8 


.. 







52 


17,4 


..• 







52 


18,0 



Note. — When more than one measurement is stated between the same two 
places, it is to be understood that the observations were taken at, or have been 
reduced to the same points. 



Using the mean of the measurements, outward and homeward. 



348 



APPENDIX. 



Beagle's Chain of Meridian Distances and Resulting 
Longitudes in the Atlantic Ocean. 

1831—1836. 



Monte Video to Port Desire 

Port Desire to Port Famine ... 

Port Famine to Port Louis ... 

Port Louis to Cape Horn 

Baiiia to Ascension ... 

Ascension to St. Helena 

St. Helena to Simon's Bay 

Simon's Bay to the Observatory at the Cape 
of Good Hope 



H. 


jr. 


s. 


H. 


M. 


&. 


o 


38 


48,0 


4 


23 


40,8 


o 


20 


10,7 


4 


43 


51,5 





51 


Q2,0 


3 


52 


29,5 





36 


35,2 


4 


29 


04,7 


1 


36 


26,7 





57 


37,1 


O 


34 


45,7 





22 


51,4 


1 


36 


33,3 


1 


13 


41,9 





oo 


10.9 


1 


13 


52,8 



Other Determinations. 

Beagle in 1829 — Monte Video to Port Desire 

Beagle in 1830 — Port Desire to Monte Video ... 

Adventure (tender)— Port Desire to Port Louis 

Adventure (tender) — Port Louis to Port Famine 

And, therefore. Port Desire to Port Famine 

Captain King's published result of all the measures made be- 
tween 18-26 and 1830 places Port Famine west of Monte 
Video 

The present result, as above stated, is ... 

Beagle in 1830 — Cape Horn to Port Desire, by three short 
steps with intervening rates 

Which would place Cape Horn in longitude ... 

Beagle in 1832 — Direct from Monte Video, made 

Captain Foster's meridian distance from Monte Video to St. 
Martin Cove, reduced to Cape Horn, and used with the 
Beagle's longitude of Monte Video, gives the longitude ... 

Coquille, M. Duperrey— St. Helena to Ascension 

Captain Foster — St. Helena to Ascension 

Captain Foster — St. Helena to the Cape Observatory ' ... 

Nautical Almanac — St. Helena to the Cape Observatory 

Mr. Fallows, 1828 — Cape Observatory 

Mr. Henderson, 1832 — Cape Observatory 

Mr. Maclear, 1836— Cape Observatory 

When the Beagle went to Rio de Janeiro in 1826, she made the longitude 
2h. 52m. 36s. She stopped at Port Praya, for rates, by the way. Captain 
Stokes made the longitude of Rio de Janeiro nearly the same by lunars. 

Malaspina and Espinosa made the longitude of Monte Video ( Rat Island) 
neai-ly ,3h. 44m. 585. Captain Stokes made it 3h. 44m. 56s. 






38 


47,7 





38 


45,9 





31 


u,o 





51 


21,9 





20 


10,9 





58 


58,1 





58 


58,7 





05 


23,7 


4 


29 


04,5 


4 


29 


08 


4 


29 


04 





34 


46,8 





34 


48,3 




36 


45,7 




36 


45,0 




13 


53,2 




13 


55.6 




13 


56,o 



i 



APPENDIX. 



349 



Beagle's Chain of Meridian Distances and Resulting Longi- 
tudes in the Pacific Ocean, between Cape Horn and Otaheite. 

1834—1835. 



Port Famine to San Carlos, Chiloe 

San Carlos to Valparaiso 

Valparaiso to Callao 

Callao to Chatham Island in the Galapagos 

Chatham Island to Charles Island 

Charles Island to Otaheite 



H. 


M. 


s. 


H. 


M. 


s. 





11 


53,5* 


4 


55 


45,0 





o8 


59,2 


4 


46 


45,8 





22 


09,0 


5 


08 


54,8 





49 


32,8 


5 


58 


27,6 


o 


03 


39,5 


6 


02 


07,1 


3 


56 


12,3 


9 


58 


19,4 



Other Determinations. 

Beagle 1830 — Port Famine to Cape Horn, by true bearing of 
Sarmiento from Doris Peak 

Beagle 1829-30 — Cape Horn to San Carlos 

Beagle 1829 — Port Famine to San Carlos 

Beagle 1829 — San Carlos to Valparaiso 

Malaspina and Espinosa had an observatory at San Carlos, 
whose longitude they considered 

Their meridian distance t thence to Valparaiso was 

Malaspina'sand Espinosa's observations, calculated by Profes- 
sor Oltmanns, give for Valparaiso ... 

And for Callao Castle 






14 


46,5 





26 


39,9 





11 


54,0 





09 


00,2 


4 


55 


47,5 





o3 


59,8 


4 


46 


47,7 


5 


08 


57.1 



Repeated examination of the successive differences of longitude given in these 
pages, and the data on which they rest, leads me to think that the alterations 
spoken of by Captain King, in page 493 of Volume I., were unnecessary. 

By an unexceptionable true-bearing of Mount Sarmiento, from Doris Peak, 
I was enabled to connect the longitude of the outer coast with that of Port 
Famine in a most satisfactory manner. 

M. Lartigue, in the French frigate Clorinde (see Connaissance des Tems, 
for 1836), made the meridian distance between Callao and Valparaiso almost 
identical with that of Espinosa and Malaspina, as well as the above stated 
result of the Beagle's measurement. 

* oh. iim. 59,4s. -6,9s.=oh. 11m. 53,5s. 

t In Malaspina's expedition there were at least four chronometers, made by 
Arnold, besides others. 



350 



APPENDIX. 



Beagle's Chain of Meridian Distances and Resulting Longi- 
tudes in the Indian and Pacific Oceans, between the Cape of 
Good Hope and Otaheite. 

1835—6. 



Simon's Bay to Mauritius 

Mauritius to Keeling Islands 
Keeling Islands to King George Sound 
King George Sound to Hobart Town 
Hobart Town to Sydney ... ... 

Sydney to Bay of Islands 

Bay of Islands to Otaheite ... 



Otaheite by the west... 

Mean of the two measures . 
Equal, in space, to 



H. 


M. 


s. 


H. 


M. 


s. 


2 


36 


21,8 


3 


50 


03.7 


2 


37 


34,2 


6 


27 


37,9 


1 


24 


07.9 


7 


51 


45,8 


1 


57 


51,5 


9 


49 


37,3 


O 


15 


30,2 


10 


05 


07,4 


1 


31 


31,5 


11 


36 


39,0 


2 


25 


35,6 


14 


02 


14,6 






org 


57 


45,4 




••• 


... 


9 


58 


19,4 




9 


58 


02,4 




..• 


149° 30' 


' 36" 





Other Determinations. 

Captain Owen— Simon's Bay to Mauritius 

Captain Lloyd — Mauritius Observatory 

Captain Flinders — Mauritius ... ... ... 

Flinders (by lunars) made the difference of meridians between 

King George Sound and Sydney 

Beagle's measurement gives 



2 


36 


23,2 


3 


50 


08 


3 


50 


00 


2 


13 


i5>3 


2 


13 


21,1 



Captain Cook and Mr. Wales placed Otaheite (Point Venus) in 149° 35' — 
but subsequently Mr. Wales considered 1 49° 30' more correct. 

In Cook's first voyage the longitude of Otaheite was made 149° 32' 30"; in 
the second, Mr. Wales made it 149° 34' 50"; and in the third voyage. Cook and 
his officers made it 149° 37' 32" w. (at Point Venus), 

I was informed that M. Duperrey, in the Coquille, made the longitude of the 
Bay of Islands 174° 01' 00" e. Our observations were made at the same point, 
and, if such is the case, his result agrees with that of the Beagle, taken west- 
ward from Greenwich. 



APPENDIX. 



351 



Some of the Beagle's Measurements during the years 1829 and 
1830, which are here inserted, may serve to shew what accurate 
determinations may be obtained from even a few good chronome- 
ters, when often rated and carefully managed. 



Monte Video to Port Desire 

Port Desire to Port Famine 

Port Famine to Cascade Harbour 

Cascade Harbour to Port Gallant 

Port Gallant to San Carlos de Chiloe 
San Carlos de Chiloe is west of Monte Video 
by the chain of 1831-6 



H. M. S. H. M. S. 

c 38 47>7 — 

o 20 10,7 o 58 58,4 

O 02 22,0 1 01 20,4 

o 01 50,2 1 03 10,6 



o 07 40,9 



10 5»,5 



1 10 52,2 



San Carlos to Hai-bour of Mercy ... w. 

Harbour of Mercy to Dislocation Harbour e. 
Dislocation Harbour to Latitude Bay e. 

Latitude Bay to the Basin near Cape Glou- 
cester ... ... ... ... E. 

The Basin to North Cove in the Barbara 

Ciiannel 

North Cove to Townshend Harbour 
Townshend Harbour to Stewart Harbour 
Stewart Harbour to Doris Cove 
Doris Cove to March Harbour 
March Harbour to Orange Bay 
Orange Bay to St. Martin Cove 
St Martin Cove to Cape Horn 



Cape Horn by chain east of San Carlos 

Cape Horn to Lennox Harbour 
Lennox Harbour to Good Success Bay 
Good Success Bay to Port Desire 

Port Desire by chain is east of Cape Horn ... 

Port Desire to Monte Video 

Monte Video to Sta. Catharina 

Sta. Catharina to Rio de Janeiro 

Rio de Janeiro by chain is east of Port Desire 



o 02 53,6 o 02 53,6 



00 
01 



08,4 
25,7 



o 03 47,9 



E. 





04 


02,3 


E. 





01 


30,6 


E. 





01 


45,9 


E. 





01 


17,0 


E. 





04 


41,0 


£. 





07 


37,1 


E. 





02 


05,1 


E. 





01 


12,1 



o 29 33,1 












26 


39.5 




01 


47,7 





26 


40,3 







— 







06 


19,9 





08 


07,6 





02 


43,9 





05 


23,7 




38 


45>9 





05 


23,9 







— 







30 


35,0 




— 







21 


43,0 


1 


31 


03,9 




... 


... 


1 


31 


05,6 



The measurements made in 1829-30, here given, may be compared with the 
charts or other documents deposited in the Hydrographical Office in 1831. 



352 APPENDIX. 

Having vhus endeavoured to give a view of the Beagle's principal 
measurements of meridian distances, vi'ith some of the collateral de- 
terminations which are at present within my reach, I •wUHngly refrain 
from their discussion. 

It is for those who have access to more extended information, and 
who are not personally interested in the question, by having assisted 
in malving any of these measures themselves, to discuss and assign 
values to them. 

For this reason, an intention which I entertained of attempting to 
make some enquiry into the grounds on which the longitudes of 
Jamaica, the Havannah, Chagres, Panama, &c. are by some persons 
considered to be well determined, has been relinquished. 

I will conclude by remarking, that if so small a vessel as the 
Beagle, with so few chronometers going well, latterly, could attain, 
during a tedious and indirect voyage of five years, to within thirty- 
three seconds of the truth — a much nearer approach to exactness 
may be anticipated from measurements made in far less time, with a 
greater number of chronometers. 




END OF THE APPENDIX. 



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ADMIRAL KRUSEN STERN 
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1838. 




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